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Coordinates : 48°40′N 19°30′E / 48.667°N 19.500°E / 48.667; 19.500

Slovak Republic _Slovenská republika_ (Slovak )

Flag Coat of arms

ANTHEM: " Nad Tatrou sa blýska " "Lightning Over the Tatras"

Location of Slovakia
Slovakia
(dark green)

– in Europe
Europe
(green "> (green) –

Capital and largest city Bratislava
Bratislava
48°09′N 17°07′E / 48.150°N 17.117°E / 48.150; 17.117

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Slovak

ETHNIC GROUPS (2011 )

* 80.7% Slovaks * 8.5% Hungarians
Hungarians
* 2.0% Roma * 0.6% Czechs * 0.6% Rusyns * 0.1% Ukrainians * 0.1% Germans
Germans
* 0.1% Poles
Poles
* 0.1% Moravians
Moravians
* 7.2% unspecified

DEMONYM Slovak

GOVERNMENT Parliamentary republic

• PRESIDENT Andrej Kiska

• PRIME MINISTER Robert Fico
Robert Fico

LEGISLATURE National Council

INDEPENDENCE

• from Austria–Hungary (as part of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
) 28 October 1918

• AUTONOMOUS LAND OF SLOVAKIA (CS) (WITHIN SECOND CZECHOSLOVAK REPUBLIC ) 23 November 1938

• FIRST SLOVAK REPUBLIC (CLIENT STATE OF NAZI GERMANY ) 14 March 1939

• SLOVAK SOCIALIST REPUBLIC (WITHIN CZECHOSLOVAK FEDERATION ) 1 January 1969

• SLOVAK REPUBLIC (CHANGE OF NAME WITHIN CZECHOSLOVAK FEDERATION ) 1 March 1990

• FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA 1 January 1993a

• JOINED THE EUROPEAN UNION 1 May 2004

AREA

• TOTAL 49,035 km2 (18,933 sq mi) (127th )

• WATER (%) negligible

POPULATION

• 2016 ESTIMATE 5,435,343 (116th )

• 2011 CENSUS 5,397,036

• DENSITY 111/km2 (287.5/sq mi) (88th )

GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $179.527 billion

• PER CAPITA $33,054 (39th )

GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $89.134 billion

• PER CAPITA $16,412 (40th )

GINI (2014) 26.1 low · 8th

HDI (2015) 0.845 very high · 40th

CURRENCY Euro
Euro
(€ )b (EURb )

TIME ZONE CET (UTC +1)

• SUMMER (DST ) CEST (UTC +2)

DRIVES ON THE right

CALLING CODE +421 c

PATRON SAINT Saints Cyril and Methodius Our Lady of Sorrows

ISO 3166 CODE SK

INTERNET TLD .sk and .eu

* Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
split into the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia; see Velvet Divorce . * Slovak koruna
Slovak koruna
before 2009. * Shared code 42 with Czech Republic
Czech Republic
until 1997.

SLOVAKIA (/sloʊˈvækiə, slə-, -ˈvɑː-/ (_ listen ); Slovak : Slovensko_ (_ listen )), officially the SLOVAK REPUBLIC (Slovak : Slovenská republika_, listen (help ·info )), is a landlocked country in Central Europe
Europe
. It is bordered by the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Austria
Austria
to the west, Poland
Poland
to the north, Ukraine
Ukraine
to the east and Hungary
Hungary
to the south. Slovakia's territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres (19,000 sq mi) and is mostly mountainous. The population is over 5 million and comprises mostly ethnic Slovaks . The capital and largest city is Bratislava
Bratislava
. The official language is Slovak .

The Slavs
Slavs
arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia
Slovakia
in the 5th and 6th centuries. In the 7th century, they played a significant role in the creation of Samo 's Empire and in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra . In the 10th century, the territory was integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
. After World War I
World War I
and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Slovaks and Czechs established Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
. A separate (First) Slovak Republic (1939–1945) existed in World War II
World War II
as a client state of Nazi Germany
Germany
. In 1945, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was re-established under Communist rule as a Soviet satellite . In 1989 the Velvet Revolution ended Communist rule in Czechoslovakia. Slovakia
Slovakia
became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, sometimes known as the Velvet Divorce .

Slovakia
Slovakia
is a high-income advanced economy with a very high Human Development Index , a very high standard of living and performs favourably in measurements of civil liberties , press freedom , internet freedom , democratic governance and peacefulness . The country maintains a combination of market economy with a comprehensive social security system. Citizens of Slovakia
Slovakia
are provided with universal health care , free education and one of the longest paid maternity leave in the OECD
OECD
. The country joined the European Union in 2004 and the Eurozone
Eurozone
on 1 January 2009. Slovakia
Slovakia
is also a member of the Schengen Area , NATO
NATO
, the United Nations
United Nations
, the OECD
OECD
, the WTO , CERN , the OSCE , the Council of Europe
Europe
and the Visegrád Group . The Slovak economy is one of the fastest growing economies in Europe and 3rd fastest in eurozone . Its legal tender, the Euro
Euro
, is the world's 2nd most traded currency . Although regional income inequality is high, 90% of citizens own their homes . In 2016, Slovak citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 165 countries and territories, ranking the Slovak passport 29th in the world. Slovakia is the world’s largest per-capita car producer with a total of 1,040,000 cars manufactured in the country in 2016 alone and the 7th largest car producer in the European Union
European Union
. The car industry represents 43% of Slovakia’s industrial output, and a quarter of its exports.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Bronze Age
Bronze Age

* 2.2 Iron Age

* 2.2.1 Hallstatt Period * 2.2.2 La Tène Period * 2.2.3 Roman Period

* 2.3 Great invasions from the 4th to 7th centuries * 2.4 Slavic states * 2.5 Great Moravia
Moravia
(830–before 907) * 2.6 Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(1000–1918) * 2.7 Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1918–1939) * 2.8 World War II
World War II
(1939–1945) * 2.9 Soviet influence and Communist party rule (1948–1989) * 2.10 Establishment of the Slovak Republic (after 1993)

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Tatra mountains * 3.2 National parks * 3.3 Caves * 3.4 Rivers * 3.5 Lakes * 3.6 Climate

* 4 Biodiversity

* 4.1 Fungi

* 5 Politics and government

* 5.1 Foreign relations * 5.2 Military * 5.3 Human rights * 5.4 Administrative divisions

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Industry * 6.2 Energy * 6.3 Transportation * 6.4 Tourism * 6.5 Science

* 7 Demographics

* 7.1 Languages * 7.2 Religion

* 8 Education

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Folk tradition * 9.2 Art * 9.3 Literature * 9.4 Music * 9.5 Cuisine * 9.6 Sport

* 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Bibliography * 14 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The first written mention of name _Slovakia_ is in 1586 (German : _In Liptau , bei der Stadt Sankt Nikolaus in der Slovakia_). It derives from the Czech word _Slováky_, previous German forms were _Windischen landen_, _Windenland_ (the 15th century). The native name _Slovensko_ (1791) derives from an older name of Slovaks _Sloven_ what may indicate its origin before the 15th century. The original meaning was geographic (not political), since Slovakia
Slovakia
was a part of the multiethnic Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and did not form a separate administrative unit in this period.

HISTORY

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Main article: History of Slovakia A Venus from Moravany nad Váhom , which dates back to 22,800 BC.

Radiocarbon dating puts the oldest surviving archaeological artefacts from Slovakia
Slovakia
– found near Nové Mesto nad Váhom – at 270,000 BC, in the Early Paleolithic era. These ancient tools, made by the Clactonian technique, bear witness to the ancient habitation of Slovakia.

Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic era (200,000 – 80,000 BC) come from the Prévôt (Prepoštská) cave near Bojnice and from other nearby sites. The most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal
Neanderthal
cranium (c. 200,000 BC), discovered near Gánovce , a village in northern Slovakia.

Archaeologists have found prehistoric human skeletons in the region, as well as numerous objects and vestiges of the Gravettian culture, principally in the river valleys of Nitra , Hron , Ipeľ , Váh and as far as the city of Žilina , and near the foot of the Vihorlat , Inovec, and Tribeč mountains, as well as in the Myjava Mountains. The most well-known finds include the oldest female statue made of mammoth -bone (22,800 BC), the famous Venus of Moravany . The statue was found in the 1940s in Moravany nad Váhom near Piešťany . Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile gastropods of the Tertiary period have come from the sites of Zákovská, Podkovice, Hubina, and Radošina. These findings provide the most ancient evidence of commercial exchanges carried out between the Mediterranean and Central Europe.

BRONZE AGE

Left: A Celtic Biatec coin Right: Five Slovak crowns

The Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in the geographical territory of modern-day Slovakia went through three stages of development, stretching from 2000 to 800 BC. Major cultural, economic, and political development can be attributed to the significant growth in production of copper, especially in central Slovakia
Slovakia
(for example in Špania Dolina ) and northwest Slovakia. Copper became a stable source of prosperity for the local population.

After the disappearance of the Čakany and Velatice cultures, the Lusatian people expanded building of strong and complex fortifications, with the large permanent buildings and administrative centres. Excavations of Lusatian hill forts document the substantial development of trade and agriculture at that period. The richness and the diversity of tombs increased considerably. The inhabitants of the area manufactured arms, shields, jewellery, dishes, and statues.

IRON AGE

Hallstatt Period

The arrival of tribes from Thrace
Thrace
disrupted the people of the Kalenderberg culture , who lived in the hamlets located on the plain ( Sereď ) and in the hill forts like Molpír, near Smolenice , in the Little Carpathians . During Hallstatt times, monumental burial mounds were erected in western Slovakia, with princely equipment consisting of richly decorated vessels, ornaments and decorations. The burial rites consisted entirely of cremation. The common people were buried in flat urnfield cemeteries. A special role was given to weaving and the production of textiles. The local power of the "Princes" of the Hallstatt period disappeared in Slovakia
Slovakia
during the last century before the middle of first millennium BCE, after strife between the Scytho -Thracian people and locals, resulting in abandonment of the old hill-forts. Relatively depopulated areas soon caught interest of emerging Celtic tribes, who advanced from the south towards the north, following the Slovak rivers, peacefully integrating into the remnants of the local population.

La Tène Period

From around 500 BC, the territory of modern-day Slovakia
Slovakia
was settled by Celts
Celts
, who built powerful oppida on the sites of modern-day Bratislava
Bratislava
and Devín . Biatecs , silver coins with inscriptions in the Latin
Latin
alphabet, represent the first known use of writing in Slovakia. At the northern regions, remnants of the local population of Lusatian origin, together with Celtic and later Dacian influence, gave rise to the unique Púchov culture , with advanced crafts and iron-working, many hill-forts and fortified settlements of central type with coinage of the "Velkobysterecky" type (no inscriptions, with a horse on one side and a head on the other). This culture is often connected with the Celtic tribe mentioned in Roman sources as Cotini .

Roman Period

From 2 AD , the expanding Roman Empire
Roman Empire
established and maintained a series of outposts around and just north of the Danube
Danube
, the largest of which were known as Carnuntum (whose remains are on the main road halfway between Vienna
Vienna
and Bratislava) and Brigetio (present-day Szöny at the Slovak-Hungarian border). Such Roman border settlements were built on the present area of Rusovce, currently a suburb of Bratislava. The military fort was surrounded by a civilian vicus and several farms of the villa rustica type. The name of this settlement was Gerulata . The military fort had an auxiliary cavalry unit, approximately 300 horses strong, modelled after the Cananefates
Cananefates
. The remains of Roman buildings have also survived in Devin castle (present-day downtown Bratislava), the suburbs of Dúbravka and Stupava, and Bratislava
Bratislava
Castle Hill. A Roman inscription at the castle hill of Trenčín (178–179 AD).

