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The Slovene Littoral
Slovene Littoral
(Slovene: Primorska, pronounced [priˈmóːrska] ( listen);[1] Italian: Litorale; German: Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
(Avstrijsko Primorje), the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic coast, of which the Slovene Littoral
Slovene Littoral
was part.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Geography[edit] See also: Slovene Riviera The region forms the westernmost part of Slovenia, bordering with the Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia. It stretches from the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
in the south up to the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
in the north. The Slovene Littoral
Slovene Littoral
comprises two traditional provinces: Goriška
Goriška
and Slovenian Istria. The Goriška
Goriška
region takes its name from the town of Gorizia
Gorizia
(Slovene: Gorica) now in Italy; the neighbouring conurbation of Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
and Šempeter-Vrtojba today is the urban centre of the Slovene Littoral. Slovenian Istria
Slovenian Istria
comprises the northern part of the Istria
Istria
peninsula and provides, on the Slovenian Riviera
Slovenian Riviera
coastline with the ports of Koper, Izola, and Piran, the country's only access to the sea. After Ljubljana, the Slovene Littoral
Slovene Littoral
is the most developed and economically most prosperous part of Slovenia. The western part of Slovenian Istria
Slovenian Istria
is a bilingual region where both Slovene and Italian may be used in education, legal and administrative environments. The northern part of the Slovene Littoral
Slovene Littoral
is part of the larger Gorizia
Gorizia
Statistical Region, the south belongs to the Coastal–Karst Statistical Region. History[edit]

The annexed western quarter of Slovene ethnic territory, and approximately 327,000 out of the total population of 1.3[2] million Slovenes,[3] were subjected to forced Fascist Italianization. On the map of present-day Slovenia
Slovenia
with its traditional regions' boundaries.

After they had acquired the Carniola
Carniola
hinterland in 1335, the Habsburgs gradually took possession of the coastal areas. In 1500 they inherited the comital lands of Gorizia
Gorizia
(Görz), when the last Count Leonhard of Gorizia
Gorizia
died childless. The Habsburg Princely County of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca was established in 1754, it became part of the Austrian Kingdom of Illyria in 1816. With the Istrian march and the Imperial Free City of Trieste
Trieste
it was re-arranged as the Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
crown land in 1849. At the end of World War I
World War I
and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1918, the area, together with the western part of Inner Carniola
Carniola
and the Upper Carniolan municipality of Bela Peč/Weissenfels (later Italianized to Fusine in Valromana, now a frazione of Tarvisio), was occupied by the Italian army. As stipulated in the 1915 London Pact, a quarter of predominantly Slovene ethnic territory and approximately 327,000[3] out of total population of 1.3[2] million Slovenes was adjudicated to Italy
Italy
by the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain and finally annexed according to the 1920 border Treaty of Rapallo. Incorporated into the Julian March
Julian March
(Venezia Giulia) a forced Italianization
Italianization
of the Slovene minority began, intensified after the Fascists under Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
came to power in 1922, and lasted until 1943. The Slovenes in Italy
Italy
lacked any minority protection under international or domestic law.[4] Numerous Slovenes emigrated to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, others fought against Italian occupation in the anti-fascist TIGR
TIGR
organization. After World War II, according to the 1947 Paris Peace Treaties, the bulk of the region with the upper Soča
Soča
(Isonzo) Valley fell to Yugoslavia. Parts of the area were re-arranged as the Free Territory of Trieste, while Italy
Italy
retained the urban centres of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca. In 1954 Italy
Italy
also recovered the main port of Trieste. As a result, the new urban centres on the Slovenian side of the border developed. Gallery[edit]

Mount Krn in the Julian Alps

Kozjak Falls in the Soča
Soča
Valley

The Gorizia
Gorizia
Hills wine region

The town of Nova Gorica

The Nanos Plateau above the Vipava Valley

Rihemberk Castle near Branik

Rural architecture on the Karst Plateau

A herd of sheep on the Karst Plateau

Škocjan Caves, a UNESCO site

Landscape in Slovene Istria

The Adriatic town of Piran

The Praetorian Palace
Praetorian Palace
in Koper

Postojna Cave

Olms in Postojna Cave

Predjama Castle

See also[edit]

Battles of the Isonzo Goriška Morgan Line Treaty of Osimo Karst Plateau Vipava Valley Soča Slovenian wine Venetian Slovenia

References[edit]

^ "Slovenski pravopis 2001: Primorska".  ^ a b Lipušček, U. (2012) Sacro egoismo: Slovenci v krempljih tajnega londonskega pakta 1915, Cankarjeva založba, Ljubljana. ISBN 978-961-231-871-0 ^ a b Cresciani, Gianfranco (2004) Clash of civilisations, Italian Historical Society Journal, Vol.12, No.2, p.4 ^ Hehn, Paul N. (2005). A Low Dishonest Decade: The Great Powers, Eastern Europe, and the Economic Origins of World War II, 1930–1941. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 44–45. ISBN 0-8264-1761-2. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Slovene Littoral
Slovene Littoral
at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 45°59′21.58″N 13°48′35.33″E / 45.9893278°N 13.8098139°E / 45.9

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