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The SLOVENE LITTORAL (Slovene : Primorska, pronounced ( listen ); Italian : Litorale; German : Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia
Slovenia
. Its name recalls the former Austrian Littoral (Avstrijsko Primorje), the Habsburg possessions on the upper Adriatic coast, of which the Slovene Littoral
Slovene Littoral
was part.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

GEOGRAPHY

See also: Slovene Riviera

The region forms the westernmost part of Slovenia, bordering with the Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
. It stretches from the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
in the south up to the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
in the north.

The Slovene Littoral
Slovene Littoral
comprises two traditional provinces: Goriška and Slovenian Istria . The Goriška
Goriška
region takes its name from the town of Gorizia
Gorizia
(Slovene: Gorica) now in Italy
Italy
; the neighbouring conurbation of Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
and Šempeter-Vrtojba today is the urban centre of the Slovene Littoral. Slovenian Istria comprises the northern part of the Istria
Istria
peninsula and provides, on the Slovenian Riviera coastline with the ports of Koper
Koper
, Izola , and Piran
Piran
, the country's only access to the sea.

After Ljubljana
Ljubljana
, the Slovene Littoral
Slovene Littoral
is the most developed and economically most prosperous part of Slovenia. The western part of Slovenian Istria is a bilingual region where both Slovene and Italian may be used in education, legal and administrative environments.

The northern part of the Slovene Littoral
Slovene Littoral
is part of the larger Gorizia
Gorizia
Statistical Region , the south belongs to the Coastal–Karst Statistical Region .

HISTORY

The annexed western quarter of Slovene ethnic territory , and approximately 327,000 out of the total population of 1.3 million Slovenes, were subjected to forced Fascist Italianization
Fascist Italianization
. On the map of present-day Slovenia
Slovenia
with its traditional regions' boundaries.

After they had acquired the Carniola
Carniola
hinterland in 1335, the Habsburgs gradually took possession of the coastal areas. In 1500 they inherited the comital lands of Gorizia
Gorizia
(Görz), when the last Count Leonhard of Gorizia
Gorizia
died childless. The Habsburg Princely County of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca was established in 1754, it became part of the Austrian Kingdom of Illyria in 1816. With the Istrian march and the Imperial Free City of Trieste
Imperial Free City of Trieste
it was re-arranged as the Austrian Littoral crown land in 1849.

At the end of World War I
World War I
and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1918, the area, together with the western part of Inner Carniola
Carniola
and the Upper Carniolan municipality of Bela Peč/Weissenfels (later Italianized to Fusine in Valromana, now a frazione of Tarvisio
Tarvisio
), was occupied by the Italian army. As stipulated in the 1915 London Pact , a quarter of predominantly Slovene ethnic territory and approximately 327,000 out of total population of 1.3 million Slovenes was adjudicated to Italy
Italy
by the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain and finally annexed according to the 1920 border Treaty of Rapallo .

Incorporated into the Julian March
Julian March
(Venezia Giulia) a forced Italianization of the Slovene minority began, intensified after the Fascists under Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
came to power in 1922, and lasted until 1943. The Slovenes in Italy
Italy
lacked any minority protection under international or domestic law. Numerous Slovenes emigrated to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
, others fought against Italian occupation in the anti-fascist TIGR
TIGR
organization.

After World War II
World War II
, according to the 1947 Paris Peace Treaties , the bulk of the region with the upper Soča
Soča
(Isonzo) Valley fell to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
. Parts of the area were re-arranged as the Free Territory of Trieste
Trieste
, while Italy
Italy
retained the urban centres of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca . In 1954 Italy
Italy
also recovered the main port of Trieste
Trieste
. As a result, the new urban centres on the Slovenian side of the border developed.

GALLERY

*

Mount Krn in the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
*

Kozjak Falls in the Soča
Soča
Valley *

The Gorizia
Gorizia
Hills wine region *

The town of Nova Gorica
Nova Gorica
*

The Nanos Plateau above the Vipava Valley *

Rihemberk Castle near Branik
Branik
*

Rural architecture on the Karst Plateau *

A herd of sheep on the Karst Plateau *

Škocjan Caves
Škocjan Caves
, a UNESCO site *

Landscape in Slovene Istria
Istria
*

The Adriatic town of Piran
Piran
*

The Praetorian Palace in Koper
Koper
*

Postojna Cave
Postojna Cave
*

Olms in Postojna Cave
Postojna Cave
*

Predjama Castle

SEE ALSO

* Battles of the Isonzo
Battles of the Isonzo
* Goriška
Goriška
* Morgan Line
Morgan Line
* Treaty of Osimo