HOME
The Info List - Sloth Bear


--- Advertisement ---



The sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), also known as the labiated bear,[2] is an insectivorous bear species native to the Indian subcontinent. The sloth bear evolved from ancestral brown bears during the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and shares features found in insect-eating mammals through convergent evolution. The population isolated in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
is considered a subspecies. Compared to brown and black bears, sloth bears have lankier builds, long, shaggy coats that form a mane around the face (similar to that of a lion), long, sickle-shaped claws, and a specially adapted lower lip and palate used for sucking insects. Sloth bears breed during spring and early summer and give birth near the beginning of winter. They feed on termites, honeybee colonies, and fruits. Sloth bears sometimes attack humans who encroach on their territories. Historically, humans have drastically reduced their habitat and diminished their population by hunting them for food and products such as their bacula and claws. These bears have been used as performing pets due to their tameable nature.[3] The sloth bear is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, mainly because of habitat loss and degradation.[1]

Contents

1 Taxonomy

1.1 Subspecies and range

2 Evolution 3 Characteristics 4 Distribution and habitat 5 Behaviour and ecology

5.1 Reproduction 5.2 Dietary habits 5.3 Relationships with other animals

6 Status and conservation 7 Relationships with humans

7.1 Attacks on humans 7.2 Hunting and products 7.3 Tameability

8 Cultural references 9 References

9.1 Cited sources

10 External links

Taxonomy[edit] Shaw in 1791 named the species Bradypus ursinus. In 1793, Meyer named it Melursus lybius, and in 1817, de Blainville named it Ursus labiatus because of its long lips. Illiger named it Prochilus hirsutus, the Greek genus name indicating long lips, while the specific name noted its long and coarse hair. Fischer called it Chondrorhynchus hirsutus, while Tiedemann named it Ursus longirostris.[4] Subspecies and range[edit]

Name Description Distribution

Common sloth bear (Melursus ursinus ursinus) (Shaw, 1791)

This is the nominate subspecies and has a large skull with a condylobasal length of about 290 mm (11 in) in females and about 310 mm (12 in) in males.[5] The sloth bear is the most widespread bear species in India, where it mostly occurs in areas with forest cover, low hills bordering the outer range of the Himalayas
Himalayas
from Punjab to Arunachal Pradesh. It is absent in the high mountains of Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
and Jammu and Kashmir, the northwestern deserts of Rajasthan, and a broad unforested swath in the south, where Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary[6] is located. Sloth bear
Sloth bear
occurs in protected areas such as Shoolpaneshwar, Ratanmahal, Jessore,[7] and Balaram Ambaji Sanctuaries.[8][9] In Nepal, it is restricted to the Terai.[10]

Sri Lankan sloth bear (Melursus ursinus inornatus) Pucheran, 1855

The Sri Lankan sloth bear is smaller than the nominate subspecies, has a smaller skull with a condylobasal length of about 250 mm (9.8 in) in females and about 264 mm (10.4 in) in males.[5] It has much shorter body hair, and sometimes lacks the characteristic white chest mark.[11] At the turn of the century, the Sri Lankan sloth bear occurred throughout Sri Lanka. But due to wide-scale conversion of upland forests into tea and coffee plantations, it is now restricted to the northern and eastern lowlands.[12]

Evolution[edit] Sloth bears may have reached their current form in the early Pleistocene, the time when the bear family specialized and dispersed. A fragment of fossilized humerus from the Pleistocene, found in Andhra Pradesh's Kurnool Basin is identical to the humerus of a modern sloth bear. The fossilized skulls of a bear once named Melursus theobaldi found in the Shivaliks
Shivaliks
from the early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
or early Pliocene are thought by certain authors to represent an intermediate stage between sloth bears and ancestral brown bears. M. theobaldi itself had teeth intermediate in size between sloth bears and other bear species, though its palate was the same size as the former species, leading to the theory that it is the sloth bear's direct ancestor. Sloth bears probably arose during the mid- Pliocene
Pliocene
and evolved in the Indian subcontinent. The sloth bear shows evidence of having undergone a convergent evolution similar to that of other ant-eating mammals.[11] Characteristics[edit]

Skulls of a Sri Lankan sloth bear (left) and a common sloth bear (right) from the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
skull: note the lack of two upper incisors

