HOME
TheInfoList



Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no, ), is a landlocked country in
Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe. The concept of Central Europe is based on a common histo ...
. It is bordered by
Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and ha ...
to the north, Ukraine to the east,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. ...
to the south,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States of ...
to the west, and the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and ...
to the northwest. Slovakia's mostly mountainous territory spans about , with a population of over 5.4 million. The capital and largest city is
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
, and the second-largest city is Košice. The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th and 6th centuries. In the 7th century, they played a significant role in the creation of Samo's Empire. In the 9th century, they established the Principality of Nitra, which was later conquered by the
Principality of Moravia
Principality of Moravia
to establish
Great Moravia
Great Moravia
. In the 10th century, after the dissolution of Great Moravia, the territory was integrated into the Principality of Hungary, which would then become the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
in 1000. In 1241 and 1242, after the Mongol invasion of Europe, much of the territory was destroyed. The area was recovered largely thanks to Béla IV of Hungary, who also settled
Germans The Germans (german: Deutsche) are a Germanic peoples, Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe.. "Germans are a Germanic (or Teutonic) people that are indigenous to Central Europe... Germanic tribes have inhabited Central Europe since a ...
, leading them to become an important ethnic group in the area, especially in what are today parts of Hauerland, central and Zipser Germans, eastern Slovakia. After World War I, and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the state of Czechoslovakia was established. The (First) Slovak Republic (1939–1945), Slovak Republic existed during World War II as a partially-recognized client state of Nazi Germany. At the end of World War II, Czechoslovakia was re-established as an independent country. After a 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état, coup in 1948, Czechoslovakia came under History of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989), communist administration, and became a part of the Soviet Union, Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. Attempts to Socialism with a human face, liberalize communism in Czechoslovakia culminated in the Prague Spring, which was crushed by the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. In 1989, the Velvet Revolution peacefully ended the Communist rule in Czechoslovakia. Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia, sometimes known as the Velvet Divorce. Slovakia is a developed country, with an advanced World Bank high-income economy, high-income economy, ranking very high in the List of countries by Human Development Index, Human Development Index. It also performs favourably in measurements of Freedom in the World, civil liberties, Press Freedom Index, press freedom, Internet censorship and surveillance by country, internet freedom, Democracy Index, democratic governance and Global Peace Index, peacefulness. The country maintains a combination of a market economy with a comprehensive Welfare, social security system, providing citizens with a universal health care, free education, and one of the longest paid parental leaves in the OECD. Slovakia is a member of the European Union and the Eurozone, as well as a member of the Schengen Area, NATO, the United Nations, the OECD, the World Trade Organization, WTO, CERN, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, OSCE, the Council of Europe, and the Visegrád Group. It is the world's largest per-capita car producer, with a total of 1.1 million cars manufactured in 2019, which represents 43% of its total industrial output.


Etymology

Slovakia's name in theory means the „Land of the Slavs“ (''Slovensko'' in Slovak language, stemming from the older form ''Sloven/Slovienin''). As such, it is a cognate of the words Slovenia and Slavonia. In medieval Latin, German sources and even some Slavic sources, the same name has often been used for Slovaks, Slovenes, Slavonians and Slavs in general. According to one of the theories, between 13th and 14th century a new form of national name formed for the ancestors of the Slovaks, possibly due to foreign influence – the Czech language, Czech word ''Slovák'' (in medieval sources from 1291 onwardUHLÁR, V.: O pôvode názvov Slovák, Slovensko a slovenčina). This form slowly replaced the name for the male members of the community, but the female name (''Slovenka''), reference to the lands inhabited (''Slovensko'') and the name of the language (''slovenčina'') all remained the same, with their base in the older form (compare to Slovenian counterparts). Most foreign translations tends to stem from this newer form (''Slovakia'' in English, ''Slowakei'' in German, ''Slovaquie'' in French, etc.). In medieval Latin sources, terms Slavus, Slavonia or Slavorum (and more variants, from as early as 1029) has been used for them. In German sources, names for the Slovak lands were Windenland or Windishen landen (early 15th century), later also the form „Slovakia, Schlowakei“ starts to appear (from 16th century). The present Slovak form „''Slovensko''“ is first attested in the year 1675.


History

The oldest surviving human artefacts from Slovakia are found near Nové Mesto nad Váhom and are dated at 270,000 BCE, in the Lower Paleolithic, Early Paleolithic era. These ancient tools, made by the Clactonian technique, bear witness to the ancient habitation of Slovakia. Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic era (200,000–80,000 BCE) come from the Prévôt (Prepoštská) cave in Bojnice and from other nearby sites. The most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal human skull, cranium (c. 200,000 BCE), discovered near Gánovce, a village in northern Slovakia. Archaeologists have found prehistoric human skeletons in the region, as well as numerous objects and vestiges of the Gravettian culture, principally in the river valleys of Nitra (river), Nitra, Hron, Ipeľ, Váh and as far as the city of Žilina, and near the foot of the Vihorlat Mountains, Vihorlat, Inovec, and Tribeč mountains, as well as in the Myjava Mountains. The most well-known finds include the oldest female statue made of mammoth bone (22,800 BCE), the famous Venus of Moravany. The statue was found in the 1940s in Moravany nad Váhom near Piešťany. Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile gastropoda, gastropods of the Tertiary period have come from the sites of Zákovská, Podkovice, Hubina, and Radošina. These findings provide the most ancient evidence of commercial exchanges carried out between the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean and
Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe. The concept of Central Europe is based on a common histo ...
.


Bronze Age

During the Bronze Age, the geographical territory of modern-day Slovakia went through three stages of development, stretching from 2000 to 800 BCE. Major cultural, economic, and political development can be attributed to the significant growth in production of copper, especially in central Slovakia (for example in Špania Dolina) and northwest Slovakia. Copper became a stable source of prosperity for the local population. After the disappearance of the Čakany and Velatice cultures, the Lusatian culture, Lusatian people expanded building of strong and complex fortifications, with the large permanent buildings and administrative centres. Excavations of Lusatian Hillfort, hill forts document the substantial development of trade and agriculture at that period. The richness and diversity of tombs increased considerably. The inhabitants of the area manufactured arms, shields, jewellery, dishes, and statues.


Iron Age


Hallstatt Period

The arrival of tribes from Thrace disrupted the people of the Kalenderberg culture, who lived in the hamlets located on the plain (Sereď) and in the hill forts like Molpír, near Smolenice, in the Little Carpathians. During Hallstatt times, monumental burial mounds were erected in western Slovakia, with princely equipment consisting of richly decorated vessels, ornaments and decorations. The burial rites consisted entirely of cremation. Common people were buried in flat urnfield cemeteries. A special role was given to weaving and the production of textiles. The local power of the "Princes" of the Hallstatt culture, Hallstatt period disappeared in Slovakia during the century before the middle of first millennium BC, after strife between the Scythians, Scytho-Thracian people and locals, resulting in abandonment of the old hill-forts. Relatively depopulated areas soon caught the interest of emerging Celts, Celtic tribes, who advanced from the south towards the north, following the Slovak rivers, peacefully integrating into the remnants of the local population.


La Tène Period

From around 500 BCE, the territory of modern-day Slovakia was settled by Celts, who built powerful ''oppida'' on the sites of modern-day
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
and Devín. Biatecs, silver coins with inscriptions in the Latin alphabet, represent the first known use of writing in Slovakia. At the northern regions, remnants of the local population of Lusatian origin, together with Celtic and later Dacian influence, gave rise to the unique Púchov culture, with advanced crafts and iron-working, many hill-forts and fortified settlements of central type with the coinage of the "Velkobysterecky" type (no inscriptions, with a horse on one side and ahead on the other). This culture is often connected with the Celtic tribe mentioned in Roman sources as Cotini.