Near the northernmost line of the Roman hinterlands, the Limes Romanus , there existed the winter camp of Laugaricio (modern-day Trenčín ) where the Auxiliary of Legion II fought and prevailed in a decisive battle over the Germanic Quadi tribe in 179 AD during the Marcomannic Wars . The Kingdom of Vannius , a kingdom founded by the Germanic Suebian tribes of Quadi and Marcomanni , as well as several small Germanic and Celtic tribes , including the Osi and Cotini , existed in Western and Central Slovakia
Slovakia
from 8–6 BC to 179 AD.

GREAT INVASIONS FROM THE 4TH TO 7TH CENTURIES

In the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, the Huns began to leave the Central Asian steppes. They crossed the Danube
Danube
in 377 AD and occupied Pannonia , which they used for 75 years as their base for launching looting-raids into Western Europe. However, Attila's death in 453 brought about the disappearance of the Hun tribe. In 568, a Turko-Mongol tribal confederacy, the Avars , conducted its own invasion into the Middle Danube
Danube
region. The Avars occupied the lowlands of the Pannonian Plain , and established an empire dominating the Carpathian Basin .

In 623, the Slavic population living in the western parts of Pannonia seceded from their empire after a revolution led by Samo, a Frankish merchant. After 626, the Avar power started a gradual decline but its reign lasted to 804.

SLAVIC STATES

The Slavic tribes settled in the territory of present-day Slovakia
Slovakia
in the 5th century. Western Slovakia
Slovakia
was the centre of Samo 's empire in the 7th century. A Slavic state known as the Principality of Nitra arose in the 8th century and its ruler Pribina had the first known Christian church of the territory of present-day Slovakia
Slovakia
consecrated by 828. Together with neighbouring Moravia
Moravia
, the principality formed the core of the Great Moravian Empire from 833. The high point of this Slavonic empire came with the arrival of Saints Cyril and Methodius in 863, during the reign of Duke
Duke
Rastislav , and the territorial expansion under Duke
Duke
Svätopluk I .

GREAT MORAVIA (830–BEFORE 907)

Main article: Great Moravia
Moravia
A statue of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius in Žilina . In 863, they introduced Christianity to what is now Slovakia.

Great Moravia
Moravia
arose around 830 when Mojmír I unified the Slavic tribes settled north of the Danube
Danube
and extended the Moravian supremacy over them. When Mojmír I endeavoured to secede from the supremacy of the king of East Francia in 846, King Louis the German deposed him and assisted Mojmír's nephew Rastislav (846–870) in acquiring the throne. The new monarch pursued an independent policy: after stopping a Frankish attack in 855, he also sought to weaken influence of Frankish priests preaching in his realm. Duke
Duke
Rastislav asked the Byzantine Emperor Michael III to send teachers who would interpret Christianity in the Slavic vernacular.

Upon Rastislav's request, two brothers, Byzantine officials and missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius came in 863. Cyril developed the first Slavic alphabet and translated the Gospel
Gospel
into the Old Church Slavonic language. Rastislav was also preoccupied with the security and administration of his state. Numerous fortified castles built throughout the country are dated to his reign and some of them (e.g., _Dowina_, sometimes identified with Devín Castle ) are also mentioned in connection with Rastislav by Frankish chronicles. _ Scire vos volumus_, a letter written in 879 by Pope John VIII to Svatopluk I

During Rastislav's reign, the Principality of Nitra was given to his nephew Svätopluk as an appanage . The rebellious prince allied himself with the Franks and overthrew his uncle in 870. Similarly to his predecessor, Svätopluk I (871–894) assumed the title of the king (_rex_). During his reign, the Great Moravian Empire reached its greatest territorial extent, when not only present-day Moravia
Moravia
and Slovakia
Slovakia
but also present-day northern and central Hungary
Hungary
, Lower Austria
Austria
, Bohemia
Bohemia
, Silesia
Silesia
, Lusatia
Lusatia
, southern Poland
Poland
and northern Serbia
Serbia
belonged to the empire, but the exact borders of his domains are still disputed by modern authors. Svatopluk also withstood attacks of the semi-nomadic Magyar tribes and the Bulgarian Empire , although sometimes it was he who hired the Magyars when waging war against East Francia.

In 880, Pope John VIII set up an independent ecclesiastical province in Great Moravia
Moravia
with Archbishop Methodius as its head. He also named the German cleric Wiching the Bishop of Nitra .

After the death of Prince Svatopluk in 894, his sons Mojmír II (894–906?) and Svatopluk II succeeded him as the Prince of Great Moravia
Moravia
and the Prince of Nitra respectively. However, they started to quarrel for domination of the whole empire. Weakened by an internal conflict as well as by constant warfare with Eastern Francia , Great Moravia
Moravia
lost most of its peripheral territories. Certain and disputed borders of Great Moravia
Moravia
under Svatopluk I (according to modern historians)

In the meantime, the semi-nomadic Magyar tribes, possibly having suffered defeat from the similarly nomadic Pechenegs
Pechenegs
, left their territories east of the Carpathian Mountains , invaded the Carpathian Basin and started to occupy the territory gradually around 896. Their armies' advance may have been promoted by continuous wars among the countries of the region whose rulers still hired them occasionally to intervene in their struggles.

It is not known what happened with both Mojmír II and Svatopluk II because they are not mentioned in written sources after 906. In three battles (4–5 July and 9 August 907) near Bratislava
Bratislava
, the Magyars routed Bavarian armies. Some historians put this year as the date of the break-up of the Great Moravian Empire, due to the Hungarian conquest; other historians take the date a little bit earlier (to 902).

Great Moravia
Moravia
left behind a lasting legacy in Central and Eastern Europe. The Glagolitic script and its successor Cyrillic were disseminated to other Slavic countries, charting a new path in their sociocultural development . The administrative system of Great Moravia may have influenced the development of the administration of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
.

KINGDOM OF HUNGARY (1000–1918)

Main article: Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
Stephen I , King of Hungary
Hungary

Following the disintegration of the Great Moravian Empire at the turn of the 10th century, the Hungarians
Hungarians
annexed the territory comprising modern Slovakia. After their defeat on the Lech River they abandoned their nomadic ways; they settled in the centre of the Carpathian valley, adopted Christianity and began to build a new state – the Hungarian kingdom.

From the 11th century, when the territory inhabited by the Slavic-speaking population of Danubian Basin was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary, until 1918, when the Austro-Hungarian empire collapsed, the territory of modern Slovakia
Slovakia
was an integral part of the Hungarian state. The ethnic composition became more diverse with the arrival of the Carpathian Germans
Germans
in the 13th century, and the Jews
Jews
in the 14th century.

A significant decline in the population resulted from the invasion of the Mongols in 1241 and the subsequent famine. However, in medieval times the area of the present-day Slovakia
Slovakia
was characterised by German and Jewish
Jewish
immigration, burgeoning towns, construction of numerous stone castles, and the cultivation of the arts. In 1465, King Matthias Corvinus founded the Hungarian Kingdom's third university, in Pressburg (Bratislava, Pozsony), but it was closed in 1490 after his death. Hussites also settled in the region after the Hussite Wars . Royal Hungary, Principality of Upper Hungary
Hungary
, Principality of Transylvania and Ottoman eyalets around 1683.

Owing to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
's expansion into Hungarian territory, Bratislava
Bratislava
was designated the new capital of Hungary
Hungary
in 1536, ahead of the old Hungarian capital of Buda
Buda
falling in 1541. It become part of the Austrian Habsburg
Habsburg
monarchy, marking the beginning of a new era. The territory comprising modern Slovakia, then known as Upper Hungary , became the place of settlement for nearly two-thirds of the Magyar nobility fleeing the Turks and far more linguistically and culturally Hungarian than it was before. Partly thanks to old Hussite
Hussite
families, and Slovaks studying under Martin Luther
Martin Luther
, the region then experienced a growth in Protestants
Protestants
. For a short period in the 17th century, most Slovaks were Lutherans. They defied the Catholic
Catholic
Habsburgs and sought protection from neighboring Transylvania , a rival continuation of the Magyar state that practiced religious tolerance and normally had Ottoman backing. Upper Hungary, modern Slovakia, became the site of frequent border wars and changes to the frontier, which was on a constant state of military alert and heavily fortified by castles and citadels often manned by German and Italian troops on the Habsburg side. The Ottoman wars , rivalry between Austria
Austria
and Transylvania , and the frequent insurrections against the Habsburg Monarchy inflicted a great deal of devastation, especially in the rural areas. In the Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664) a Turkish army led by the Grand Vizier decimated Slovakia. Even so, Slovaks from the Principality of Upper Hungary
Hungary
fought alongside the Turks against the Austrians at the Battle of Vienna
Battle of Vienna
of 1683. As the Turks withdrew from Hungary
Hungary
in the late 17th century, the importance of the territory comprising modern Slovakia
Slovakia
decreased, although Pressburg retained its status as the capital of Hungary
Hungary
until 1848, when it was transferred back to Buda. A Slovak volunteers' corp during the fight for independence from the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary

During the revolution of 1848–49 , the Slovaks supported the Austrian Emperor , hoping for independence from the Hungarian part of the Dual Monarchy , but they failed to achieve their aim. Thereafter relations between the nationalities deteriorated (see Magyarization ), culminating in the secession of Slovakia
Slovakia
from Hungary
Hungary
after World War I.

CZECHOSLOVAKIA (1918–1939)

Main article: Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
A monument to Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Milan Štefánik – both key figures in early Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia

In 1918, Slovakia
Slovakia
and the regions of Bohemia
Bohemia
, Moravia
Moravia
, Czech Silesia
Silesia
and Carpathian Ruthenia formed a common state, Czechoslovakia , with the borders confirmed by the Treaty of Saint Germain and Treaty of Trianon . In 1919, during the chaos following the break-up of Austria-Hungary, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was formed with numerous Germans
Germans
and Hungarians
Hungarians
within the newly set borders. A Slovak patriot Milan Rastislav Štefánik (1880–1919), who helped organise Czechoslovak regiments against Austria- Hungary
Hungary
during the First World War, died in a plane crash. In the peace following the World War, Czechoslovakia emerged as a sovereign European state. It provided what were at the time rather extensive rights to its minorities and remained the only democracy in this part of Europe
Europe
in the interwar period.

During the Interwar period , democratic Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was allied with France, and also with Romania
Romania
and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
( Little Entente ); however, the Locarno Treaties of 1925 left East European security open. Both Czechs and Slovaks enjoyed a period of relative prosperity. There was progress in not only the development of the country's economy, but also culture and educational opportunities. The minority Germans
Germans
came to accept their role in the new country and relations with Austria
Austria
were good. Yet the Great Depression caused a sharp economic downturn, followed by political disruption and insecurity in Europe.

Thereafter Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
came under continuous pressure from the revisionist governments of Germany
Germany
and Hungary. Eventually this led to the Munich Agreement of September 1938, which allowed Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
to partially dismember the country by occupying what was called the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
, a region with a German-speaking majority and bordering Germany
Germany
and Austria. The remainder of "rump" Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was renamed Czecho-Slovakia and included a greater degree of Slovak political autonomy. Southern and eastern Slovakia, however, was reclaimed by Hungary
Hungary
at the First Vienna Award of November 1938.

WORLD WAR II (1939–1945)

Main article: Slovak Republic (1939–1945) Adolf Hitler greeting Jozef Tiso , 1941.