Sloth bears are distinguished from Asian black bears by their lankier builds, longer, shaggier coats, pale muzzles, and white claws.[13] Adults are medium-sized bears weighing around 130 kg (290 lb) on average, though weight can range variously from 55 to 124 kg (121 to 273 lb) in females and from 80 to 192 kg (176 to 423 lb) in males.[14][15][16] They are 60–90 cm (2.0–3.0 ft) high at the shoulder, and have a body length of 1.4–1.9 m (4.6–6.2 ft).[17][18][19][20] Females are smaller than males, and have more fur between their shoulders.[21] Sloth bear
Sloth bear
muzzles are thick and long, with small jaws and bulbous snouts with wide nostrils. They have long lower lips which can be stretched over the outer edge of their noses, and lack upper incisors, thus allowing them to suck up large numbers of insects. The premolars and molars are smaller than in other bears, as they do not chew as much vegetation. In adults, the teeth are usually in poor condition, due to the amount of soil they suck up and chew when feeding on insects.[17] The back of the palate is long and broad, as is typical in other ant-eating mammals.[11] The paws are disproportionately large, and have highly developed, sickle-shaped, blunt claws which measure 10 cm (4 in) in length. Their toe pads are connected by a hairless web. They have the longest tail in the bear family, which can grow to 15–18 cm (6–7 in).[17] Their back legs are not very strong, though they are knee-jointed, and allow them to assume almost any position.[21] The ears are very large and floppy. The sloth bear is the only bear with long hair on its ears.[7] Sloth bear
Sloth bear
fur is completely black (rusty for some specimens), save for a whitish Y- or V-shaped mark on the chest.[17] This feature is sometimes absent, particularly in Sri Lankan specimens.[11] This feature, which is also present in Asian black bears and sun bears, is thought to serve as a threat display, as all three species are sympatric with tigers.[11] The coat is long, shaggy, and unkempt, despite the relatively warm environment in which the species is found, and is particularly heavy behind the neck and between the shoulders, forming a mane which can be 30 cm (12 in) long.[11][17] The belly and underlegs are almost bare. Distribution and habitat[edit] The sloth bear's global range includes India, the southern lowlands of Nepal, and Sri Lanka. It is regionally extinct in Bangladesh. It occurs in a wide range of habitats including wet and dry tropical forests, savannahs, scrublands, and grasslands below 1,500 m (4,900 ft) on the Indian subcontinent, and below 300 m (980 ft) in Sri Lanka's dry forests.[1] Behaviour and ecology[edit]

A Sri Lankan sloth bear on a tree

Adult sloth bears may travel in pairs, with the males being gentle with cubs. They may fight for food. They walk in a slow, shambling motion, with their feet being set down in a noisy, flapping motion. They are capable of galloping faster than running humans.[22] Although they appear slow and clumsy, both young and adult sloth bears are excellent climbers.[23] They climb to feed and to rest, though not to escape enemies, as they prefer to stand their ground. Sloth bear mothers carry cubs up to 9 months old on their backs instead of sending their cubs up trees as the primary defense against attacks by predators, such as tigers, leopards, and other bears.[24] They are capable of climbing on smooth surfaces and hanging upside down like sloths.[17] They are good swimmers, and primarily enter water to play.[17] To mark their territories, sloth bears scrape trees with their forepaws, and rub against them with their flanks.[22] Sloth bears have a great vocal range. Gary Brown, in his Great Bear
Bear
Almanac, lists over 25 different sounds in 16 different contexts. Sounds such as barks, screams, grunts, roars, snarls, whickers, woofs, and yelps are made when angered, threatening, or when fighting. When hurt or afraid, they shriek, yowl, or whimper. When feeding, sloth bears make loud huffing and sucking noises,[22] which can be heard over 100 m away.[17] Sounds such as gurgling or humming are made by bears resting or sucking their paws. Sows emit crooning sounds to their cubs. The species is the most vociferous when mating, and make loud, melodious calls when doing so. Sloth bears do not hibernate. They make their day beds out of broken branches in trees, and rest in caves during the wet season. Sloth bears are the most nocturnal of bears, though sows become more active in daytime when with cubs.[22] Reproduction[edit]

A mother with a cub on her back at the Daroji Sloth Bear
Bear
Sanctuary, India

Seven-day-old sloth bear cubs, rescued from a building site where they had been born