Roman Period

From 2 Anno Domini, AD, the expanding Roman Empire established and maintained a series of outposts around and just south of the Danube, the largest of which were known as Carnuntum (whose remains are on the main road halfway between Vienna and Bratislava) and Brigetio (present-day Szőny at the Slovak-Hungarian border). Such Roman border settlements were built on the present area of Rusovce, currently a suburb of
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
. The military fort was surrounded by a civilian vicus and several farms of the villa rustica type. The name of this settlement was Gerulata. The military fort had an auxiliary cavalry unit, approximately 300 horses strong, modelled after the Cananefates. The remains of Roman buildings have also survived in Devín Castle (present-day downtown Bratislava), the suburbs of Dúbravka and Stupava, and Bratislava Castle Hill. Near the northernmost line of the Roman hinterlands, the Limes Romanus, there existed the winter camp of Trenčín, Laugaricio (modern-day Trenčín) where the Auxiliary of Legion II fought and prevailed in a decisive battle over the Germanic Quadi tribe in 179 CE during the Marcomannic Wars. The Kingdom of Vannius, a kingdom founded by the Germanic peoples, Germanic Suebi tribes of Quadi and Marcomanni, as well as several small Germanic and List of Celtic tribes, Celtic tribes, including the Osi and Cotini, existed in western and central Slovakia from 8–6 BCE to 179 CE.


Great invasions from the 4th to 7th centuries

In the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, the Huns began to leave the Central Asian steppes. They crossed the Danube in 377 AD and occupied Pannonia, which they used for 75 years as their base for launching looting-raids into Western Europe. However, Attila's death in 453 brought about the disappearance of the Hun tribe. In 568, a Turko-Mongol tribal confederacy, the Pannonian Avars, Avars, conducted its invasion into the Middle Danube region. The Avars occupied the lowlands of the Pannonian Plain and established an empire dominating the Pannonian Basin, Carpathian Basin. In 623, the Slavic population living in the western parts of Pannonia seceded from their empire after a revolution led by Samo, a Frankish merchant. After 626, the Avar power started a gradual decline but its reign lasted to 804.


Slavic states

The Slavs, Slavic tribes settled in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th century. Western Slovakia was the centre of Samo's empire in the 7th century. A Slavic state known as the Principality of Nitra arose in the 8th century and its ruler Pribina had the first known Christian church of the territory of present-day Slovakia consecrated by 828. Together with neighbouring Moravia, the principality formed the core of the n Empire from 833. The high point of this Slavonic empire came with the arrival of Saints Cyril and Methodius in 863, during the reign of Duke Rastislav of Moravia, Rastislav, and the territorial expansion under King Svätopluk I.


Great Moravia (830–before 907)

Great Moravia arose around 830 when Mojmir I of Moravia, Mojmír I unified the Slavs, Slavic tribes settled north of the Danube and extended the Moravian supremacy over them. When Mojmír I endeavoured to secede from the supremacy of the king of East Francia in 846, King Louis the German deposed him and assisted Mojmír's nephew Rastislav of Moravia, Rastislav (846–870) in acquiring the throne. The new monarch pursued an independent policy: after stopping a Frankish attack in 855, he also sought to weaken the influence of Frankish priests preaching in his realm. Duke Rastislav asked the Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Emperor Michael III to send teachers who would interpret Christianity in the Slavic vernacular. Upon Rastislav's request, two brothers, Byzantine officials and missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius came in 863. Cyril developed the Glagolitic alphabet, first Slavic alphabet and translated the Gospel into the Old Church Slavonic language. Rastislav was also preoccupied with the security and administration of his state. Numerous fortified castles built throughout the country are dated to his reign and some of them (e.g., ''Dowina'', sometimes identified with Devín Castle) are also mentioned in connection with Rastislav by Frankish chronicles. During Rastislav's reign, the Principality of Nitra was given to his nephew Svatopluk I of Moravia, Svätopluk as an appanage. The rebellious prince allied himself with the Franks and overthrew his uncle in 870. Similarly to his predecessor, Svätopluk I (871–894) assumed the title of the king (''rex''). During his reign, the Great Moravian Empire reached its greatest territorial extent, when not only present-day Moravia and Slovakia but also present-day northern and central Hungary, Lower Austria, Bohemia, Silesia, Lusatia, southern Poland and Vojvodina, northern Serbia belonged to the empire, but the exact borders of his domains are still disputed by modern authors. Svatopluk also withstood attacks of the Hungarians, Magyar tribes and the First Bulgarian Empire, Bulgarian Empire, although sometimes it was he who hired the Magyars when waging war against East Francia. In 880, Pope John VIII set up an independent ecclesiastical province in Great Moravia with Archbishop Saints Cyril and Methodius, Methodius as its head. He also named the German cleric Wiching the Bishop of Nitra. After the death of Prince Svatopluk in 894, his sons Mojmir II of Moravia, Mojmír II (894–906?) and Svatopluk II succeeded him as the Prince of Great Moravia and the Prince of Nitra respectively. However, they started to quarrel for domination of the whole empire. Weakened by an internal conflict as well as by constant warfare with Eastern Francia, Great Moravia lost most of its peripheral territories. In the meantime, the semi-nomadic Magyar tribes, possibly having suffered defeat from the similarly nomadic Pechenegs, left their territories east of the Carpathian Mountains, invaded the Carpathian Basin and started to occupy the territory gradually around 896. Their armies' advance may have been promoted by continuous wars among the countries of the region whose rulers still hired them occasionally to intervene in their struggles. It is not known what happened with both Mojmír II and Svatopluk II because they are not mentioned in written sources after 906. In Battle of Pressburg, three battles (4–5 July and 9 August 907) near
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
, the Magyars routed Bavarian armies. Some historians put this year as the date of the break-up of the Great Moravian Empire, due to the Hungarian conquest; other historians take the date a little bit earlier (to 902). Great Moravia left behind a lasting legacy in Central and Eastern Europe. The Glagolitic alphabet, Glagolitic script and its successor Cyrillic script, Cyrillic were disseminated to other Slavic countries, charting a new path in their Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural development. The administrative system of may have influenced the development of the administration of the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
.


Kingdom of Hungary (1000–1918)

Following the disintegration of the Great Moravian Empire at the turn of the 10th century, the Hungarian people, Hungarians annexed the territory comprising modern Slovakia. After their defeat on the Lech River they abandoned their nomadic ways; they settled in the centre of the Carpathian valley, adopted Christianity and began to build a new state—the Hungarian kingdom. From the 11th century, when the territory inhabited by the Slavic-speaking population of Danubian Basin was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary, until 1918, when the Austro-Hungarian empire collapsed, the territory of modern Slovakia was an integral part of the Hungarian state. The ethnic composition became more diverse with the arrival of the Carpathian Germans in the 13th century, and the Jews in the 14th century. A significant decline in the population resulted from the Mongol invasion of Europe, invasion of the Mongols in 1241 and the subsequent famine. However, in medieval times the area of the present-day Slovakia was characterised by German and Jewish immigration, burgeoning towns, construction of numerous stone castles, and the cultivation of the arts. In 1465, King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, Matthias Corvinus founded the Hungarian Kingdom's third university, in Pressburg (Bratislava, Pozsony), but it was closed in 1490 after his death. Hussites also settled in the region after the Hussite Wars. Owing to the Ottoman Empire's expansion into Hungarian territory,
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
was designated the new capital of Hungary in 1536, ahead of the old Hungarian capital of Buda falling in 1541. It became part of the Austrian Habsburg monarchy, marking the beginning of a new era. The territory comprising modern Slovakia, then known as Upper Hungary, became the place of settlement for nearly two-thirds of the Magyar tribes, Magyar nobility fleeing the Turks and far more linguistically and culturally Hungarian than it was before. Partly thanks to old Hussite families, and Slovaks studying under Martin Luther, the region then experienced a growth in Protestantism. For a short period in the 17th century, most Slovaks were Lutherans. They defied the Catholic Habsburgs and sought protection from neighbouring Transylvania, a rival continuation of the Magyar tribes, Magyar state that practised religious tolerance and normally had Ottoman backing. Upper Hungary, modern Slovakia, became the site of frequent wars between Catholics in the west territory and Protestants in the east, also against Turks, the frontier was on a constant state of military alert and heavily fortified by castles and citadels often manned by Catholic German and Slovak troops on the Habsburg side. By 1648, Slovakia was not spared the Counter-Reformation, which brought the majority of its population from Lutheranism back to Roman Catholicism. In 1655, the printing press at the Trnava university produced the Jesuit Benedikt Szöllősi's Cantus Catholici, a Catholic hymnal in the Slovak language that reaffirmed links to the earlier works of Cyril and Methodius. The Ottoman wars in Europe, Ottoman wars, the rivalry between
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States of ...
and Transylvania, and the frequent insurrections against the Habsburg Monarchy inflicted a great deal of devastation, especially in the rural areas. In the Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664) a Turkish army led by the Grand Vizier decimated Slovakia. Even so, Emeric Thököly, Thököly's kuruc rebels from the Principality of Upper Hungary fought alongside the Turks against the Austrians and Poles at the Battle of Vienna of 1683 led by John III Sobieski. As the Great Turkish War, Turks withdrew from Hungary in the late 17th century, the importance of the territory comprising modern Slovakia decreased, although Pressburg retained its status as the capital of Hungary until 1848 when it was transferred back to Buda. During the Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas, revolution of 1848–49, the Slovaks supported the Emperor of Austria, Austrian Emperor, hoping for independence from the Hungarian part of the Austria-Hungary, Dual Monarchy, but they failed to achieve their aim. Thereafter relations between the nationalities deteriorated (see Magyarization), culminating in the secession of Slovakia from Hungary after World War I.