After the Munich Agreement and its Vienna Award , Nazi Germany threatened to annex part of Slovakia
Slovakia
and allow the remaining regions to be partitioned by Hungary
Hungary
or Poland
Poland
unless independence was declared. Thus, Slovakia
Slovakia
seceded from Czecho-Slovakia in March 1939 and allied itself, as demanded by Germany, with Hitler\'s coalition. Secession had created the first Slovak state in history. The government of the First Slovak Republic , led by Jozef Tiso and Vojtech Tuka , was strongly influenced by Germany
Germany
and gradually became a puppet regime in many respects. German map of the First Slovak Republic in 1943

Meanwhile, the Czechoslovak government-in-exile , sought to reverse the Munich Agreement and the subsequent German occupation of Czechoslovakia, and to return the Republic to its 1937 boundaries. The government operated from London
London
and it was ultimately considered, by those countries that recognised it, the legitimate government for Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
throughout the Second World War.

75,000 Jews
Jews
out of 80,000 who remained on Slovak territory after Hungary
Hungary
had seized southern regions were deported and taken to German death camps . Thousands of Jews, Gypsies and other politically undesirable people remained in Slovak forced labor camps in Sereď , Vyhne, and Nováky. Tiso, through the granting of presidential exceptions, allowed between 1,000 and 4,000 people crucial to the war economy to avoid deportations. Under Tiso's government and Hungarian occupation, the vast majority of Slovakia's pre-war Jewish
Jewish
population (between 75,000–105,000 individuals including those who perished from the occupied territory) were murdered. The Slovak state paid Germany
Germany
500 RM per every deported Jew for "retraining and accommodation" (similar payment, but only 30 RM was paid by Croatia
Croatia
). Troops of Slovak anti-Nazi resistance movement in 1944.

After it became clear that the Soviet Red Army
Red Army
was going to push the Nazis out of eastern and central Europe, an anti-Nazi resistance movement launched a fierce armed insurrection, known as the Slovak National Uprising , near the end of summer 1944. A bloody German occupation and a guerilla war followed. Germans
Germans
and their local collaborators completely destroyed 93 villages and massacred thousands of civilians, often hundreds at a time. The territory of Slovakia
Slovakia
was liberated by Soviet and Romanian forces by the end of April 1945.

SOVIET INFLUENCE AND COMMUNIST PARTY RULE (1948–1989)

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1968. The Velvet Revolution ended 41 years of authoritarian Communist rule in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1989.

After World War II, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was reconstituted and Jozef Tiso was executed in 1947 for collaboration with the Nazis. More than 80,000 Hungarians
Hungarians
and 32,000 Germans
Germans
were forced to leave Slovakia, in a series of population transfers initiated by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
. Out of about 130,000 Carpathian Germans
Germans
in Slovakia
Slovakia
in 1938, by 1947 only some 20,000 remained.

As a result of the Yalta Conference , Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
came under the influence and later under direct occupation of the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact , after a coup in 1948. The country was invaded by the Warsaw Pact forces (with the exception of Romania
Romania
and Albania
Albania
) in 1968, ending a period of liberalisation under the leadership of Alexander Dubček . In 1969 Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
became a federation of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic . Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was never part of the Soviet Union and remained independent to a degree.

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC (AFTER 1993)

The end of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1989, during the peaceful Velvet Revolution , was followed once again by the country's dissolution, this time into two successor states . The word "socialist" was dropped in the names of the two republics, i.e. the Slovak Socialist Republic was renamed Slovak Republic. In July 17, 1992 Slovakia, led by Prime Minister Vladimír Mečiar , declared itself a sovereign state, meaning that its laws took precedence over those of the federal government. Throughout the autumn of 1992, Mečiar and Czech Prime Minister Václav Klaus
Václav Klaus
negotiated the details for disbanding the federation. In November the federal parliament voted to dissolve the country officially on December 31, 1992. Slovakia
Slovakia
became a member of the European Union
European Union
in 2004 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.

The Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
went their separate ways after 1 January 1993, an event sometimes called the Velvet Divorce . Slovakia
Slovakia
has remained a close partner with the Czech Republic. Both countries co-operate with Hungary
Hungary
and Poland
Poland
in the Visegrád Group . Slovakia
Slovakia
became a member of NATO
NATO
on 29 March 2004 and of the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2009, Slovakia
Slovakia
adopted the Euro
Euro
as its national currency.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Slovakia See also: Geomorphological division of Slovakia
Slovakia

Slovakia
Slovakia
lies between latitudes 47° and 50° N , and longitudes 16° and 23° E .

The Slovak landscape is noted primarily for its mountainous nature, with the Carpathian Mountains extending across most of the northern half of the country. Amongst these mountain ranges are the high peaks of the Fatra-Tatra Area (including Tatra Mountains , Greater Fatra and Lesser Fatra ), Slovak Ore Mountains , Slovak Central Mountains or Beskids . The largest lowland is the fertile Danubian Lowland in the southwest, followed by the Eastern Slovak Lowland in the southeast.

TATRA MOUNTAINS

Main article: Tatra Mountains Panorama of the High Tatras

*

Gerlachovský štít (2,655 metres or 8,711 feet), the highest peak in Slovakia
Slovakia
*

Kriváň (2,495 metres or 8,186 feet), the country's symbol on 1,2 and 5 euro cents *

View from Lomnický štít (2,634 metres or 8,642 feet) *

Skalnaté pleso Observatory (1,751 metres or 5,745 feet) *

Bystrá (2,248 metres or 7,375 feet)

Tatras, with 29 peaks higher than 2,500 metres (8,202 feet) AMSL , are the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. Tatras occupy an area of 750 square kilometres (290 sq mi), of which the greater part 600 square kilometres (232 sq mi) lies in Slovakia. They are divided into several parts.

To the north, close to the Polish border, are the High Tatras which are a popular hiking and skiing destination and home to many scenic lakes and valleys as well as the highest point in Slovakia, the Gerlachovský štít at 2,655 metres (8,711 ft) and the country's highly symbolic mountain Kriváň . To the west are the Western Tatras with their highest peak of Bystrá at 2,248 metres (7,375 ft) and to the east are the Belianske Tatras , smallest by area.

Separated from the Tatras proper by the valley of the Váh river are the Low Tatras , with their highest peak of Ďumbier at 2,043 metres (6,703 ft).

The Tatra mountain range is represented as one of the three hills on the coat of arms of Slovakia
Slovakia
.

NATIONAL PARKS

Main article: List of national parks of Slovakia A topographic map of Slovakia
Slovakia

There are 9 national parks in Slovakia:

NAME ESTABLISHED AREA

Tatra National Park 1949 738 square kilometres (73,800 ha)

Low Tatras National Park 1978 728 square kilometres (72,800 ha)

Veľká Fatra National Park 2002 404 square kilometres (40,400 ha)

Slovak Karst National Park 2002 346 square kilometres (34,600 ha)

Poloniny National Park 1997 298 square kilometres (29,800 ha)

Malá Fatra National Park 1988 226 square kilometres (22,600 ha)

Muránska planina National Park 1998 203 square kilometres (20,300 ha)

Slovak Paradise National Park 1988 197 square kilometres (19,700 ha)

Pieniny National Park 1967 38 square kilometres (3,800 ha)

*

Tatra National Park *

Low Tatras National Park *

Pieniny National Park *

Slovak Paradise National Park *

Malá Fatra National Park

CAVES

Domica Cave Main article: List of caves in Slovakia

Slovakia
Slovakia
has hundreds of caves and caverns under its mountains, of which 15 are open to the public. Most of the caves have stalagmites rising from the ground and stalactites hanging from above. There are currently five Slovak caves under UNESCO
UNESCO
's World Heritage Site status. They are Dobšinská Ice Cave , Domica , Gombasek Cave , Jasovská Cave and Ochtinská Aragonite Cave . Other caves open to the public include Belianska Cave , Demänovská Cave of Liberty , Demänovská Ice Cave or Bystrianska Cave .

RIVERS

Belá River Main article: List of rivers of Slovakia

Most of the rivers stem in the Slovak mountains. Some only pass through and the others make a natural border with surrounding countries (more than 620 kilometres (385 mi)). For example, the Dunajec (17 kilometres (11 mi)) to the north, the Danube
Danube
(172 kilometres (107 mi)) to the south or the Morava (119 kilometres (74 mi)) to the West. The total length of the rivers on Slovak territory is 49,774 kilometres (30,928 mi).

The longest river in Slovakia
Slovakia
is the Váh (403 kilometres (250 mi)), the shortest is the Čierna voda. Other important and large rivers are the Myjava , the Nitra (197 kilometres (122 mi)), the Orava , the Hron (298 kilometres (185 mi)), the Hornád (193 kilometres (120 mi)), the Slaná (110 kilometres (68 mi)), the Ipeľ (232 kilometres (144 mi), forming the border with Hungary), the Bodrog , the Laborec , the Latorica and the Ondava .

The biggest volume of discharge in Slovak rivers is during spring , when the snow melts from the mountains. The only exception is the Danube, whose discharge is the greatest during summer when the snow melts in the Alps
Alps
. The Danube
Danube
is the largest river that flows through Slovakia.

LAKES

*

Štrbské pleso natural lake is a popular tourist destination in the High Tatras *

Popradské pleso *

Zelené pleso Kežmarské *

Veľké Hincovo pleso *

Žabie pleso in the High Tatras *

Zbojnícke Ľadové pleso in Veľká Studená dolina

There are around 175 naturally formed tarns in High Tatras . With an area of 20 hectares (49 acres) and its depth of 53 metres (174 ft), Veľké Hincovo pleso is the largest and the deepest tarn in Slovakia. Other tarns in the High Tatras include Štrbské pleso , Popradské pleso , Skalnaté pleso , Zbojnícke pleso , Velické pleso , Žabie pleso , Krivánske zelené pleso or Roháčske plesá . Other than in the High Tatras there are Vrbické pleso in Low Tatras , Morské oko and Vinné jazero in Vihorlat Mountains or Jezerské jazero in Spišská Magura .

The largest dams on the river Váh are Liptovská Mara
Liptovská Mara
and Sĺňava . Other well-known dams are Oravská priehrada in the north, Zemplínska Šírava and Domaša in the east, Senecké jazerá , Zlaté piesky or Zelená voda in the west.

CLIMATE

Köppen climate classification types of Slovakia
Slovakia

The Slovak climate lies between the temperate and continental climate zones with relatively warm summers and cold, cloudy and humid winters. Temperature extremes are between −41 to 40.3 °C (−41.8 to 104.5 °F) although temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F) are rare. The weather differs from the mountainous North to the plain South.

The warmest region is Bratislava
Bratislava
and Southern Slovakia
Slovakia
where the temperatures may reach 30 °C (86 °F) in summer, occasionally to 39 °C (102 °F) in Hurbanovo . During night, the temperatures drop to 20 °C (68 °F). The daily temperatures in winter average in the range of −5 °C (23 °F) to 10 °C (50 °F). During night it may be freezing, but usually not below −10 °C (14 °F).

In Slovakia, there are four seasons , each season (Spring, Summer, Autumn
Autumn
and Winter) lasts three months. The dry continental air brings in the summer heat and winter frosts. In contrast, oceanic air brings rainfalls and reduces summer temperatures. In the lowlands and valleys fog is often, especially in winter.

Spring starts with 21 March and is characterised by colder weather with average daily temperature of 9 °C (48 °F) in the first weeks and about 14 °C (57 °F) in May and 17 °C (63 °F) in June. In Slovakia, the weather and climate in the spring is very unstable. Fields in the summer in the Prešov Region Winter
Winter
in Banská Štiavnica , the town is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site .

Summer
Summer
starts on 22 June and is usually characterised by hot weather with daily temperatures exceeding 30 °C (86 °F). July is the warmest month with temperatures up to about 37 to 40 °C (99 to 104 °F), especially in regions of southern Slovakia
Slovakia
– in the urban area of Komárno, Hurbanovo or Štúrovo. Showers or thunderstorms may occur because of the summer monsoon called Medardova kvapka (Medard drop – 40 days of rain). Summer
Summer
in Northern Slovakia
Slovakia
is usually mild with temperatures around 25 °C (77 °F) (less in the mountains).