The breeding season for sloth bears varies according to location: in India, they mate in April, May, and June, and give birth in December and early January, while in Sri Lanka, it occurs all year. Sows gestate for 210 days, and typically give birth in caves or in shelters under boulders. Litters usually consist of one or two cubs, or rarely three.[22] Cubs are born blind, and open their eyes after four weeks.[25] Sloth bear
Sloth bear
cubs develop quickly compared to most other bear species: they start walking a month after birth, become independent at 24–36 months, and become sexually mature at the age of three years. Young cubs ride on their mother's back when she walks, runs, or climbs trees until they reach a third of her size. Individual riding positions are maintained by cubs through fighting. Intervals between litters can last two to three years.[22] Dietary habits[edit] Sloth bears are expert hunters of termites, which they locate by smell.[22] On arriving at a mound, they scrape at the structure with their claws till they reach the large combs at the bottom of the galleries, and disperse the soil with violent puffs. The termites are then sucked up through the muzzle, producing a sucking sound which can be heard 180 m away.[25] Their sense of smell is strong enough to detect grubs 3 ft below ground. Unlike other bears, they do not congregate in feeding groups. They rarely prey on other mammals.[22] Sloth bears may supplement their diets with fruit and plant matter; in March and April, they eat the fallen petals of mowha trees and are partial to mangoes, sugar cane, jackfruit, and the pods of the golden shower tree. Sloth bears are extremely fond of honey.[25] When feeding their cubs, sows are reported to regurgitate a mixture of half-digested jack fruit, wood apples, and pieces of honeycomb. This sticky substance hardens into a dark yellow, circular, bread-like mass which is fed to the cubs. This "bear's bread" is considered a delicacy by some of India's natives.[26] Relationships with other animals[edit] The large canine teeth of sloth bears, relative to both its overall body size and to the size of the canine teeth of other bear species, and the aggressive disposition of sloth bears, may be a defense in interactions with large, dangerous animals, such as the tiger, elephant, and rhinoceros.[27] Bengal tigers occasionally prey on sloth bears. Tigers usually give sloth bears a wide berth, though some specimens may become habitual bear killers,[28] and it is not uncommon to find sloth bear fur in tiger scats.[29] Tigers typically hunt sloth bears by waiting for them near termite mounds, then creeping behind them and seizing them by the back of their necks and forcing them to the ground with their weight.[30] One tiger was reported to simply break its victim's back with its paw, then wait for the paralysed bear to exhaust itself trying to escape before going in for the kill.[28] When confronted by tigers face to face, sloth bears charge at them, crying loudly. A young or already sated tiger usually retreats from an assertive sloth bear, as the bear's claws can inflict serious wounds, and most tigers end the hunt if the bears become aware of the tiger's presence before the pounce.[30] Sloth bears may scavenge on tiger kills.[31] As tigers are known to mimic the calls of sambar deer to attract them, sloth bears react fearfully even to the sounds made by deer themselves.[30] In 2011, a female bear with cubs was observed to stand her ground and prevail in a confrontation against two tigers (one female, one male) in rapid succession.[32] Leopards can also be a threat, as they are able to follow sloth bears up trees.[16] Sloth bears occasionally chase leopards from their kills.[22] Sloth bears are sympatric with Asiatic black bears in northern India, and the two species, along with the sun bear, coexist in some of the national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. They are also found together in Assam, Manipur, and Mizoram, in the hills south of the Brahmaputra River, the only places occupied by all three bear species. The three species do not act aggressively toward each other. This may be because the three species generally differ in habit and dietary preferences.[16] Dhole
Dhole
packs may attack sloth bears, though they are not a usual prey item.[33] When attacking them, dholes try to prevent the bear from retreating into caves.[34] In one case, a golden jackal (a species much smaller and less powerful than a sloth bear and not generally a pack hunter as is the dhole) was seen to aggressively displace an adult bear which passively loped away from the snapping canid, indicating the sloth bear does not regard other carnivores as competition.[16] Asian elephants apparently do not tolerate sloth bears in their vicinity. The reason for this is unknown, as individual elephants known to maintain their composure near tigers have been reported to charge bears.[25] The Indian rhinoceros
Indian rhinoceros
has a similar intolerance for sloth bears, and will charge at them.[22] Status and conservation[edit] IUCN estimates that less than 20,000 sloth bears survive in the wilds of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and Sri Lanka. The sloth bear is listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, which provides for their legal protection. International trade of the sloth bear is prohibited as it is listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.[1] To address the human-bear conflict, people may be educated about the conservation ethics, particularly among locals. To resolve this conflict, the basic issue of deteriorating habitat, which is the reason for the conflict between people and bears, improvements through government or community-based reforestation programmes, may be promoted.[1] The population of sloth bears grows when they live in high-profile reserves that protect species, such as tigers and elephants. Directly managed reserves could conserve the sloth bear, hence such reserves must be supported.[35] The government of India
India
has banned use of sloth bears for entertainment, and a 'Sloth Bear
Bear
Welfare Project' in the country has the objective of putting an end to their use for entertainment. However, their number in such activity is still large. Many organizations are helping in the conservation and preservation of sloth bears in safe places. Major sloth bear sanctuaries in India include the Daroji bear sanctuary, Karnataka.[36] Relationships with humans[edit] Attacks on humans[edit]