Czechoslovakia (1918–1939)

On 18 October 1918, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Milan Rastislav Štefánik and Edvard Beneš declared in Washington, D.C. the Czechoslovak declaration of independence, independence for the territories of Kingdom of Bohemia, Bohemia, Margraviate of Moravia, Moravia, Silesia, Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia from the Austro-Hungarian Empire and proclaimed a common state, First Czechoslovak Republic, Czechoslovakia. In 1919, during the chaos following the break-up of Austria-Hungary, Czechoslovakia was formed with numerous German people, Germans, Slovaks, Hungarians and Ruthenians within the newly set borders. The borders were set by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919), Treaty of Saint Germain and Treaty of Trianon. In the peace following the World War, Czechoslovakia emerged as a sovereign European state. It provided what were at the time rather extensive rights to its minorities, at least on paper. During the Interwar period, democratic Czechoslovakia was allied with France, and also with Romania and Yugoslavia (Little Entente); however, the Locarno Treaties of 1925 left East European security open. Both Czechs and Slovaks enjoyed a period of relative prosperity. There was progress in not only the development of the country's economy but also culture and educational opportunities. Yet the Great Depression caused a sharp economic downturn, followed by political disruption and insecurity in Europe. In the 1930s Czechoslovakia came under continuous pressure from the Revanchism, revisionist governments of Germany, Hungary and Poland who used the aggrieved minorities in the country as a useful vehicle. Revision of the borders was called for, as Czechs constituted only 43% of the population. Eventually, this pressure led to the Munich Agreement of September 1938, which allowed the majority ethnic Germans in the Sudetenland, borderlands of Czechoslovakia, to join with Germany. The remaining minorities stepped up their pressures for autonomy and the State became federalised, with Diets in Slovakia and Ruthenia. The remainder of Czechoslovakia was renamed Czecho-Slovakia and promised a greater degree of Slovak political autonomy. This, however, failed to materialize. Parts of southern and eastern Slovakia were also reclaimed by Hungary at the First Vienna Award of November 1938.


World War II (1939–1945)

After the Munich Agreement and its Vienna Award, Nazi Germany threatened to annex part of Slovakia and allow the remaining regions to be partitioned by Hungary or Poland unless independence was declared. Thus, Slovakia seceded from Czecho-Slovakia in March 1939 and allied itself, as demanded by Germany, with Adolf Hitler, Hitler's coalition. Secession had created the first Slovak state in history. The government of the Slovak Republic (1939–1945), First Slovak Republic, led by Jozef Tiso and Vojtech Tuka, was strongly influenced by Germany and gradually became a puppet state, puppet regime in many respects. Meanwhile, the Czechoslovak government-in-exile sought to reverse the Munich Agreement and the subsequent German occupation of Czechoslovakia and to return the Republic to its 1937 boundaries. The government operated from London and it was ultimately considered, by those countries that recognised it, the legitimate government for Czechoslovakia throughout the Second World War. As part of the Holocaust in Slovakia, 75,000 Jews out of 80,000 who remained on Slovak territory after Hungary had seized southern regions were deported and taken to German death camps. Thousands of Jews, Gypsies and other politically undesirable people remained in Slovak forced labor camps in Sereď concentration camp, Sereď, Vyhne, and Nováky. Tiso, through the granting of presidential exceptions, allowed between 1,000 and 4,000 people crucial to the war economy to avoid deportations. Under Tiso's government and Hungarian occupation, the vast majority of Slovakia's pre-war Jewish population (between 75,000 and 105,000 individuals including those who perished from the occupied territory) were murdered. The Slovak state paid Germany 500 Reichsmark, RM per every deported Jew for "retraining and accommodation" (a similar but smaller payment of 30 RM was paid by Independent State of Croatia, Croatia). After it became clear that the Soviet Red Army was going to push the Nazis out of eastern and central Europe, an anti-Nazi resistance movement launched a fierce armed insurrection, known as the Slovak National Uprising, near the end of summer 1944. A bloody German occupation and a guerilla war followed. Germans and their Hlinka Guard, local collaborators completely destroyed 93 villages and massacred thousands of civilians, often hundreds at a time. The territory of Slovakia was liberated by Soviet and Romanian forces by the end of April 1945.


Soviet influence and Communist party rule (1948–1989)

After World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and Jozef Tiso was executed in 1947 for collaboration with the Nazis. More than Hungarians in Slovakia#Population exchanges, 80,000 Hungarians and 32,000 Germans were forced to leave Slovakia, in a series of Expulsion of Germans after World War II, population transfers initiated by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference. Out of about 130,000 Carpathian Germans in Slovakia in 1938, by 1947 only some 20,000 remained. The NKVD arrested and deported over 20,000 people to Siberia As a result of the Yalta Conference, Czechoslovakia came under the influence and later under direct occupation of the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact, after a 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état, coup in 1948. Eight thousand two hundred and forty people went to forced labour camps in 1948–1953. In 1968, following the Prague Spring, the country was Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, invaded by the Warsaw Pact forces (People's Republic of Bulgaria, Hungarian People's Republic, People's Republic of Hungary, Polish People's Republic, People's Republic of Poland, and Soviet Union, with the exception of Socialist Republic of Romania and People's Socialist Republic of Albania) in 1968, ending a Prague Spring, period of liberalisation under the leadership of Alexander Dubček. 137 Czechoslovak civilians were killed and 500 seriously wounded during the occupation. In 1969 Czechoslovakia became a federation of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. Czechoslovakia became a puppet state of the Soviet Union. Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was never part of the Soviet Union and remained independent to a degree. Borders with the West were protected by the Iron Curtain. About 600 people, men, women, and children, were killed on the Czechoslovak border with
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States of ...
and West Germany between 1948 and 1989.


Slovak Republic (1993–present)

The end of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia in 1989, during the peaceful Velvet Revolution, was followed once again by the country's dissolution, this time into two succession of states, successor states. The word "socialist" was dropped in the names of the two republics, with the Slovak Socialist Republic renamed as Slovak Republic. On 17 July 1992, Slovakia, led by Prime Minister Vladimír Mečiar, declared itself a sovereign state, meaning that its laws took precedence over those of the federal government. Throughout the autumn of 1992, Mečiar and List of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic, Czech Prime Minister Václav Klaus negotiated the details for disbanding the federation. In November, the federal parliament voted to dissolve the country officially on 31 December 1992. The Slovak Republic and the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and ...
went their separate ways after 1 January 1993, an event sometimes called the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Velvet Divorce. Slovakia has, nevertheless, remained a close partner with the Czech Republic. Both countries co-operate with Hungary and Poland in the Visegrád Group. Slovakia became a member of NATO on 29 March 2004 and of the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2009, Slovakia adopted the Euro as its national currency. In 2019, Zuzana Čaputová became Slovakia's first female president.