Autumn
Autumn
in Slovakia
Slovakia
starts on 23 September and is mostly characterised by wet weather and wind, although the first weeks can be very warm and sunny. The average temperature in September is around 14 °C (57 °F), in November to 3 °C (37 °F). Late September and early October is a dry and sunny time of year (so-called Indian Summer).

Winter
Winter
starts on 21 December with temperatures around −5 to −10 °C (23 to 14 °F). In December and January it is usually snowing, these are the coldest months of the year. At lower altitudes, snow does not stay the whole winter, it is changing into the thaw and frost. Winters are colder in the mountains, where the snow usually lasts until March or April and the night temperatures fall to −20 °C (−4 °F) and colder.

BIODIVERSITY

_ Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica_ in the Tatra Mountains

Slovakia
Slovakia
signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 19 May 1993, and became a party to the convention on 25 August 1994. It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan , which was received by the convention on 2 November 1998.

The biodiversity of Slovakia
Slovakia
comprises animals (such as annellids, arthropods, molluscs, nematodes and vertebrates), fungi ( Ascomycota , Basidiomycota , Chytridiomycota
Chytridiomycota
, Glomeromycota and Zygomycota ), micro-organisms (including Mycetozoa ), and plants.

FUNGI

Over 4000 species of fungi have been recorded from Slovakia. Of these, nearly 1500 are lichen-forming species Some of these fungi are undoubtedly endemic, but not enough is known to say how many. Of the lichen-forming species, about 40% have been classified as threatened in some way. About 7% are apparently extinct, 9% endangered, 17% vulnerable, and 7% rare. The conservation status of non-lichen-forming fungi in Slovakia
Slovakia
is not well documented, but there is a red list for its larger fungi.

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT

Main articles: Politics of Slovakia and Law of Slovakia See also: Prime Minister of Slovakia and List of Presidents of Slovakia Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava
Bratislava
is the seat of the President of Slovakia
Slovakia
The National Council building in Bratislava
Bratislava
Episcopal Summer
Summer
Palace , the seat of the government of Slovakia
Slovakia

Slovakia
Slovakia
is a parliamentary democratic republic with a multi-party system . The last parliamentary elections were held on 5 March 2016 and two rounds of presidential elections took place on 15 and 29 March 2014.

The Slovak head of state is the president (currently Andrej Kiska ), elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term. Most executive power lies with the head of government , the prime minister (currently Robert Fico
Robert Fico
), who is usually the leader of the winning party, but he/she needs to form a majority coalition in the parliament. The prime minister is appointed by the president. The remainder of the cabinet is appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister.

Slovakia's highest legislative body is the 150-seat unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic (_Národná rada Slovenskej republiky_). Delegates are elected for a four-year term on the basis of proportional representation . Slovakia's highest judicial body is the Constitutional Court of Slovakia (_Ústavný súd_), which rules on constitutional issues. The 13 members of this court are appointed by the president from a slate of candidates nominated by parliament.

Slovakia
Slovakia
has been a member state of the European Union
European Union
and NATO
NATO
since 2004. As a member of the United Nations
United Nations
(since 1993), Slovakia
Slovakia
was, on 10 October 2005, elected to a two-year term on the UN Security Council from 2006 to 2007.

The Constitution of the Slovak Republic was ratified 1 September 1992, and became effective 1 January 1993. It was amended in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president and again in February 2001 due to EU admission requirements. The civil law system is based on Austro-Hungarian codes. The legal code was modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge the Marxist–Leninist legal theory . Slovakia accepts the compulsory International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
jurisdiction with reservations.

The president is the head of state and the formal head of the executive, though with very limited powers. The president is elected by direct, popular vote under the two-round system for a five-year term.

Following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president. Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister has to receive the majority in the parliament.

Main office holders OFFICE NAME PARTY SINCE

President Andrej Kiska Independent 15 June 2014

Prime Minister Robert Fico
Robert Fico
SMER-SD 4 April 2012

Speaker of the National Council of the Slovak Republic Andrej Danko SNS 23 March 2016

Deputy Speakers of the National Council of the Slovak Republic Béla Bugár Martin Glváč Andrej Hrnčiar Lucia Nicholsonová Most–Híd SMER-SD #SIEŤ Freedom and Solidarity 23 March 2016 23 March 2016 23 March 2016 23 March 2016

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Main article: Foreign relations of Slovakia See also: List of diplomatic missions of Slovakia
Slovakia
Embassy of Japan
Japan
in Bratislava
Bratislava
Slovak Embassy in Washington, D.C.

Slovakia
Slovakia
joined the European Union
European Union
and NATO
NATO
in 2004 and the Eurozone in 2009. The country has been an active participant in US- and NATO-led military actions. There is a joint Czech-Slovak peacekeeping force in Kosovo.

Slovakia
Slovakia
is a member of the United Nations
United Nations
and participates in its specialised agencies. It is also a member of the Schengen Area , Council of Europe
Europe
, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
Europe
(OSCE), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and part of the Visegrad Four (V4, Slovakia, Hungary
Hungary
, the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, and Poland
Poland
).

The Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
entered into a Customs Union upon the division of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in 1993, which facilitates a relatively free flow of goods and services. Slovakia
Slovakia
maintains diplomatic relations with 134 countries, primarily through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs . As of December 2013, Slovakia
Slovakia
maintained 90 missions abroad, including 64 embassies, seven missions to multilateral organisations, nine consulates-general, one consular office, one Slovak Economic and Cultural Office and eight Slovak Institutes. There are 44 embassies and 35 honorary consulates in Bratislava
Bratislava
.

MILITARY

Main article: Military of Slovakia Slovak Air Force MiG-29 NATO upgrade Slovak 5th Special
Special
Forces Regiment operating in eastern Afghanistan

The Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic number 14,000 uniformed personnel. Slovakia
Slovakia
joined NATO
NATO
in March 2004. From 2006 the army transformed into a fully professional organisation and compulsory military service was abolished.

Slovak Ground Forces are made up of two active mechanised infantry brigades . The Air and Air Defence Forces comprise one wing of fighters , one wing of utility helicopters , and one SAM brigade. Training and support forces comprise a National Support Element (Multifunctional Battalion, Transport Battalion, Repair Battalion), a garrison force of the capital city Bratislava, as well as a training battalion, and various logistics and communication and information bases. Miscellaneous forces under the direct command of the General Staff include the 5th Special
Special
Forces Regiment .

HUMAN RIGHTS

The US State Department in 2015 reported: "The government generally respected the human rights of its citizens; however, there were problems in some areas. Notable human rights problems included official corruption; a judiciary that was inefficient and engendered low public trust; and widespread discrimination against Roma minority. Other human rights problems included: excessive use of police force against migrants, physical mistreatment of detainees; lack of independent oversight of police; targeting of the press for civil defamation suits by members of the political, judicial, and financial elite; expressions of anti-Semitism by right-wing groups; and demeaning statements and demonstrations against refugees and migrants."

Human rights in Slovakia
Slovakia
are guaranteed by the Constitution of Slovakia
Slovakia
from the year 1992 and by multiple international laws signed in Slovakia
Slovakia
between 1948 and 2006. Slovakia
Slovakia
excludes multiple citizenships .

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main articles: Regions of Slovakia , Districts of Slovakia , and List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia
Slovakia
Bratislava
Bratislava
, capital and largest city of Slovakia
Slovakia

As for administrative division , Slovakia
Slovakia
is subdivided into 8 _krajov _ (singular – _kraj_, usually translated as "region"), each of which is named after its principal city. Regions have enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy since 2002. Their self-governing bodies are referred to as Self-governing (or autonomous) Regions (sg. _samosprávny kraj_, pl. _samosprávne kraje_) or Upper-Tier Territorial Units (sg. _vyšší územný celok_, pl. _vyššie územné celky_, abbr. VÚC).

The "kraje" are subdivided into many _okresy _ (sg. _okres_, usually translated as counties). Slovakia
Slovakia
currently has 79 districts.

The _okresy_ are further divided into _obcí _ (sg. _obec_, usually translated as "municipality"). There are currently 2,891 obcí.

In terms of economics and unemployment rate, the western regions are richer than eastern regions. Bratislava
Bratislava
is the third richest region of the European Union
European Union
by GDP (PPP) per capita (after Hamburg
Hamburg
and Luxembourg City ), GDP at purchasing power parity is about three times higher than in other Slovak regions.

_ Prešov Košice Žilina Banská Bystrica Trenčín Nitra Trnava
Trnava
Bratislava
Bratislava

NAME IN ENGLISH NAME IN SLOVAK ADMINISTRATIVE SEAT POPULATION (2011)

Bratislava
Bratislava
Region Bratislavský kraj_ _ Bratislava
Bratislava
602,436

Trnava Region Trnavský kraj_ _ Trnava
Trnava
554,741

Nitra Region Nitriansky kraj_ _ Nitra 689,867

Trenčín Region Trenčiansky kraj_ _ Trenčín 594,328

Banská Bystrica Region Banskobystrický kraj_ _ Banská Bystrica 660,563

Žilina Region Žilinský kraj_ _ Žilina 688,851

Košice Region Košický kraj_ _ Košice 791,723

Prešov Region Prešovský kraj_ Prešov 814,527

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Slovakia National Bank of Slovakia in Bratislava
Bratislava

The Slovak economy is a developed, high-income economy, with the GDP per capita equalling 76% of the average of the European Union
European Union
in 2014. The country has had difficulties addressing regional imbalances in wealth and employment. GDP per capita ranges from 188% of EU average in Bratislava
Bratislava
to 54% in Eastern Slovakia.

The OECD
OECD
in 2017 reported: "The Slovak Republic continues exhibiting robust economic performance, with strong growth backed by a sound financial sector, low public debt and high international competitiveness drawing on large inward investment."

In 2016, Slovakia
Slovakia
was ranked as the 40th richest country in the world , with a nominal per capita GDP of $16,499. The country used to be dubbed the " Tatra Tiger ". Slovakia
Slovakia
successfully transformed from a centrally planned economy to a market-driven economy. Major privatisations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in private hands, and foreign investment has risen. Slovakia
Slovakia
is part of the Schengen Area , the EU single market, and since 2009, the Eurozone
Eurozone
(dark blue)

The Slovak economy is one of the fastest growing economies in Europe and 3rd fastest in eurozone (2017). In 2007, 2008 and 2010 (with GDP growth of 10.5%, 6% and 4% retrospectively). In 2016, more than 86% of Slovak exports went to European Union
European Union
, and more than 50% of Slovak imports came from other European Union
European Union
member states.

The ratio of government debt to GDP in Slovakia
Slovakia
reached 52% by the end of 2016, far below the OECD
OECD
average.

Unemployment, peaking at 19% at the end of 1999, decreased to 7.3% in June 2017, lowest recorded rate in Slovak history. In addition to economic growth, migration of workers to other EU countries also contributed to this reduction.

Inflation dropped from an average annual rate of 12% in 2000 to just 3.3% in 2002, an election year, but it rose again in 2003–2004 because of rising labour costs and taxes. It reached only 1% in 2010 which is the lowest recorded rate since 1993. The rate was at 4% in 2011.