A fragile co-existence between sloth bears and humans at Ratanmahal Sloth Bear
Bear
Sanctuary, Dahod district, Gujarat, India

Sloth bears likely view humans as potential predators, as their reactions to them (roaring, followed by retreat or charging) are similar to those evoked in the presence of tigers and leopards.[11] Their long claws, ideally adapted for digging at termite mounds, make adults less capable of climbing trees to escape danger, as are other bears such as Asian black bears. Therefore, sloth bears have seemingly evolved to deal with threats by behaving aggressively. For the same reason, brown bears can be similarly inclined, accounting for the relatively high incidence of seemingly nonpredatory aggression towards humans in these two bear species.[37] According to Robert Armitage Sterndale, in his Mammalia of India (1884, p. 62):

[The sloth bear] is also more inclined to attack man unprovoked than almost any other animal, and casualties inflicted by it are unfortunately very common, the victim being often terribly disfigured even if not killed, as the bear strikes at the head and face. Blanford was inclined to consider bears more dangerous than tigers...

Captain Williamson in his Oriental Field Sports wrote of how sloth bears rarely killed their human victims outright, but would suck and chew on their limbs till they were reduced to bloody pulps.[2] One specimen, known as the sloth bear of Mysore, was singlehandedly responsible for the deaths of 12 people and the mutilation of 24 others before being shot by Kenneth Anderson.[38] Although sloth bears have attacked humans, they rarely become man-eaters. Dunbar-Brander's Wild Animals of Central India
India
mentions a case in which a sow with two cubs began a six-week reign of terror in Chanda, a district of the Central Provinces, during which more than one of their victims had been eaten,[39] while the sloth bear of Mysore partially ate at least three of its victims.[38] R.G. Burton deduced from comparing statistics that sloth bears killed more people than Asian black bears,[39] and Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
considered them to be more dangerous than American black bears.[40] In Madhya Pradesh, sloth bear attacks accounted for the deaths of 48 people and the injuring of 686 others between 1989 and 1994, probably due in part to the density of population and competition for food sources.[41] A total of 137 attacks (resulting in 11 deaths) occurred between April 1998 and December 2000 in the North Bilaspur Forest Division of Chhattisgarh. The majority of attacks were perpetrated by single bears, and occurred in kitchen gardens, crop fields, and in adjoining forests during the monsoon season.[42] One Mr. Watts Jones wrote a first-hand account of how it feels to be attacked by a sloth bear, recalling when he failed to score a direct hit against a bear he had targeted:

I do not know exactly what happened next, neither does my hunter who was with me; but I believe, from the marks in the snow, that in his rush the bear knocked me over backwards in fact, knocked me three or four feet away. When next I remember anything, the bear's weight was on me, and he was biting my leg. He bit two or three times. I felt the flesh crush, but I felt no pain at all. It was rather like having a tooth out with gas. I felt no particular terror, though I thought the bear had got me; but in a hazy sort of way I wondered when he would kill me, and thought what a fool I was to get killed by a stupid beast like a bear. The shikari then very pluckily came up and fired a shot into the bear, and he left me. I felt the weight lift off me, and got up. I did not think I was much hurt. ... The main wound was a flap of flesh torn out of the inside of my left thigh and left hanging. It was fairly deep, and I could see all the muscles working underneath when I lifted it up to clean the wound."[43]

In 2016, according to a forest official, a female bear had killed 3 people, and hurt 5 others in Gujarat
Gujarat
State's Banaskantha district, near Balaram Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary, with some of the casualties being colleagues. At first, an attempt was made to trace and cage it, but this failed, costing the life of one official, and so a team of both officials and policemen shot the bear.[9] Hunting and products[edit]