Geography

Slovakia lies between latitudes 47th parallel north, 47° and 50th parallel north, 50° N, and longitudes 16th meridian east, 16° and 23rd meridian east, 23° E. The Slovak landscape is noted primarily for its mountainous nature, with the Carpathian Mountains extending across most of the northern half of the country. Among these mountain ranges are the high peaks of the Fatra-Tatra Area (including Tatra Mountains, Veľká Fatra, Greater Fatra and Lesser Fatra), Slovak Ore Mountains, Slovak Central Mountains or Beskids. The largest lowland is the fertile Danubian Lowland in the southwest, followed by the Eastern Slovak Lowland in the southeast. Forests cover 41% of Slovak land surface.


Tatra mountains

The Tatra Mountains, with 29 peaks higher than Sea level#AMSL, AMSL, are the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. The Tatras occupy an area of , of which the greater part lies in Slovakia. They are divided into several parts. To the north, close to the Polish border, are the High Tatras which are a popular hiking and skiing destination and home to many scenic lakes and valleys as well as the highest point in Slovakia, the Gerlachovský štít at and the country's highly symbolic mountain Kriváň (peak), Kriváň. To the west are the Western Tatras with their highest peak of Bystrá (mountain), Bystrá at and to the east are the Belianske Tatras, smallest by area. Separated from the Tatras proper by the valley of the Váh river are the Low Tatras, with their highest peak of Ďumbier at . The Tatra mountain range is represented as one of the three hills on the coat of arms of Slovakia.


National parks

There are 9 national parks in Slovakia, covering 6.5% of the Slovak land surface.


Caves

Slovakia has hundreds of caves and caverns under its mountains, of which 30 are open to the public. Most of the caves have stalagmites rising from the ground and stalactites hanging from above. There are currently five Slovak caves under UNESCO's World Heritage Site status. They are Dobšiná Ice Cave, Domica, Gombasek Cave, Jasovská Cave and Ochtinská Aragonite Cave. Other caves open to the public include Belianska Cave, Demänovská Cave of Liberty, Demänovská Ice Cave or Bystrianska Cave.


Rivers

Most of the rivers arise in the Slovak mountains. Some only pass through Slovakia, while others make a natural border with surrounding countries (more than ). For example, the Dunajec () to the north, the Danube River, Danube () to the south or the Morava (river), Morava () to the West. The total length of the rivers on Slovak territory is . The longest river in Slovakia is the Váh (), the shortest is the Čierna voda. Other important and large rivers are the Myjava (river), Myjava, the Nitra (river), Nitra (), the Orava (river), Orava, the Hron (), the Hornád (), the Slaná river, Slaná (), the Ipeľ (, forming the border with Hungary), the Bodrog, the Laborec, the Latorica and the Ondava. The biggest volume of discharge in Slovak rivers is during Spring (season), spring, when the snow melts from the mountains. The only exception is the Danube, whose discharge is the greatest during summer when the snow melts in the Alps. The Danube is the largest river that flows through Slovakia.


Climate

The Slovak climate lies between the temperate and continental climate zones with relatively warm summers and cold, cloudy and humid winters. Temperature extremes are between although temperatures below are rare. The weather differs from the mountainous north to the plains in the south. The warmest region is
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
and Southern Slovakia where the temperatures may reach in summer, occasionally to in Hurbanovo. During night, the temperatures drop to . The daily temperatures in winter average in the range of to . During night it may be freezing, but usually not below . In Slovakia, there are four seasons, each season (Spring (season), spring, summer, autumn and winter) lasts three months. The dry continental air brings in the summer heat and winter frosts. In contrast, oceanic air brings rainfalls and reduces summer temperatures. In the lowlands and valleys, there is often fog, especially in winter. Spring starts with 21 March and is characterised by colder weather with an average daily temperature of in the first weeks and about in May and in June. In Slovakia, the weather and climate in the spring are very unstable. Summer starts on 22 June and is usually characterised by hot weather with daily temperatures exceeding . July is the warmest month with temperatures up to about , especially in regions of southern Slovakia—in the urban area of Komárno, Hurbanovo or Štúrovo. Showers or thunderstorms may occur because of the summer monsoon called Medardova kvapka (Medard drop—40 days of rain). Summer in Northern Slovakia is usually mild with temperatures around (less in the mountains). Autumn in Slovakia starts on 23 September and is mostly characterised by wet weather and wind, although the first weeks can be very warm and sunny. The average temperature in September is around , in November to . Late September and early October is a dry and sunny time of year (so-called Indian summer). Winter starts on 21 December with temperatures around . In December and January, it is usually snowing, these are the coldest months of the year. At lower altitudes, snow does not stay the whole winter, it changes into the thaw and frost. Winters are colder in the mountains, where the snow usually lasts until March or April and the night temperatures fall to and colder.


Biodiversity

Slovakia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 19 May 1993, and became a party to the convention on 25 August 1994. It has subsequently produced a Biodiversity action plan, National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 2 November 1998. The biodiversity of Slovakia comprises animals (such as annelids, arthropods, molluscs, nematodes and vertebrates), fungi (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and Zygomycota), micro-organisms (including Mycetozoa), and plants. The geographical position of Slovakia determines the richness of the diversity of fauna and flora. More than 11,000 plant species have been described throughout its territory, nearly 29,000 animal species and over 1,000 species of protozoa. Endemism, Endemic biodiversity is also common. Slovakia is located in the biome of temperate broadleaf and mixed forests and terrestrial ecoregions of Pannonian mixed forests and Carpathian montane conifer forests. As the altitude changes, the vegetation associations and animal communities are forming height levels (oak, beech, spruce, scrub pine, alpine meadows and subsoil). Forests cover 44% of the territory of Slovakia. The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4.34/10, ranking it 129th globally out of 172 countries. In terms of forest stands, 60% are broadleaf trees and 40% are coniferous trees. The occurrence of animal species is strongly connected to the appropriate types of plant associations and biotopes. Over 4,000 species of fungi have been recorded from Slovakia. Of these, nearly 1,500 are lichen-forming species. Some of these fungi are undoubtedly endemic, but not enough is known to say how many. Of the lichen-forming species, about 40% have been classified as threatened in some way. About 7% are apparently extinct, 9% endangered, 17% vulnerable, and 7% rare. The conservation status of non-lichen-forming fungi in Slovakia is not well documented, but there is a red list for its larger fungi.


Government and politics

Slovakia is a Parliamentary system, parliamentary democratic republic with a multi-party system. The last 2020 Slovak parliamentary election, parliamentary elections were held on 29 February 2020 and two rounds of 2019 Slovak presidential election, presidential elections took place on 16 and 30 March 2019. The Slovak head of state and the formal head of the executive is the president (currently Zuzana Čaputová, the first female president), though with very limited powers. The president is elected by direct, popular vote under the two-round system for a five-year term. Most Executive (government), executive power lies with the head of government, the prime minister (currently Eduard Heger), who is usually the leader of the winning party and who needs to form a majority coalition in the parliament. The prime minister is appointed by the president. The remainder of the cabinet is appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister. Slovakia's highest Legislature, legislative body is the 150-seat Unicameralism, unicameral National Council (Slovakia), National Council of the Slovak Republic (''Národná rada Slovenskej republiky''). Delegates are elected for a four-year term on the basis of proportional representation. Slovakia's highest Judiciary, judicial body is the Constitutional Court of Slovakia (''Ústavný súd''), which rules on constitutional issues. The 13 members of this court are appointed by the president from a slate of candidates nominated by parliament. The Constitution of Slovakia, Constitution of the Slovak Republic was ratified 1 September 1992, and became effective 1 January 1993. It was amended in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president and again in February 2001 due to EU admission requirements. The Civil law (legal system), civil law system is based on Austro-Hungarian codes. The Code of law, legal code was modified to comply with the obligations of Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge the Marxism–Leninism, Marxist–Leninist Law, legal theory. Slovakia accepts the compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction with reservations. , President of Slovakia, President , Zuzana Čaputová , Independent politician, Independent , 15 June 2019 , - , Prime Minister of Slovakia, Prime Minister , Eduard Heger , Ordinary People (Slovakia), OĽaNO , 30 March 2021 , - , List of speakers of Slovak parliaments, Speaker of the National Council of the Slovak Republic , Boris Kollár , We Are Family (Slovakia), Sme Rodina , 21 March 2020