Slovakia
Slovakia
adopted the Euro
Euro
currency on 1 January 2009 as the 16th member of the Eurozone. The euro in Slovakia
Slovakia
was approved by the European commission on 7 May 2008. The Slovak koruna
Slovak koruna
was revalued on 28 May 2008 to 30.126 for 1 euro, which was also the exchange rate for the euro. High-rise buildings in Bratislava's business districts

Slovakia
Slovakia
is an attractive country for foreign investors mainly because of its low wages, low tax rates and well educated labour force . In recent years, Slovakia
Slovakia
has been pursuing a policy of encouraging foreign investment. FDI inflow grew more than 600% from 2000 and cumulatively reached an all-time high of $17.3 billion in 2006, or around $22,000 per capita by the end of 2008.

The Programme for International Student Assessment , coordinated by the OECD
OECD
, currently ranks Slovak secondary education the 30th in the world (placing it just below the United States
United States
and just above Spain).

In March 2008, the Ministry of Finance announced that Slovakia's economy is developed enough to stop being an aid receiver from the World Bank
World Bank
. Slovakia
Slovakia
became an aid provider at the end of 2008.

INDUSTRY

See also: Automotive industry in Slovakia ESET
ESET
headquarters in Bratislava
Bratislava

Although Slovakia's GDP comes mainly from the tertiary (services) sector, the industrial sector also plays an important role within its economy. The main industry sectors are car manufacturing and electrical engineering . Since 2007, Slovakia
Slovakia
has been the world's largest producer of cars per capita, with a total of 1.040.000 cars manufactured in the country in 2016 alone. There are currently three automobile assembly plants: Volkswagen
Volkswagen
's in Bratislava
Bratislava
(models: Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Up , Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Touareg , Audi Q7 , Porsche Cayenne
Porsche Cayenne
), PSA Peugeot Citroën 's in Trnava
Trnava
(models: Peugeot 208 , Citroën C3 Picasso ) and Kia Motors ' Žilina Plant (models: Kia Cee\'d , Kia Sportage , Kia Venga ). In 2018, Jaguar Land Rover is set to open the country's fourth automobile assembly plant in Nitra .

From electrical engineering companies, Foxconn has a factory at Nitra for LCD TV manufacturing, Samsung at Galanta for computer monitors and television sets manufacturing.

ESET
ESET
is an IT security company from Bratislava
Bratislava
with more than 1,000 employees worldwide at present. Their branch offices are in the United States, Ireland
Ireland
, United Kingdom, Argentina
Argentina
, the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, Singapore
Singapore
and Poland
Poland
. A graphical depiction of Slovakia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories.

Bratislava's geographical position in Central Europe
Europe
has long made Bratislava
Bratislava
a crossroads for international trade traffic. Various ancient trade routes , such as the Amber Road and the Danube
Danube
waterway, have crossed territory of present-day Bratislava. Today, Bratislava
Bratislava
is the road, railway, waterway and airway hub.

ENERGY

Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce

In 2012, Slovakia
Slovakia
produced a total of 28 393 GWh of electricity while at the same time consumed 28 786 GWh. The slightly higher level of consumption than the capacity of production (- 393 GWh) meant the country was not self-sufficient in energy sourcing. Slovakia
Slovakia
imported electricity mainly from the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(9 961 GWh – 73.6% of total import) and exported mainly to Hungary
Hungary
(10 231 GWh – 78.2% of total export).

Nuclear energy accounts for 53.8% of total electricity production in Slovakia, followed by 18.1% of thermal power energy, 15.1% by hydro power energy, 2% by solar energy , 9.6% by other sources and the rest 1.4% is imported.

The two nuclear power-plants in Slovakia
Slovakia
are in Jaslovské Bohunice and Mochovce , each of them containing two operating reactors. Prior to the accession of Slovakia
Slovakia
to the EU in 2004, the government agreed to turn-off the V1 block of Jaslovské Bohunice power-plant , built in 1978. After deactivating the last of the two reactors of the V1 block in 2008, Slovakia
Slovakia
instantly stopped being self-dependent in energy production. Currently there is another block (V2) with two active reactors in Jaslovské Bohunice . It is scheduled for decommissioning in 2025. Two new reactors are under construction in Mochovce plant. The nuclear power production in Slovakia
Slovakia
sometimes draws attention to Austrian green-energy activists who occasionally organise protests and block the borders between the two countries.

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transport in Slovakia A tram in the northern town of Vysoké Tatry D1 motorway Bratislava
Bratislava
Airport , the main international airport of Slovakia. Highway network in Slovakia
Slovakia
as of 2016

There are four main highways D1 to D4 and eight express ways R1 to R8. Most of them are still in the planning phase.

The D1 motorway connects Bratislava
Bratislava
to Trnava
Trnava
, Nitra , Trenčín , Žilina and beyond, while the D2 motorway connects it to Prague
Prague
, Brno and Budapest
Budapest
in the north-south direction. A large part of D4 motorway (an outer bypass), which should ease the pressure on Bratislava's highway system, is scheduled to open in 2020.

The A6 motorway to Vienna
Vienna
connects Slovakia
Slovakia
directly to the Austrian motorway system and was opened on 19 November 2007.

In Bratislava
Bratislava
there are currently five bridges standing over the Danube
Danube
(from upstream to downstream): Lafranconi Bridge , Nový Most (The New Bridge or Most SNP), Starý most (The Old Bridge), Most Apollo and Prístavný most (The Harbor Bridge).

The city's inner network of roadways is made on the radial-circular shape. Nowadays, the city experiences a sharp increase in the road traffic, increasing pressure on the road network. There are about 200,000 registered cars in Bratislava, (approximately 2 inhabitants per car).

Bratislava's M. R. Štefánik Airport is the main international airport in Slovakia. It is located 9 kilometres (5.6 miles ) northeast of the city centre. It serves civil and governmental, scheduled and unscheduled domestic and international flights. The current runways support the landing of all common types of aircraft currently used. The airport has enjoyed rapidly growing passenger traffic in recent years; it served 279,028 passengers in 2000, 1,937,642 in 2006 and 2,024,142 in 2007. Smaller airports served by passenger airlines include those in Košice and Poprad .

The Port
Port
of Bratislava
Bratislava
is one of the two international river ports in Slovakia. The port connects Bratislava
Bratislava
to international boat traffic, especially the interconnection from the North Sea to the Black Sea
Black Sea
via the Rhine-Main- Danube
Danube
Canal . Additionally, tourist boats operate from Bratislava's passenger port, including routes to Devín , Vienna
Vienna
and elsewhere.

TOURISM

Main article: Tourism in Slovakia See also: List of castles in Slovakia
Slovakia
Bojnice Castle The centre of Bardejov
Bardejov
– a UNESCO World Heritage Site Cable cars at Jasná in the Tatra Mountains The Old Town in Bratislava
Bratislava

Slovakia
Slovakia
features natural landscapes, mountains, caves , medieval castles and towns, folk architecture, spas and ski resorts . More than 5 million tourists visited Slovakia
Slovakia
in 2016, and the most attractive destinations are the capital of Bratislava
Bratislava
and the High Tatras . Most visitors come from the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(about 26%), Poland
Poland
(15%) and Germany
Germany
(11%).

Slovakia
Slovakia
contains many castles, most of which are in ruins. The best known castles include Bojnice Castle (often used as a filming location), Spiš Castle , on the UNESCO
UNESCO
list), Orava Castle , Bratislava
Bratislava
Castle , and the ruins of Devín Castle . Čachtice Castle was once the home of the world's most prolific female serial killer, the 'Bloody Lady', Elizabeth Báthory .

Slovakia's position in Europe
Europe
and the country's past (part of the multicultural Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
, the Habsburg
Habsburg
monarchy and Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
) made many cities and towns similar to the cities in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(such as Prague
Prague
), Austria
Austria
(such as Salzburg
Salzburg
) or Hungary
Hungary
(such as Budapest
Budapest
). A historical center with at least one square has been preserved in many towns. Large historical centers can be found in Bratislava
Bratislava
, Trenčín , Košice , Banská Štiavnica , Levoča , and Trnava
Trnava
. Historical centers have been going through restoration in recent years.

Historical churches can be found in virtually every village and town in Slovakia. Most of them are built in the Baroque style, but there are also many examples of Romanesque and Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
, for example Banská Bystrica , Bardejov
Bardejov
and Spišská Kapitula . The St. James Church in Levoča with the tallest wood-carved altar in the world and the Church of the Holy Spirit in Žehra with medieval frescos are UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites. The St. Martin\'s Concathedral in Bratislava
Bratislava
served as the coronation church for the Kingdom of Hungary. The oldest sacral buildings in Slovakia
Slovakia
stem from the Great Moravian period in the 9th century. Very precious structures are the complete wooden churches of northern and northern-eastern Slovakia. Most were built from the 15th century onwards by Catholics , Lutherans and members of eastern-rite churches.

Typical souvenirs from Slovakia
Slovakia
are dolls dressed in folk costumes, ceramic objects, crystal glass, carved wooden figures, črpáks (wooden pitchers), fujaras (a folk instrument on the UNESCO
UNESCO
list) and valaškas (a decorated folk hatchet) and above all products made from corn husks and wire, notably human figures. Souvenirs can be bought in the shops run by the state organisation ÚĽUV (_Ústredie ľudovej umeleckej výroby_ – Centre of Folk Art Production). _Dielo_ shop chain sells works of Slovak artists and craftsmen. These shops are mostly found in towns and cities.

Prices of imported products are generally the same as in the neighbouring countries, whereas prices of local products and services, especially food, are usually lower.

SCIENCE

The Slovak Academy of Sciences has been the most important scientific and research institution in the country since 1953. Slovaks have made notable scientific and technical contributions during the history. The list of important scientists and their inventions include:

* Jozef Murgaš (1864–1929), contributed to development of wireless telegraphy * Ján Bahýľ (1856–1916), constructed the first motor-driven helicopter (four years before Bréguet and Cornu ) * Štefan Banič (1870–1941), constructed the first actively used parachute * Aurel Stodola (1859–1942), created a bionic arm in 1916 and pioneered steam and gas turbines * John Dopyera (1893–1988), constructed a resonator guitar , an important contribution to the development of acoustic string instrument * Eugen Čerňan (1934–2017), American astronaut of Slovak origin was the last man to visit the Moon * Ivan Bella (1964), first Slovak in space, having participated in a 9-day joint Russian-French-Slovak mission on the space station Mir in 1999. * Daniel Gajdusek (1923–2008), (of Slovak ancestry) won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1976 for work on Kuru

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Slovakia Further information: List of Slovaks

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Slovakia Štatistický úrad Slovenskej republiky – 31 December 2011

RANK NAME REGION POP. RANK NAME REGION POP.

Bratislava
Bratislava

Košice 1 Bratislava
Bratislava
Bratislava
Bratislava
432,801 11 Prievidza Trenčín 48,866

Prešov

Žilina

2 Košice Košice 240,688 12 Zvolen Banská Bystrica 43,311

3 Prešov Prešov 91,638 13 Považská Bystrica Trenčín 41,153

4 Žilina Žilina 81,515 14 Michalovce Košice 39,940

5 Banská Bystrica Banská Bystrica 79,775 15 Nové Zámky Nitra 39,585

6 Nitra Nitra 78,875 16 Spišská Nová Ves Košice 37,948

7 Trnava
Trnava
Trnava
Trnava
66,219 17 Humenné Prešov 34,913

8 Martin Žilina 57,300 18 Levice Nitra 34,649

9 Trenčín Trenčín 55,832 19 Komárno Nitra 34,478

10 Poprad Prešov 52,791 20 Bardejov
Bardejov
Prešov 33,625

Ethnic makeup of Slovakia
Slovakia
according to Census 2011 Linguistic makeup of Slovakia, according to Census 2011

According to the 2011 census, the majority of the inhabitants of Slovakia
Slovakia
are Slovaks (80.7%). Hungarians
Hungarians
are the largest ethnic minority (8.5%). Other ethnic groups include Roma (2%), Czechs (0.6%), Rusyns (0.6%) and others or unspecified (7.6%). Unofficial estimates on the Roma population are much higher, around 5.6%.