Foreign relations

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Slovakia), Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs ( sk, Ministerstvo zahraničných vecí a európskych záležitostí) is responsible for maintaining the Slovak Republic's Foreign relations of Slovakia, external relations and the management of its List of diplomatic missions of Slovakia, international diplomatic missions. The ministry's Minister of Foreign Affairs (Slovakia), director is Ivan Korčok. The ministry oversees Slovakia's affairs with foreign entities, including bilateral relations with individual nations and its representation in international organizations. Slovakia joined the European Union and NATO in 2004 and the Eurozone in 2009. Slovakia is a member of the United Nations (since 1993) and participates in its specialized agencies. The country was, on 10 October 2005, elected to a two-year term on the United Nations Security Council, UN Security Council from 2006 to 2007. It is also a member of the Schengen Area, the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and part of the Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four (V4: Slovakia,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. ...
, the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and ...
, and
Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and ha ...
). In 2020, Slovak citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 181 countries and territories, ranking the Slovak passport 11th in the world. Slovakia maintains Diplomacy, diplomatic relations with 134 countries, primarily through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Slovakia), Ministry of Foreign Affairs. As of December 2013, Slovakia maintained 90 missions abroad, including 64 embassies, seven missions to multilateral organisations, nine consulates-general, one consular office, one Slovak Economic and Cultural Office and eight Slovak Institutes. There are 44 embassies and 35 honorary consulates in
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
. Slovakia and the United States retain strong Diplomacy, diplomatic ties and cooperate in the military and Law enforcement agency, law enforcement areas. The U.S. Department of Defense programs has contributed significantly to Slovak military reforms. Hundreds of thousands of Americans have their roots in Slovakia, and many retain strong cultural and familial ties to the Slovak Republic. President Woodrow Wilson and the United States played a major role in the establishment of the original Czechoslovak state on 28 October 1918.


Military

The Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic number 14,000 uniformed personnel. Slovakia joined NATO in March 2004. The country has been an active participant in US- and NATO-led military actions. There is a joint Czech-Slovak peacekeeping force in Kosovo. From 2006 the army transformed into a fully professional organisation and compulsory military service was abolished. Slovak Ground Forces of the Slovak Republic, Ground Forces are made up of two active Mechanized infantry, mechanised infantry brigades. The Slovak Air Force, Air and Air Defence Forces comprise one Wing (military unit), wing of Fighter aircraft, fighters, one wing of utility helicopters, and one SAM brigade. Training and support forces comprise a National Support Element (Multifunctional Battalion, Transport Battalion, Repair Battalion), a garrison force of the capital city Bratislava, as well as a training battalion, and various logistics and communication and information bases. Miscellaneous forces under the direct command of the Staff (military), General Staff include the 5th Special Operations Regiment (Slovakia), 5th Special Forces Regiment.


Human rights

United States Department of State, The US State Department in 2017 reported:
The government generally respected the human rights of its citizens; however, there were problems in some areas. The most significant human rights issues included incidents of interference with privacy; corruption; widespread discrimination against Roma minority; and security force violence against ethnic and racial minorities government actions and rhetoric did little to discourage. The government investigated reports of abuses by members of the security forces and other government institutions, although some observers questioned the thoroughness of these investigations. Some officials engaged in corrupt practices with impunity. Two former ministers were convicted of corruption during the year.
Human rights in Slovakia are guaranteed by the Constitution of Slovakia from the year 1992 and by multiple international laws signed in Slovakia between 1948 and 2006. According to the European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC), Romani people in Slovakia "endure racism in the job market, housing and education fields and are often subjected to forced evictions, vigilante intimidation, disproportionate levels of police brutality and more subtle forms of discrimination."


Administrative divisions

Slovakia is divided into 8 ''kraje'' (singular—''kraj'', usually translated as "region"), each of which is named after its principal city. Regions have enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy since 2002. Their Self-governance, self-governing bodies are referred to as Self-governing (or autonomous) Regions (sg. ''samosprávny kraj'', pl. ''samosprávne kraje'') or Upper-Tier Territorial Units (sg. ''vyšší územný celok'', pl. ''vyššie územné celky'', abbr. VÚC). The ''kraje'' are subdivided into many ''okresy'' (sg. ''okres'', usually translated as districts). Slovakia currently has 79 districts. The ''okresy'' are further divided into ''List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia, obce'' (sg. ''obec'', usually translated as "municipality"). There are currently 2,890 municipalities. In terms of economics and unemployment rate, the western regions are richer than eastern regions. Bratislava is the third-richest region of the European Union by GDP (PPP) per capita (after Hamburg and Luxembourg City); GDP at purchasing power parity is about three times higher than in other Slovak regions.


Economy

The Slovak economy is a developed, World Bank high-income economy, high-income economy, with the GDP per capita equalling 78% of the average of the European Union in 2018."GDP per capita in PPS, Eurostat"
retrieved 7 July 2019.
The country has difficulties addressing regional imbalances in wealth and employment. GDP per capita ranges from 188% of EU average in Bratislava to 54% in Eastern Slovakia. Although regional income inequality is high, List of countries by home ownership rate, 90% of citizens own their homes. The OECD in 2017 reported:
The Slovak Republic continues exhibiting robust economic performance, with strong growth backed by a sound financial sector, low public debt and high international competitiveness drawing on large inward investment.
In 2020, Slovakia was ranked by the International Monetary Fund as the 38th List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, richest country in the world (out of 187 countries), with purchasing power parity per capita GDP of $38,321. The country used to be dubbed the "Tatra Tiger". Slovakia successfully transformed from a centrally planned economy to a market-driven economy. Major privatisations are completed, the banking sector is almost completely in private hands, and foreign investment has risen. The Slovak economy is one of the fastest-growing economies in Europe and List of countries by real GDP growth rate, 3rd-fastest in eurozone (2017). In 2007, 2008 and 2010 (with Gross domestic product, GDP growth of 10.5%, 6% and 4%, retrospectively). In 2016, more than 86% of Slovak exports went to European Union, and more than 50% of Slovak imports came from other European Union member states. The ratio of government debt to GDP in Slovakia reached 49.4% by the end of 2018, far below the OECD average. Unemployment, peaking at 19% at the end of 1999, decreased to 4.9% in 2019, lowest recorded rate in Slovak history. Slovakia adopted the Euro currency on 1 January 2009 as the 16th member of the Eurozone. The euro in Slovakia was approved by European Commission, the European commission on 7 May 2008. The Slovak koruna was revalued on 28 May 2008 to 30.126 for 1 euro, which was also the exchange rate for the euro. The Slovak government encourages foreign investment since it is one of the driving forces of the economy. Slovakia is an attractive country for Investment, foreign investors mainly because of its low wages, low tax rates, well educated labor force, labour force, favourable geographic location in the heart of Central Europe, strong political stability and good international relations reinforced by the country's accession to the European Union. Some regions, mostly at the east of Slovakia have failed to attract major investment, which has aggravated regional disparities in many economic and social areas. Foreign direct investment inflow grew more than 600% from 2000 and cumulatively reached an all-time high of $17.3 billion in 2006, or around $22,000 per capita by the end of 2008. Slovakia ranks 45th out of 190 economies in terms of ease of doing business, according to the Ease of doing business index, 2020 World Bank Doing Business Report and 57th out of the 63 countries in terms of competitive economy, according to the World Competitiveness Yearbook, 2020 World Competitiveness Yearbook Report.


Industry

Although Slovakia's GDP comes mainly from the tertiary (services) sector, the industrial sector also plays an important role within its economy. The main industry sectors are Automotive industry in Slovakia, car manufacturing and electrical engineering. Since 2007, Slovakia has been the world's largest producer of cars per capita, with a total of 1,090,000 cars manufactured in the country in 2018 alone. 275,000 people are employed directly and indirectly by the automotive industry. There are currently four automobile assembly plants: Volkswagen's in
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
(models: Volkswagen Up, Volkswagen Touareg, Audi Q7, Audi Q8, Porsche Cayenne, Lamborghini Urus), PSA Peugeot Citroën's in Trnava (models: Peugeot 208, Citroën C3 Picasso), Kia Motors' Kia Design and Manufacturing Facilities#Žilina Plant, Žilina Plant (models: Kia Cee'd, Kia Sportage, Kia Venga) and Jaguar Land Rover's in Nitra (model: Land Rover Discovery). Hyundai Mobis in Žilina is the largest suppliers for the automotive industry in Slovakia. From electrical engineering companies, Foxconn has a factory at Nitra for LCD television, LCD TV manufacturing, Samsung Group, Samsung at Galanta for computer monitors and television sets manufacturing. Slovnaft based in Bratislava with 4,000 employees, is an oil refinery with a processing capacity of 5.5 - 6 million tonnes of crude oil, annually. Steel producer U. S. Steel Košice, s.r.o., U. S. Steel in Košice is the largest employer in the east of Slovakia with 12,000 employees. ESET is an IT security company from Bratislava with more than 1,000 employees worldwide at present. Their branch offices are in the United States, Ireland, United Kingdom, Argentina, the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and ...
, Singapore and
Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and ha ...
. In recent years, Tertiary sector of the economy, service and High tech, high-tech-oriented businesses have prospered in Bratislava. Many global companies, including IBM, Dell, Lenovo, AT&T, SAP AG, SAP, and Accenture, have built outsourcing and service centres here. Reasons for the influx of Multinational corporation, multi-national corporations include proximity to Western Europe, skilled labour force and the high density of universities and research facilities. Other large companies and employers with headquarters in Bratislava include Amazon (company), Amazon, Slovak Telekom, Orange Slovensko, Slovenská sporiteľňa, Tatra banka, Doprastav, Hewlett-Packard Slovakia, Henkel Slovensko, Slovenský plynárenský priemysel, Microsoft Slovakia, Mondelez International, Mondelez Slovakia, Whirlpool Corporation, Whirlpool Slovakia and Zurich Insurance Group Slovakia. Bratislava's geographical position in Central Europe has long made Bratislava a crossroads for international trade traffic. Various ancient trade routes, such as the Amber Road and the Danube waterway, have crossed territory of present-day Bratislava. Today, Bratislava is the road, railway, waterway and airway hub.


Energy

In 2012, Slovakia produced a total of 28,393 GWh of electricity while at the same time consumed 28 786 GWh. The slightly higher level of consumption than the capacity of production (- 393 GWh) meant the country was not self-sufficient in energy sourcing. Slovakia imported electricity mainly from the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and ...
(9,961 GWh—73.6% of total import) and exported mainly to
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. ...
(10,231 GWh—78.2% of total export). Nuclear power, Nuclear energy accounts for 53.8% of total electricity production in Slovakia, followed by 18.1% of Thermal power station, thermal power energy, 15.1% by hydro power energy, 2% by solar energy, 9.6% by other sources and the rest 1.4% is imported. The two nuclear power-plants in Slovakia are in Jaslovské Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant, Jaslovské Bohunice and Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant, Mochovce, each of them containing two operating reactors. Before the accession of Slovakia to the EU in 2004, the government agreed to turn-off the V1 block of Jaslovské Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant, Jaslovské Bohunice power-plant, built-in 1978. After deactivating the last of the two reactors of the V1 block in 2008, Slovakia stopped being self-dependent in energy production. Currently there is another block (V2) with two active reactors in Jaslovské Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant, Jaslovské Bohunice. It is scheduled for decommissioning in 2025. Two new reactors are under construction in Mochovce plant. The nuclear power production in Slovakia occasionally draws the attention of
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States of ...
n green-energy activists who organise protests and block the borders between the two countries.


Transportation

There are four main highways D1 to D4 and eight expressways R1 to R8. Many of them are still under construction. The Motorway D1 (Slovakia), D1 motorway connects Bratislava to Trnava, Nitra, Trenčín, Žilina and beyond, while the Motorway D2 (Slovakia), D2 motorway connects it to Prague, Brno and Budapest in the north–south direction. A large part of Motorway D4 (Slovakia), D4 motorway (an outer bypass), which should ease the pressure on Bratislava's highway system, is scheduled to open in 2020. The Nordostautobahn, A6 motorway to Vienna connects Slovakia directly to the Austrian motorway system and was opened on 19 November 2007. Slovakia has four international airports. Bratislava's M. R. Štefánik Airport is the main and largest international airport. It is located northeast of the city centre. It serves civil and governmental, scheduled and unscheduled domestic and international flights. The current runways support the landing of all common types of aircraft currently used. The airport has enjoyed rapidly growing passenger traffic in recent years; it served 279,028 passengers in 2000 and 2,292,712 in 2018. Košice International Airport is an airport serving Košice. It is the second-largest international airport in Slovakia. The Poprad–Tatry Airport is the third busiest airport, the airport is located 5 km west-northwest of ski resort town Poprad. It is an airport with one of the highest elevations in Central Europe, at 718 m, which is 150 m higher than Innsbruck Airport in
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States of ...
. The Sliač Airport is the smallest international airport and currently operates only summer charter flights to popular sea resort destinations. Railways of Slovak Republic provides railway transport services on national and international lines. The Port of Bratislava is one of the two international port, river ports in Slovakia. The port connects Bratislava to international boat traffic, especially the interconnection from the North Sea to the Black Sea via the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, Rhine-Main-Danube Canal. Additionally, tourist boats operate from Bratislava's passenger port, including routes to Devín, Vienna and elsewhere. The Port of Komárno is the second largest port in Slovakia with an area of over 20 hectares and is located approximately 100 km east of Bratislava. It lies at the confluence of two rivers - the Danube and Váh.


Tourism

Slovakia features natural landscapes, mountains, List of caves in Slovakia, caves, medieval List of castles in Slovakia, castles and towns, folk architecture, spas and Ski and winter sports in Slovakia, ski resorts. More than 5,4 million tourists visited Slovakia in 2017, and the most attractive destinations are the capital of
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
and the High Tatras. Most visitors come from the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and ...
(about 26%), Poland (15%) and Germany (11%). Slovakia contains many castles, most of which are in ruins. The best known castles include Bojnice Castle (often used as a filming location), Spiš Castle, (on the UNESCO list), Orava Castle, Bratislava Castle, and the ruins of Devín Castle. Čachtice Castle was once the home of the world's most prolific female serial killer, the 'Bloody Lady', Elizabeth Báthory. Slovakia's position in Europe and the country's past (part of the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
, the Habsburg monarchy and Czechoslovakia) made many cities and towns similar to the cities in the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and ...
(such as Prague),
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States of ...
(such as Salzburg) or
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. ...
(such as Budapest). A historical centre with at least one square has been preserved in many towns. Large historical centers can be found in
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
, Trenčín, Košice, Banská Štiavnica, Levoča, and Trnava. Historical centres have been going through a restoration in recent years. Historical churches can be found in virtually every village and town in Slovakia. Most of them are built in the Baroque architecture, Baroque style, but there are also many examples of Romanesque architecture, Romanesque and Gothic architecture, for example Banská Bystrica, Bardejov and Spišská Kapitula. The Basilica of St. James, Levoča, Basilica of St. James in Levoča with the tallest wood-carved altar in the world and the Church of the Holy Spirit in Žehra with medieval frescos are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The St. Martin's Concathedral in
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
served as the coronation church for the Kingdom of Hungary. The oldest sacral buildings in Slovakia stem from the n period in the 9th century. Very precious structures are the complete wooden churches of northern and northern-eastern Slovakia. Most were built from the 15th century onwards by Catholics, Lutherans and members of Eastern Christianity, eastern-rite churches. Tourism in Slovak Republic is one of the main sectors of the economy, but not using its whole capacity. It is based on internal tourism, where Slovaks spend holidays within the country. Major areas are:
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
and Vysoké Tatry. To other regions belong: Pieniny National Park, Malá Fatra NP, and Nízke Tatry NP. ;Castles and châteaux There are many castles located throughout the country. To the biggest and the most beautiful ones belong: Spiš castle, Stará Ľubovňa castle, Kežmarok castle, Orava castle, Trenčín castle, Bratislava castle, and Devín castle. To the castle ruins belong Šariš castle, Gýmeš castle, Považský hrad (castle), and Strečno castle, where they filmed Braveheart movie. ;Caves Caves opened for public are mainly located in Northern Slovakia. In the south-west of the country only Jaskyňa Driny is opened to the public. The most popular ones are: Dobšinsá Ice Cave, Demänovská ľadová cave, Demänovská jaskyňa slobody, Belianska cave, and Domica cave. To the other caves which are opened belong Ochtinská aragonitová cave, Gombasecká cave, and Jasovská cave. ;Spa resorts There are many spas throughout the whole country. The biggest and the most favorite center is Piešťany spa, where a big portion of visitors come from The Gulf countries, i.e. United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, and Bahrain. To the other famous spas belong: Bardejovské kúpele, Trenčianske Teplice spa, Turčianske Teplice spa, and Spa Rajecké Teplice. There are many smaller ones: Kúpele Štós, Kúpele Číž, Kúpele Dudince, Kováčová, Kúpele Nimnica, Kúpele Smrdáky, Kúpele Lúčky, and Kúpele Vyšné Ružbachy with treatments against schizophrenia. Typical souvenirs from Slovakia are dolls dressed in folk costumes, ceramic objects, crystal glass, carved wooden figures, črpáks (wooden pitchers), fujaras (a folk instrument on the UNESCO list) and valaškas (a decorated folk hatchet) and above all products made from husk, corn husks and wire, notably human figures. Souvenirs can be bought in the shops run by the state organisation ÚĽUV (''Ústredie ľudovej umeleckej výroby''—Centre of Folk art, Folk Art Production). ''Dielo'' shop chain sells works of Slovak artists and craftsmen. These shops are mostly found in towns and cities. Prices of imported products are generally the same as in the neighbouring countries, whereas prices of local products and services, especially food, are usually lower.