In 2007 Slovakia
Slovakia
was estimated to have a total fertility rate of 1.33 (i.e., the average woman will have 1.33 children in her lifetime), which is significantly below the replacement level and is one of the lowest rates among EU countries .

The largest waves of Slovak emigration occurred in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In the 1990 US census, 1.8 million people self-identified as having Slovak ancestry.

LANGUAGES

Main article: Slovak language See also: History of the Slovak language The Slovak alphabet
Slovak alphabet
has 46 characters, of which 3 are digraphs and 18 contain diacritics .

The official language is Slovak , a member of the Slavic language family . Hungarian is widely spoken in the southern regions, and Rusyn is used in some parts of the Northeast. Minority languages hold co-official status in the municipalities in which the size of the minority population meets the legal threshold of 15% in two consecutive censuses.

Slovakia
Slovakia
is ranked among the top EU countries regarding the knowledge of foreign languages. In 2007, 68% of the population aged from 25 to 64 years claimed to speak two or more foreign languages, finishing 2nd highest in the European Union. The best known foreign language in Slovakia
Slovakia
is Czech . Eurostat report also shows that 98.3% of Slovak students in the upper secondary education take on two foreign languages, ranking highly over the average 60.1% in the European Union.

The deaf community uses the Slovak Sign Language . Even though spoken Czech and Slovak are similar, the Slovak Sign language is not particularly close to Czech Sign Language .

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in Slovakia See also: History of Christianity in Slovakia
Slovakia
The Basilica of St. Giles in Bardejov
Bardejov

The Slovak constitution guarantees freedom of religion . In 2011, 62.0% of Slovaks identified themselves as Roman Catholics , 8.9% as Protestants
Protestants
, 3.8% as Greek Catholics , 0.9% as Orthodox , 13.4% identified themselves as atheists or non-religious, and 10.6% did not answer the question about their belief. In 2004, about one third of the then church members regularly attended church services. The Slovak Greek Catholic
Catholic
Church is an Eastern rite sui iuris Catholic Church. The pre– World War II
World War II
population of the country included an estimated 90,000 Jews
Jews
(1.6% of the population). After the genocidal policies of the Nazi era, only about 2,300 Jews
Jews
remain today (0.04% of the population).

In 2016, Slovak parliament passed a new bill that will obstruct Islam and other religious organisations from becoming state-recognized religion by doubling the minimum followers threshold from 25,000 to 50,000. The law passed by a two-third majority at the parliament. In 2010, there were an estimated 5,000 Muslims in Slovakia
Slovakia
representing less than 0.1% of the country's population.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Slovakia

Education in Slovakia is compulsory from age 6 to 16. The education system consists of elementary school which is divided into two parts, the first grade(age 6–10) and the second grade(age 10–15) which is finished by taking nationwide testing called Monitor, from Slovak language and math. Parents may apply for social assistance for a child that is studying on an elementary school or a high-school. If approved, the state provides basic study necessities for the child. Schools provide books to all their students with usual exceptions of books for studying a foreign language and books which require taking notes in them, which are mostly present at the first grade of elementary school. Comenius University headquarters in Bratislava

After finishing elementary school, students are obliged to take one year in high school. They are able to pick from Gymnasium, which is seen as the highest level of high-school education and usually considered as a preparatory school for attending a university, although anyone can apply to any university. Besides Gymnasiums, Slovakia
Slovakia
has specialized high schools with bacalaureat and specialised highschools without bacalaureat. Schools with bacalaureat take 5 years to complete while the ones without usually take less. Gymnasiums and many other high schools require passing an entry exam, consider previous study results or perform a combination of both before accepting a new student. A student may apply to two high schools at once. If student fails to get accepted in any high school, the student can submit an appeal or seek a third high school with an empty slot for one more student outside of the standard application process. Parents and students prefer to avoid this uncertainty and tend to choose at least one high school with a high chance of acceptance. Most high-schools are finished by passing a matura exam, which consists of Slovak language and literature, one foreign language and one specialized subject. If school offered multiple specializations or taught multiple foreign languages, student may choose which subject he or she wants to do the matura exam in. If student wants and the school allows it, it's possible to do matura exam in more than three subjects. Main Building Hall of the University of Economics

After finishing a high school, students can go to university and are highly encouraged to do so. Slovakia
Slovakia
has a wide range of universities. The biggest university is Comenius University , established in 1919. Although it's not the first university ever established on Slovak territory, it's the oldest university that is still running. Most universities in Slovakia
Slovakia
are public funded, where anyone can apply. Every citizen has a right for free education on public schools. If student has to repeat a year or attends a second school after obtaining a degree, or is older than 26 years and attending Bachelor's or Master's courses or is older than 30 years and attending Doctorate's courses, student has to pay the expenses. Students of Doctorate's courses receive a scholarship. Students of Bachelor's and of Master's courses can apply for a scholarship depending on their study performance. The limit for applying for performance scholarship is set individually by each university.

Slovakia
Slovakia
has several privately funded universities, however public universities consistently score better in the ranking than their private counterparts. Universities have different criteria for accepting students. Anyone can apply to any number of universities. The limiting factor is the cost of application fees, which can range from a few € to over 100 € per one application. The student may apply for a social discount for the application fee. Several universities, including some the best ranking in Slovakia, accept all applicants and perform a screening process during the study, which results in a higher dropout rate among the students compared to universities that require passing an entry exam. Other methods of acceptance may include weighting past study results from high school, passing an entry test or a combination of both.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Slovakia

FOLK TRADITION

This wooden church in Bodružal is an example of Rusyn folk architecture and is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site .

Folk tradition has rooted strongly in Slovakia
Slovakia
and is reflected in literature, music, dance and architecture. The prime example is a Slovak national anthem, _" Nad Tatrou sa blýska "_, which is based on a melody from _" Kopala studienku "_ folk song.

Manifestation of Slovak folklore culture is the "_Východná_" Folklore Festival. It is the oldest and largest nationwide festival with international participation, which takes place in Východná annually. Slovakia
Slovakia
is usually represented by many groups but mainly by SĽUK (_Slovenský ľudový umelecký kolektív – Slovak folk art collective_). SĽUK is the largest Slovak folk art group, trying to preserve the folklore tradition. Slovak women in traditional dress, demonstrating a traditional method of grinding grain into flour.

An example of wooden folk architecture in Slovakia
Slovakia
can be seen in the well preserved village of Vlkolínec which has been the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site since 1993. The Prešov Region preserves the world's most remarkable folk wooden churches. Most of them are protected by Slovak law as cultural heritage , but some of them are on the UNESCO list too, in Bodružal, Hervartov, Ladomirová and Ruská Bystrá.

The best known Slovak hero, found in many folk mythologies , is Juraj Jánošík (1688–1713) (the Slovak equivalent of Robin Hood
Robin Hood
). The legend says he was taking from the rich and giving to the poor. Jánošík's life was depicted in a list of literature works and many movies throughout the 20th century. One of the most popular is a film _Jánošík_ directed by Martin Frič in 1935.

ART

Visual art
Visual art
in Slovakia
Slovakia
is represented through painting , drawing , printmaking , illustration , arts and crafts , sculpture , photography or conceptual art . The supreme and central gallery institution displaying Slovak art nowadays is the Slovak National Gallery , established in 1949. Medieval time The Visitation
The Visitation
is a 1506 panel painting by Majster M. S.

Well-known sculptor of the 15th century Late Gothic era in Slovakia is the _Master Paul of Levoča _. Although his work can be found in many places ( Banská Bystrica , Spišská Sobota or Lomnička), his most famous is a wooden altar in the Church of St. Jacob in Levoča . With its height of 18.62 metres (61 ft), it is the tallest Gothic altar in the world. Well-known painters of that time are the _Master from Okoličné_, author of the altar in St. Elisabeth Cathedral in Košice , and _Master M.S. _ of the 16th century, whose statue of Madonna can be seen in the Saint Catherine Church in Banská Štiavnica . The statues of Saint Catherine and Saint Barbara are in the art gallery of the Slovak Mining Museum in Banská Štiavnica. 19th century

The 19th century in Slovakia
Slovakia
was a turbulent period of time when Slovaks began experiencing their national revival in the kingdom of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
. Romanticism of Jozef B. Klemens (1817–1883) and Peter Michal Bohúň (1822–1879) was represented in the portrait paintings of Slovak national protagonists of that time (Štefan Moyses, Andrej Sládkovič , Karol Kuzmány or Ľudovít Štúr ), depicting the revolutionary atmosphere of the 1840s in the background. Other important painters of the 19th century were mainly portraitists Vojtech Angyal, Dominik Skutecký (1849–1921), J. Štetka, E. Ballo, Jozef Hanula (1863–1944), landscapist Karol Miloslav Lehotský (1846–1915) and impressionists Maximilián Schurmann (1863–1944) and P. Kern.

Sculpture
Sculpture
in the 19th century was dominated by a sacral sculptor Vavrinec Dunajský (1784–1833) and his son Ladislav Dunajský, author of Ján Hollý memorial in Dobrá Voda . Another important sculptors were Ján Koniarek (1878–1952), Alajos Stróbl (1856–1926), János Fadrusz (1858–1903) and Alojz Rigele (1879–1940). 20th century _ Mikuláš Galanda – Mother_ (1933)

Painters Mikuláš Galanda (1895–1938), Martin Benka (1888–1971), Janko Alexy (1894–1970), Miloš Alexander Bazovský (1899–1968), Gustáv Mallý (1879–1952) and Jan Hála (1890–1959) are considered to be the ones who laid foundations of the Slovak modern art in the first half of the 20th century. The inspiration of their work stems mainly from the lives of everyday people in Slovak rurals which they admired and idealised. The painters influenced by Art Nouveau , symbolism and expressionism are Zolo Palugyay (1898–1935), Anton Jasusch (1882–1965), Edmund Gwerk (1895–1956) or Július Jakoby (1903–1985). Important also is Blažej Baláž (1958).

Some of the most distinguished Slovak artists, whose work was closely linked to modern European art streams are Koloman Sokol (1902–2003), who became a professor of graphic techniques at the _Escuela de las Artes del Libro_ and at the University of Mexico City
Mexico City
from 1937 to 1941, Ľudovít Fulla (1902–1980) who received many international prices for his work and Imro Weiner-Kráľ (1901–1978). The generation of 1909 is represented by Cyprián Majerník (1909–1945), Ján Želibský, Ján Mudroch (1909–1968), Ladislav Čemický (1909–1968) and Ester M. Šimerová (1909).

Slovak graphic art experienced its peak during the 20th century. The most notable print-makers are Koloman Sokol (1902–2003), Vincent Hložník (1919–1997), Albín Brunovský (1935–1997), Jozef Jankovič (1937), Dušan Kállay (1948), Vladimír Gažovič (1939), Karol Ondreička (1944–2003) Blažej Baláž (1958) or the young generation of artists Katarína Vavrová, and Matej Krén. Andy Warhol Museum of Modern Art in Medzilaborce
Medzilaborce
. Andy Warhol 's parents were immigrants from Slovakia.

Andy Warhol (1928–1987), a leading figure in the 20th century visual art movement known as pop art , was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as _Andrej Varchola_ to Slovak parents Ondrej Varchola (1889–1942) and Júlia (née Zavacká, 1892–1972). A museum dedicated to him is in Medzilaborce
Medzilaborce
, where his parents lived.

Notable Slovak photographers in the 20th century are Martin Martinček (1913–2004) and Karol Kállay (1926–2012). Both Martinček and Kállay received the EFIAP (Excellence de la Fédération Internationale de l' Art Photographique) price in 1970.