Science

The Slovak Academy of Sciences has been the most important scientific and research institution in the country since 1953. Slovaks have made notable scientific and technical contributions during history. Slovakia is currently in the negotiation process of becoming a member of the European Space Agency. Observer status was granted in 2010, when Slovakia signed the General Agreement on Cooperation in which information about ongoing education programmes was shared and Slovakia was invited to various negotiations of the ESA. In 2015, Slovakia signed the European Cooperating State Agreement based on which Slovakia committed to the finance entrance programme named PECS (Plan for the European Cooperating States) which serves as preparation for full membership. Slovak research and development organizations can apply for funding of projects regarding space technologies advancement. Full membership of Slovakia in the ESA is expected in 2020 after signing the ESA Convention. Slovakia will be obliged to set state budget inclusive ESA funding.


Demographics

The population is over 5.4 million and consists mostly of Slovaks. The average population density is 110 inhabitants per km2. According to the 2011 census, the majority of the inhabitants of Slovakia are Slovaks (80.7%). Hungarians in Slovakia, Hungarians are the largest minority group, ethnic minority (8.5%). Other ethnic groups include Romani people, Roma (2%), Czechs (0.6%), Rusyns (0.6%) and others or unspecified (7.6%). Unofficial estimates on the Roma in Slovakia, Roma population are much higher, around 5.6%. In 2018 the median age of the Slovak population was 41 years. The largest waves of Slovak emigration occurred in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In the 1990 US census, 1.8 million people self-identified as having Slovak ancestry.


Languages

The official language is Slovak language, Slovak, a member of the Slavic languages, Slavic language family. Hungarian language, Hungarian is widely spoken in the southern regions, and Rusyn language, Rusyn is used in some parts of the Northeast. Minority languages hold co-official status in the municipalities in which the size of the minority population meets the legal threshold of 15% in two consecutive censuses. Slovakia is ranked among the top EU countries regarding the knowledge of foreign languages. In 2007, 68% of the population aged from 25 to 64 years claimed to speak two or more foreign languages, finishing 2nd highest in the European Union. The best known foreign language in Slovakia is Czech language, Czech. Eurostat report also shows that 98.3% of Slovak students in the upper secondary education take on two foreign languages, ranking highly over the average 60.1% in the European Union. According to a Eurobarometer survey from 2012, 26% of the population have knowledge of English language, English at a conversational level, followed by German language, German (22%) and Russian language, Russian (17%). The deaf community uses the Slovak Sign Language. Even though spoken Czech and Slovak are similar, the Slovak Sign language is not particularly close to Czech Sign Language.


Religion

The Constitution of Slovakia, Slovak constitution guarantees freedom of religion. In 2011, 62.0% of Slovaks identified themselves as Roman Catholics, 5.9% as Lutheranism, Lutherans, 1,8% as Calvinism, Calvinists, 3.8% as Slovak Greek Catholic Church, Greek Catholics, 0.9% as Orthodox Christianity, Orthodox, 13.4% identified themselves as Atheism, atheists or non-religious, and 10.6% did not answer the question about their belief. In 2004, about one third of the church members regularly attended church services. The Slovak Greek Catholic Church is an Eastern rite sui iuris Catholic Church. Before World War II, an estimated 90,000 Jews lived in Slovakia (1.6% of the population), but most were murdered during the Holocaust. After further reductions due to postwar aliyah, emigration and assimilation, only about 2,300 Jews remain today (0.04% of the population). There are 18 state-registered religions in Slovakia, of which 16 are Christian, one is Jewish, and one is the Baháʼí Faith. In 2016, a two-thirds majority of the Slovak parliament passed a new bill that will obstruct Islam and other religious organisations from becoming state-recognised religions by doubling the minimum followers threshold from 25,000 to 50,000; however, Slovak president Andrej Kiska vetoed the bill. In 2010, there were an estimated 5,000 Muslims in Slovakia representing less than 0.1% of the country's population. Slovakia is the only member state of the European Union without a mosque.


Education

The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, currently ranks education in Slovakia, Slovak secondary education the 30th in the world (placing it just below the United States and just above Spain). Education in Slovakia is compulsory from age 6 to 16. The education system consists of elementary school which is divided into two parts, the first grade (age 6–10) and the second grade (age 10–15) which is finished by taking nationwide testing called Monitor, from Slovak language and math. Parents may apply for social assistance for a child that is studying on an elementary school or a high-school. If approved, the state provides basic study necessities for the child. Schools provide books to all their students with usual exceptions of books for studying a foreign language and books which require taking notes in them, which are mostly present in the first grade of elementary school. After finishing elementary school, students are obliged to take one year in high school. After finishing high school, students can go to university and are highly encouraged to do so. Slovakia has a wide range of universities. The biggest university is Comenius University, established in 1919. Although it's not the first university ever established on Slovak territory, it's the oldest university that is still running. Most universities in Slovakia are public funded, where anyone can apply. Every citizen has a right to free education in public schools. Slovakia has several privately funded universities, however public universities consistently score better in the ranking than their private counterparts. Universities have different criteria for accepting students. Anyone can apply to any number of universities.


Culture


Folk tradition

Folk tradition has rooted strongly in Slovakia and is reflected in literature, music, dance and architecture. The prime example is a Slovak national anthem, ''"Nad Tatrou sa blýska"'', which is based on a melody from ''"Kopala studienku"'' folk song. The manifestation of Slovak folklore culture is the "''Východná''" Folklore Festival. It is the oldest and largest nationwide festival with international participation, which takes place in Východná annually. Slovakia is usually represented by many groups but mainly by SĽUK (''Slovenský ľudový umelecký kolektív—Slovak folk art collective''). SĽUK is the largest Slovak folk art group, trying to preserve the folklore tradition. An example of wooden folk architecture in Slovakia can be seen in the well-preserved village of Vlkolínec which has been the UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993. The Prešov Region preserves the world's most remarkable folk wooden churches. Most of them are protected by Slovak law as cultural heritage, but some of them are on the UNESCO list too, in Bodružal, Hervartov, Ladomirová and Ruská Bystrá. The best known Slovak hero, found in many folk mythologies, is Juraj Jánošík (1688–1713) (the Slovak equivalent of Robin Hood). The legend says he was taking from the rich and giving to the poor. Jánošík's life was depicted in a list of literary works and many movies throughout the 20th century. One of the most popular is a film ''Jánošík'' directed by Martin Frič in 1935.