Sculpture
Sculpture
in the 20th century is represented by Ján Koniarek (1878–1952), Július Bártfay (1888–1979), Tibor Bártfay (1922) Ján Mathé (1922), Jozef Kostka (1912–1996), Ladislav Snopek (1919–2010), Rudolf Uher or Rudolf Hornák. 21st century

Notable Slovak artists of the 21st century include Cyril Blažo (1970), Martin Vargic and Viliam Loviska (1964)

LITERATURE

Further information: Slovak literature Ľudovít Štúr , the author of the Slovak language standard.

For a list of notable Slovak writers and poets, see List of Slovak authors .

Christian topics include: poem Proglas as a foreword to the four Gospels , partial translations of the Bible into Old Church Slavonic , _Zakon sudnyj ljudem_.

Medieval literature , in the period from the 11th to the 15th centuries, was written in Latin
Latin
, Czech and Slovakized Czech. Lyric (prayers, songs and formulas) was still controlled by the Church, while epic was concentrated on legends. Authors from this period include Johannes de Thurocz , author of the Chronica Hungarorum and Maurus, both of them Hungarians. The worldly literature also emerged and chronicles were written in this period.

There were two leading persons who codified the Slovak language. The first was Anton Bernolák whose concept was based on the western Slovak dialect in 1787. It was the codification of the first ever literary language of Slovaks. The second was Ľudovít Štúr , whose formation of the Slovak language took principles from the central Slovak dialect in 1843.

Slovakia
Slovakia
is also known for its polyhistors, of whom include Pavol Jozef Šafárik , Matej Bel , Ján Kollár , and its political revolutionaries and reformists, such Milan Rastislav Štefánik and Alexander Dubček .

Famous globetrotter and explorer, count Móric Benyovszky had Slovak ancestors.

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Slovakia The new Slovak National Theatre building in Bratislava
Bratislava
Slovak Philharmonic
Slovak Philharmonic
Orchestra in Bratislava
Bratislava
State Theatre Košice Classical music

The most important Slovak composers have been Eugen Suchoň , Mikuláš Schneider-Trnavský , Ján Cikker , Ján Levoslav Bella , Alexander Moyzes and Dezider Kardoš , in the 21st century Vladimír Godár and Peter Machajdík . Pop music

Popular music began to replace folk music beginning in the 1950s, when Slovakia
Slovakia
was still part of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
; American jazz , R"> Halušky with bryndza cheese, kapustnica soup and Zlatý Bažant dark beer – examples of Slovak cuisine
Slovak cuisine

Traditional Slovak cuisine
Slovak cuisine
is based mainly on pork meat, poultry (chicken is the most widely eaten, followed by duck , goose , and turkey ), flour , potatoes , cabbage , and milk products . It is relatively closely related to Hungarian , Czech and Austrian cuisine . On the east it is also influenced by Ukrainian and Polish cuisine . In comparison with other European countries, "game meat" is more accessible in Slovakia
Slovakia
due to vast resources of forest and because hunting is relatively popular. Boar
Boar
, rabbit , and venison , are generally available throughout the year. Lamb and goat are eaten but are not widely popular.

The traditional Slovak meals are bryndzové halušky , bryndzové pirohy and other meals with potato dough and bryndza . Bryndza is a salty cheese made of a sheep milk, characterised by a strong taste and aroma. Bryndzové halušky must be on the menu of every traditional Slovak restaurant.

A typical soup is a sauerkraut soup ("kapustnica"). A blood sausage called "krvavnica", made from any and all parts of a butchered pig is also a specific Slovak meal.

Wine is enjoyed throughout Slovakia. Slovak wine comes predominantly from the southern areas along the Danube
Danube
and its tributaries; the northern half of the country is too cold and mountainous to grow grapevines. Traditionally, white wine was more popular than red or rosé (except in some regions), and sweet wine more popular than dry, but in recent years tastes seem to be changing. Beer (mainly of the pilsener style, though dark lagers are also consumed) is also popular.

SPORT

Main article: Sport in Slovakia

Sport activities are practised widely in Slovakia, many of them on a professional level. Ice hockey and football have traditionally been regarded as the most popular sports in Slovakia. Among the popular are also tennis , handball , basketball , volleyball , whitewater slalom or athletics . Ice Hockey The Slovak national ice hockey team celebrating a victory against Sweden
Sweden
at the 2010 Winter
Winter
Olympics

One of the most popular collective sports in Slovakia
Slovakia
is ice hockey . Slovakia
Slovakia
became the member of IIHF
IIHF
on 2 February 1993 and ever since has won 4 medals in Ice Hockey World Championships , consisting of 1 gold, 2 silver and 1 bronze medal. The most recent success is a silver medal from 2012 IIHF
IIHF
World Championship in Helsinki
Helsinki
. Slovak national hockey team made five appearances in the Olympic games too, ended up 4th in the 2010 Winter
Winter
Olympics in Vancouver
Vancouver
. The country has 8280 registered players and is ranked 7th in the IIHF
IIHF
World Ranking at present. Prior to 2012, Slovak team HC Slovan Bratislava
Bratislava
joined the Kontinental Hockey League , considered the strongest hockey league in Europe, and the second-best in the world.

Slovakia
Slovakia
organised the 2011 IIHF
IIHF
World Championship in ice hockey in which the team of Finland
Finland
won the gold medal. The venue took place in Bratislava
Bratislava
and Košice .

The most notable Slovak hockey players who played or are still playing in the NHL are Stan Mikita , Peter Šťastný , Marián Šťastný , Anton Šťastný , Peter Bondra , Žigmund Pálffy , Marián Gáborík , Marián Hossa , Pavol Demitra
Pavol Demitra
, Zdeno Chára , Miroslav Šatan , Ľubomír Višňovský , Tomáš Kopecký , Andrej Sekera or Jaroslav Halák . Football Football stadium City Arena in Trnava
Trnava

Association football is the most popular sport in Slovakia, with over 400 000 registered players. Since 1993, Slovak national football team has qualified only once to the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
in 2010 , in which they proceeded into the Last 16, where they were defeated by Netherlands
Netherlands
. The most notable result was the 3–2 victory over Italy
Italy
. In 2016 Slovak national football team has qualified to the UEFA Euro
Euro
2016 under head coach Ján Kozák which helped the team reach their best ever position of 14th in the FIFA World Rankings .

In club competitions, only three teams have qualified to UEFA Champions League Group Stage, namely MFK Košice in 1997–98 , FC Artmedia Bratislava
Bratislava
in 2005–06 season and MŠK Žilina n 2010–11 . FC Artmedia Bratislava
Bratislava
has been the most successful team after finishing 3rd in Group Stage and therefore qualifying to Round of 32 of UEFA Cup . They also remain as the only Slovak club that has won a match in Group stage.

The most famous Slovak players are: Marek Hamšík , Martin Škrtel , Juraj Kucka , Peter Dubovský and Jozef Adamec .

SEE ALSO

* Cinema of Slovakia * Outline of Slovakia * Protected areas of Slovakia * Public holidays in Slovakia * Remembrance days in Slovakia * Telecommunications in Slovakia * LGBT rights in Slovakia

Lists

* List of towns in Slovakia
Slovakia
* List of football clubs in Slovakia * List of villages and municipalities in Slovakia
Slovakia
* List of museums in Slovakia * List of tourism regions of Slovakia * List of traditional regions of Slovakia

* Geography portal * Europe
Europe
portal * Slovakia
Slovakia
portal * European Union
European Union
portal * NATO
NATO
portal

NOTES

* ^ Slovaks differentiate between _Uhorsko_ (the historic state) and _Maďarsko_ (the modern state) while both tend to be rendered as _Hungary_ in English.