Art

Visual art in Slovakia is represented through painting, drawing, printmaking, illustration, Handicraft, arts and crafts, sculpture, photography or conceptual art. The Slovak National Gallery founded in 1948, is the biggest network of galleries in Slovakia. Two displays in Bratislava are situated in Esterházy Palace (Bratislava), Esterházy Palace (''Esterházyho palác'') and the Water Barracks (''Vodné kasárne''), adjacent one to another. They are located on the Danube riverfront in the Old Town. The Bratislava City Gallery, founded in 1961 is the second biggest Slovak gallery of its kind. It stores about 35,000 pieces of Slovak international art and offers permanent displays in Johann Pálffy Palace, Pálffy Palace and Mirbach Palace, located in the Old Town. Danubiana Art Museum, one of the youngest art museums in Europe, is situated near Čunovo waterworks (part of Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Dams, Gabčíkovo Waterworks). Other major galleries include: Andy Warhol Museum of Modern Art (Warhol's parents were from Miková), East Slovak Gallery, Ernest Zmeták Art Gallery, Zvolen Castle.


Literature

For a list of notable Slovak writers and poets, see Lists of Slovak authors, List of Slovak authors. Christian topics include poem Proglas as a foreword to the four Gospels, partial translations of the Bible into Old Church Slavonic, ''Zakon sudnyj ljudem''. Medieval literature, in the period from the 11th to the 15th centuries, was written in Latin, Czech and Slovakised Czech. Lyric (prayers, songs and formulas) was still controlled by the Church, while epic was concentrated on legends. Authors from this period include Johannes de Thurocz, author of the Chronica Hungarorum and Maurus, both of them Hungarians. The worldly literature also emerged and chronicles were written in this period. Two leading persons codified the Slovak language. The first was Anton Bernolák whose concept was based on the western Slovak dialect in 1787. It was the codification of the first-ever literary language of Slovaks. The second was Ľudovít Štúr, whose formation of the Slovak language took principles from the central Slovak dialect in 1843. Slovakia is also known for its polyhistors, of whom include Pavel Jozef Šafárik, Pavol Jozef Šafárik, Matthias Bel, Matej Bel, Ján Kollár, and its political revolutionaries and reformists, such Milan Rastislav Štefánik and Alexander Dubček.


Cuisine

Traditional Slovak cuisine is based mainly on pork, poultry (chicken is the most widely eaten, followed by duck, goose, and Turkey as food, turkey), flour, potatoes, cabbage, and milk products. It is relatively closely related to Hungarian cuisine, Hungarian, Czech cuisine, Czech, Polish cuisine, Polish and Austrian cuisine. On the east it is also influenced by Ukrainian cuisine, Ukrainian, including Lemkos, Lemko and Rusyns, Rusyn. In comparison with other European countries, Game (hunting), "game meat" is more accessible in Slovakia due to vast resources of forest and because hunting is relatively popular. Boar, rabbit, and venison are generally available throughout the year. Sheep, Lamb and goat are eaten but are not widely popular. The traditional Slovak meals are bryndzové halušky, and other meals with potato dough and bryndza. Bryndza is a salty cheese made of sheep milk, characterised by a strong taste and aroma. Bryndzové halušky especially is considered a national dish, and is very commonly found on the menu of traditional Slovak restaurants. A typical soup is a sauerkraut soup ("kapustnica"). A Black pudding, blood sausage called "krvavnica", made from any parts of a butchered pig is also a specific Slovak meal. Wine is enjoyed throughout Slovakia. Slovak wine comes predominantly from the southern areas along the Danube and its tributaries; the northern half of the country is too cold and mountainous to grow grapevines. Traditionally, white wine was more popular than red or rosé (except in some regions), and Sweetness of wine, sweet wine more popular than dry, but in recent years tastes seem to be changing. Beer (mainly of the pilsener style, though Dunkel, dark lagers are also consumed) is also popular.


Sport

Sporting activities are practised widely in Slovakia, many of them on a professional level. Ice hockey and association football, football have traditionally been regarded as the most popular sports in Slovakia, though tennis, Team handball, handball, basketball, volleyball, whitewater slalom, cycling and athletics (sport), athletics are also popular. ;Ice Hockey One of the most popular team sports in Slovakia is ice hockey. Slovakia became a member of the IIHF on 2 February 1993 and since then has won 4 medals in Ice Hockey World Championships, consisting of 1 gold, 2 silver and 1 bronze. The most recent success was a silver medal at the 2012 IIHF World Championship in Helsinki. The Slovak national hockey team made five appearances in the Olympic games, finishing 4th in the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. The country has 8,280 registered players and is ranked 7th in the IIHF World Ranking at present. Before 2012, the Slovak team HC Slovan Bratislava participated in the Kontinental Hockey League, considered the strongest hockey league in Europe, and the second-best in the world. Slovakia hosted the 2011 IIHF World Championship, where Finland men's national ice hockey team, Finland won the gold medal and 2019 IIHF World Championship, where Finland men's national ice hockey team, Finland also won the gold medal. Both competitions took place in
Bratislava Bratislava (, also ; ; formerly ; hu, Pozsony) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Slovakia. Officially, the population of the city is about 430,000; however, it is estimated to be more than 660,000 - approximately 150% of the offi ...
and Košice. ;Football Football is the most popular sport in Slovakia, with over 400,000 registered players. Since 1993, the Slovak national football team has qualified for the FIFA World Cup once, in 2010 FIFA World Cup, 2010. They progressed to the last 16, where they were defeated by the Netherlands national football team, Netherlands. The most notable result was the 3–2 victory over Italy national football team, Italy. In 2016, the Slovak national football team qualified for the UEFA Euro 2016 tournament, under head coach Ján Kozák (footballer, born 1954), Ján Kozák. This helped the team reach its best-ever position of 14th in the FIFA World Rankings. In club competitions, only three teams have qualified for the UEFA Champions League Group Stage, namely MFK Košice in 1997–98 UEFA Champions League, 1997–98, FC Artmedia Bratislava in 2005–06 UEFA Champions League, 2005–06 season, and MŠK Žilina in 2010–11 UEFA Champions League, 2010–11. FC Artmedia Bratislava has been the most successful team, finishing 3rd at the Group Stage of the 2005–06 UEFA Cup, UEFA Cup, therefore qualifying for the knockout stage. They remain the only Slovak club that has won a match at the group stage.


See also

* Outline of Slovakia


References


Bibliography

* Julius Bartl et al., ''Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon.'' Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2002. * Olga Drobna, Eduard Drobny, and Magdalena Gocnikova, ''Slovakia: The Heart of Europe.'' Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1996. * Pavel Dvorak, ''The Early History of Slovakia in Images.'' Budmerice, Slovakia: Vydavatel'stvo Rak Budmerice, 2006. * Sharon Fisher, ''Political Change in Post-Communist Slovakia and Croatia: From Nationalist to Europeanist.'' New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. * Karen Henderson, ''Slovakia: The Escape from Invisibility.'' London: Routledge, 2002. * Rob Humphrey, ''The Rough Guide to the Czech and Slovak Republics.'' New York: Rough Guides, 2006. * Michael Jacobs, ''Blue Guide: Czech and Slovak Republics.'' London: A.&C. Black, 1999. * Owen V. Johnson, ''Slovakia 1918–1938: Education and the Making of a Nation.'' Boulder, CO: East European Monographs, 1985. * Lil Junas, ''My Slovakia: An American's View.'' Martin, Slovakia: Vydavatelśtvo Matice slovenskej, 2001. * Stanislav Kirschbaum, ''A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival.'' New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. * Eugen Lazistan, Fedor Mikovič, Ivan Kučma, and Anna Jurečková, ''Slovakia: A Photographic Odyssey.'' Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2001. * Elena Mannová, ''A Concise History of Slovakia.'' Bratislava: Historický ústav SAV, 2000. * Anton Spiesz and Dusan Caplovic, ''Illustrated Slovak History: A Struggle for Sovereignty in Central Europe.'' Wauconda, IL : Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2001.


External links

; Government
Government Office of the Slovak Republic

President of the Slovak Republic

Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of the Slovak Republic

Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic
; Tourism and living information
Official Slovak National Tourism Portal

Railways of Slovak Republic

Slovakia
at Lonely Planet ; General Information
Slovakia
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency.
Slovakia profile
from the BBC News
Key Development Forecasts for the Slovak Republic
from International Futures {{Authority control Slovakia, Central European countries Countries in Europe Landlocked countries Member states of NATO Member states of the Council of Europe Member states of the European Union Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean Member states of the United Nations Republics States and territories established in 1993 Hungarian-speaking countries and territories