REFERENCES

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Slovakia
16th country to adopt euro". Kyivpost.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2012. * ^ "Triennial Central Bank Survey: Report on global foreign exchange market activity in 2010" (PDF). _Monetary and Economic Department_. Bank for International Settlements : 12. December 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2011. * ^ "Global Ranking – Visa Restriction Index 2016" (PDF). Henley & Partners. Retrieved 27 February 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Produkcia vozidiel aj v roku 2016 prekročila miliónovou hodnotu". Retrieved 10 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Uličný, Ferdinand (2014). "Toponymum Slovensko – pôvod a obsah názvu" . _Historický časopis_. Historický ústav SAV (3): 548. ISSN 0018-2575 . * ^ Museum of Prehistoric Prepoštská Cave (2011). "Museum of Prehistoric". _muzeumpraveku.sk_. Retrieved 25 November 2011. * ^ Benda, Kálmán (1981). _Magyarország történeti kronológiája_ ("The Historical Chronology of Hungary"). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 44. ISBN 963-05-2661-1 . * ^ Kristó, p.30–31 * ^ 'Europe', p.360 * ^ Kristó, Gyula (1994). _Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9–14. század)_ . Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 467. ISBN 963-05-6722-9 . * ^ Poulik, Josef (1978). "The Origins of Christianity in Slavonic Countries North of the Middle Danube
Danube
Basin". _World Archaeology_. 10 (2): 158–171. doi :10.1080/00438243.1978.9979728 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Čaplovič, Dušan; Viliam Čičaj; Dušan Kováč; Ľubomír Lipták; Ján Lukačka (2000). _Dejiny Slovenska_. Bratislava: AEP. * ^ pages=167, 566 * ^ _Annales Fuldenses, sive, Annales regni Francorum orientalis ab Einhardo, Ruodolfo, Meginhardo Fuldensibus, Seligenstadi, Fuldae, Mogontiaci conscripti cum continuationibus Ratisbonensi et Altahensibus / post editionem G. H. Pertzii recognovit Friderious Kurze ; Accedunt Annales Fuldenses antiquissimi_. Hanover: Imprensis Bibliopolii Hahniani. 1978. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2009. * ^ Tóth, Sándor László (1998). _Levediától a Kárpát-medencéig_ ("From Levedia to the Carpathian Basin"). Szeged: Szegedi Középkorász Műhely. p. 199. ISBN 963-482-175-8 . * ^ page=51 * ^ _A Country Study: Hungary_. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress . Retrieved 6 March 2009. * ^ pages=189–211 * ^ Kristó, Gyula (1996). _Magyar honfoglalás – honfoglaló magyarok_ ("The Hungarians' Occupation of their Country – The Hungarians
Hungarians
occupying their Country"). Kossuth Könyvkiadó. pp. 84–85. ISBN 963-09-3836-7 . * ^ "The kingdom of Hungary". loststory.net. Retrieved 15 February 2015. * ^ Felak, James Ramon (15 June 1995). _At the Price of the Republic: Hlinka’s Slovak People’s Party, 1929–1938_. University of Pittsburgh Pre. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-0-8229-7694-3 . * ^ Schuster, Rudolf (January 2004). _The Slovak Republic: A Decade of Independence, 1993–2002_. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-0-86516-568-7 . * ^ Prokhorov, A. M. (1982). _Great Soviet encyclopedia_. Macmillan. p. 71. * ^ Tibenský, Ján; et al. (1971). _Slovensko: Dejiny_. Bratislava: Obzor. * ^ "Academia Istropolitana". City of Bratislava. 14 February 2005. Archived from the original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ https://books.google.pl/books?id=5qgHE29pikMC&pg=PA85&lpg=PA85&dq=turks+in+upper+hungary&source=bl&ots=pyP1NRJKL_&sig=hjSYd_KlZnXuI_qQRBbDi0ul_N8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiF2baEwqjTAhUBuSwKHXdFBuYQ6AEIQzAF#v=onepage&q=turks%20in%20upper%20hungary&f=false * ^ "Part of Hungary, Turkish occupation". Slovakiasite.com * ^ Bratislava. Slovakiasite.com * ^ "Divided Memories: The Image of the First World War in the Historical Memory of Slovaks". Slovak Sociological Review, Issue 3. 2003. Retrieved 25 November 2012. * ^ J. V. Polisencky, _History of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in Outline_ (Prague: Bohemia
Bohemia
International 1947) at 113–114. * ^ Gerhard L. Weinberg, _The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany: Starting World War II, 1937–1939_ (Chicago, 1980), pp. 470–481. * ^ Dominik Jůn interviewing Professor Jan Rychlík (2016). " Czechs and Slovaks – more than just neighbours". Radio Prague. Retrieved 28 October 2016. * ^ "Obžaloba pri Národnom súde v Bratislave". _Spis Onľud 17/46_. 20 May 1946. * ^ Daxner, Igor (25 July 1946). "Rozsudok Národného súdu v Bratislave". _Spis Tnľud 17/1946_. * ^ Leni Yahil, _The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932–1945_ (Oxford, 1990), pp. 402–403. * ^ For the higher figure, see Milan S. Ďurica, _The Slovak Involvement in the Tragedy of the European Jews_ (Abano Terme: Piovan Editore, 1989), p. 12; for the lower figure, see Gila Fatran, "The Struggle for Jewish
Jewish
Survival During the Holocaust" in _The Tragedy of the Jews
Jews
of Slovakia_ (Banská Bystrica, 2002), p. 148. * ^ Dawidowicz, Lucy. The War Against the Jews
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Germans
from central and eastern Europe
Europe
in the Federal Republic_. New York; Oxford: Berghahn. * ^ "Dr. Thomas Reimer, Carpathian Germans
Germans
history". Mertsahinoglu.com. Retrieved 16 October 2010. * ^ "The Breakup of Czechoslovakia". Slovakia. Retrieved 3 June 2011. * ^ "Velvet divorce". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 3 June 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Slovakia". _The World Factbook_. CIA . 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2008. * ^ Nie ste prihlásený. "Translated from Slovak language". Slovakregion.sk. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ "Based on the "Climate" article from". www.slovensko.com. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ "List of Parties". Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2012. * ^ "National Biodiversity Strategy of Slovakia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2012. * ^ "Cybertruffle\'s Robigalia. Observations of fungi and their associated organisms". Retrieved 8 December 2012. * ^ Pavel Lizoň & Kamila Bacigálová, _Huby – Fungi_ in F. Hindák Checklist of Non-vascular and Vascular Plants of Slovakia (Bratislava, 1998), pp. 102–227. * ^ Ivan Pišút, _Lichenizované Huby (Lišajníky) – Lichen-forming Fungi (Lichens)_ in F. Hindák Checklist of Non-vascular and Vascular Plants of Slovakia
Slovakia
(Bratislava, 1998), pp. 229–295. * ^ Pavel Lizoň, _Threatened macrofungi in Slovakia_ Biologia (Bratislava) 50: 9–12(1995). * ^ SITA. "Slovensko má veľvyslanectvo v Spojených arabských emirátoch", _WebNoviny.sk_, Bratislava, 1 December 2013. Retrieved on 29 April 2014. * ^ "Slovenská armáda se zbaví tanků –". Novinky.cz. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ " NATO
NATO
Update: Seven new members join NATO". Nato.int. 26 March 2004. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ U.S. Dept. of State, "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2015" 1 February 2017 * ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Slovakia
Slovakia
– list of international acts relating to human rights". Mzv.sk. Archived from the original on 21 August 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ "." Hospodárske noviny. Retrieved on March 1, 2017. " Bratislava
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region third richest in the EU." * ^ "." The world of labour. Retrieved on August 31, 2016. " Bratislava
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Slovakia
versus other regions of Slovak Republic." * ^ " World Bank
World Bank
2007". Web.worldbank.org. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ "GDP per capita in PPS, Eurostat", retrieved 1. June 2015. * ^ Votruba, Martin. "Regional Wealth". _Slovak Studies Program_. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 2010-04-10. * ^ oecd.org, "Economic Survey of the Slovak Republic 2017" 3 July 2017 * ^ "Intra-EU trade in goods - recent trends". * ^ Economic Survey of the Slovak Republic 2017. oecd.org (3 July 2017). * ^ " Unemployment
Unemployment
rate at historical low in May". Retrieved 3 July 2017. * ^ "Inflation in Slovakia
Slovakia
since 1993". Ako-investovat.sk. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ Grajewski, Marcin (28 May 2008). " Slovakia
Slovakia
revalues currency ahead of euro entry". _The Guardian_. Archived from the original on 1 June 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2010. * ^ "Slovak euro exchange rate is set". BBC News. 8 July 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2010. * ^ "Range of rank on the PISA 2006 science scale at OECD" (PDF). Retrieved 16 October 2010. * ^ " Slovakia
Slovakia
Is Sufficiently Developled to Offer Aid Within World Bank at TASR". Tasr.sk. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2010. * ^ "Slovak Car Industry Production Almost Doubled in 2007". Industryweek.com. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2010. * ^ Pitas, Costas (11 August 2015). Merriman, Jane, ed. "Jaguar Land Rover plans new plant in Slovakia". Reuters. Retrieved 24 November 2015. * ^ " ESET
ESET
Achieves Another Milestone: More Than 1000 Employees Globally". PressReleasePoint. Retrieved 23 April 2015. * ^ "About ESET: Company Profile: History". ESET. Retrieved 1 July 2011. * ^ " Bratislava
Bratislava
in Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2007. * ^ "MIPIM 2007 – Other Segments". City of Bratislava. 2007. Archived from the original on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Transport and Infrastructure". City of Bratislava. 2007. Archived from the original on 11 June 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007. * ^ "National Control Centre of Slovakia" (PDF). _Electricity consumption / production in Slovakia
Slovakia
in 2012_. 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013. * ^ "Érsek oficiálne spustil výstavbu bratislavského obchvatu". _SME _ (in Slovak). 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016. * ^ "Do Viedne už netreba ísť po okresnej ceste". _Pravda _ (in Slovak). 2007. Retrieved 19 November 2007. * ^ "Letisko Bratislava
Bratislava
– O letisku – Štatistické údaje (_Airport Bratislava
Bratislava
– About airport – Statistical data_)". _Letisko M.R. Štefánika – Airport Bratislava_. 2008. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2008. * ^ " Slovakia
Slovakia
sees tourists increase in 2016". Xinhua. 2 March 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2017. * ^ Top 15 krajín AZCR 2012–2015. Slovenská Aagentúra pre Cestovný Ruch sacr .sk (March 2016) * ^ "Patenty". Ctf.sk. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2011. * ^ ELET. " Ján Bahýľ – životopis, Úrad priemyselného vlastníctva Slovenskej republiky" (in Czech). Indprop.gov.sk. Retrieved 3 June 2011. * ^ "European countries (Slovakia) at europa.eu.int". Europa.eu. Retrieved 16 October 2010. * ^ "Fund of A.Stodola". Fondstodola.sk. Archived from the original on 2 July 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2010. * ^ Matthew J. Reynolds. "John Dopyera\'s guitar legend lives on – The Slovak Spectator". Spectator.sme.sk. Retrieved 3 June 2011. * ^ "Bella". Astronautix.com. Retrieved 3 June 2011. * ^ "D. Carleton Gajdusek – Autobiography". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 3 June 2011. * ^ "Official data on the structure of the Slovak population" (PDF). Portal.statistics.sk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012. * ^ "Roma political and cultural activists estimate that the number of Roma in Slovakia is higher, citing a figure of 350,000 to 400,000". Slovakia.org. Retrieved 25 November 2012. * ^ "Slovakia: Ethnicity of the Population Section". Government of Slovakia. 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010. * ^ M. Vašečka, "A Global Report on Roma in Slovakia", (Institute of Public Affairs: Bratislava, 2002) + Minority Rights Group. See:Equality, Diversity and Enlargement. European Commission: Brussels, 2003, p. 104 * ^ "The Slovaks in America". European Reading Room, Library of Congress. * ^ Slovenskej Republiky, Národná Rada (1999). "Zákon 184/1999 Z. z. o používaní jazykov národnostných menšín" (in Slovak). Zbierka zákonov. Retrieved 3 December 2016. * ^ " Eurostat report on foreign languages September 2009" (PDF). Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2012. * ^ "Data from the Slovak Statistical Office 2011" (PDF). 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2012. * ^ Manchin, Robert (2004). "Religion in Europe: Trust Not Filling the Pews". Gallup. Retrieved 4 December 2009. * ^ Vogelsang, Peter; Brian B. M. Larsen (2002). "Deportations". _The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies_. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2008. * ^ " Slovakia
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adopts law to effectively block Islam
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information from the official portal of St. Jacob church in Levoča". Archived from the original on 6 August 2006. * ^ "Galéria Ludovíta Fullu Ružomberok /* Ludovit Fulla Gallery Ruzomberok /Muzeum.SK – múzeum, galéria, hrad, zámok/". Muzeum.sk. Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ "Biography". Warhola.com. Retrieved 14 August 2010. * ^ Lawrence Barnett Phillips (1871). _The dictionary of biographical reference: containing one hundred thousand names, together with a classed index of the biographical literature of Europe and America_. S. Low, Son, & Marston. p. 1020. * ^ "Well-rooted musicians can stretch their styles". _The Slovak Spectator _. 18 April 2011. The festival is the "spiritual child" of Valihora, a graduate of Berklee College of Music in Boston, USA, * ^ "The first (and only) name in jazz piano". _The Houston Chronicle _. 5 December 2004. p. 7 section:"ZEST". Hiromi ... makes her Houston debut ... with her trio, featuring electric bassist Tony Grey and drummer Martin Valihor * ^ United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
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(2000). _Forest resources of Europe, CIS, North America, Australia, Japan
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Julius Bartl et al., _Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon._ Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2002. * Olga Drobna, Eduard Drobny, and Magdalena Gocnikova, _Slovakia: The Heart of Europe._ Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1996. * Pavel Dvorak, _The Early History of Slovakia in Images._ Budmerice, Slovakia: Vydavatel'stvo Rak Budmerice, 2006. * Sharon Fisher, _Political Change in Post-Communist Slovakia
Slovakia
and Croatia: From Nationalist to Europeanist._ New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. * Karen Henderson, _Slovakia: The Escape from Invisibility._ London: Routledge, 2002. * Rob Humphrey, _The Rough Guide to the Czech and Slovak Republics._ New York: Rough Guides, 2006. * Michael Jacobs, _Blue Guide: Czech and Slovak Republics._ London: A. padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutSLOVAKIAat Wikipedia's sister projects

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CZECHOSLOVAKIA

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GEOGRAPHIC LOCALE

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SOVEREIGN STATES

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DEPENDENCIES

DENMARK

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* autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark
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UNITED KINGDOM

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Special
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areas of internal sovereignty

FINLAND

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* autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

NORWAY

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Svalbard

* unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty

UNITED KINGDOM

* Northern Ireland
Ireland

* country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

* 1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. * 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

INTERNATIONAL MEMBERSHIP

* v * t * e

Member states of the European Union
European Union

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Portugal
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Slovenia
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* United Kingdom
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Council of Europe
Europe

INSTITUTIONS

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MEMBERS

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Germany
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Lithuania
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Malta
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Moldova
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Monaco
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Montenegro
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Portugal
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Romania
* Russia
Russia
* San Marino
San Marino
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Slovenia
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Spain
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Sweden
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Switzerland
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Turkey
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Ukraine
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United Kingdom

OBSERVERS

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Canada
* Holy See
Holy See
* Israel
Israel
* Japan
Japan
* Mexico
Mexico
* United States
United States
* Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Malta

FORMER MEMBERS

* Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1991–1992) * Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)

1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
Europe
as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute .

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