Illustration of British officers hunting a sloth bear on horseback

One method of hunting sloth bears involved the use of beaters, in which case, a hunter waiting on a post could either shoot the approaching bear through the shoulder or on the white chest mark if it was moving directly to him. Sloth bears are very resistant to body shots, and can charge hunters if wounded, though someone of steady nerves could score a direct hit from within a few paces of a charging bear. Sloth bears were easy to track during the wet season, as their clear footprints could be followed straight to their lairs. The majority of sloth bears killed in forests were due to chance encounters with them during hunts for other game. In hilly or mountainous regions, two methods were used to hunt them there. One was to lie in wait above the bear's lair at dawn and wait for the bear to return from its nocturnal foraging. Another was to rouse them at daytime by firing flares into the cave to draw them out.[44] Sloth bears were also occasionally speared on horseback.[7] In Sri Lanka, the baculum of a sloth bear was once used as a charm against barrenness.[21] Tameability[edit]

A tame bear and its handler in Pushkar

Officers in British India
India
often kept sloth bears as pets.[25] The wife of Kenneth Anderson kept an orphaned sloth bear cub from Mysore, which she named "Bruno". The bear could be fed on almost anything (including motor oil) and was very affectionate toward people. It was even taught numerous tricks, such as cradling a woodblock like a baby or pointing a bamboo stick like a gun.[45] Dancing bears were historically a popular entertainment in India, dating back to the 13th century and the pre-Mughal era. The Kalandars, who practised the tradition of capturing sloth bears for entertainment purposes, were often employed in the courts of Mughal emperors to stage spectacles involving trained bears.[25] They were once common in the towns of Calcutta, where they often disturbed the horses of British officers.[25] Despite a ban on the practice that was enacted in 1972, as many as 800 dancing bears were in the streets of India
India
during the latter part of the 20th century, particularly on the highway between Delhi, Agra, and Jaipur. Sloth bear
Sloth bear
cubs, which were usually purchased at the age of six months from traders and poachers, were trained to dance and follow commands through coercive stimuli and starvation. Males were castrated at an early age, and their teeth were knocked out at the age of one year to prevent them from seriously injuring their handlers. The bears were typically fitted with a nose ring attached to a four-foot leash. Some were found to be blind from malnutrition.[46] In 2009, following a seven-year campaign by a coalition of Indian and international animal welfare groups, the last Kalandar
Kalandar
dancing bear was set free.[47] The effort to end the practice involved helping the bear handlers find jobs and education, which enabled them to reduce their reliance on dancing-bear income.[48] Cultural references[edit]

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
illustrated by Frederick Polydore Nodder, 1789

Charles Catton included the bear in his 1788 book Animals Drawn from Nature and Engraved in Aqua-tinta, describing it as an "animal of the bear-kind" and saying it was properly called the "Petre Bear".[49] In Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book, Baloo
Baloo
"the sleepy old brown bear" teaches the Law of the Jungle to the wolf cubs of the Seeonee wolf pack, as well as to his most challenging pupil, the "man-cub" Mowgli. Robert Armitage Sterndale, from whom Kipling derived most of his knowledge of Indian fauna, used the Hindustani word bhalu for several bear species, though Daniel Karlin, who edited the Penguin Classics reissue of The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book
in 1989, stated, with the exception of colour, Kipling's descriptions of Baloo
Baloo
are consistent with the sloth bear, as brown bears and Asian black bears do not occur in the Seoni
Seoni
area where the novel takes place. Also, the name "sloth" can be used in the context of sleepiness. Karlin states, however, that Baloo's diet of ".. only roots and nuts and honey" is a trait more common to the Asian black bear
Asian black bear
than to the sloth bear.[50] Local names:

Gujarati: રીંછ rīn̄ch; also rinchh[25] Hindi: भालु, bhālu; also rinch and adam-zad[25] Odia: ଭାଲୁ, bhālu Bengali: শ্লথ ভালুক, ślath bhaluk; kālō bhāluk; also bhaluk[25] Sanskrit: ऋक्ष, ṛkṣa; also rikspa[25] Kannada: ಕರಡಿ, karaḍi; kaddi[25] Tamil: கரடி, karaṭi; kaddi[25] Malayalam: തേൻകരടി, tēnkaraṭi; also pani karudi[25] Telugu: ఎలుగుబంటి, elugubaṇṭi; also elugu[25] Marathi: अस्वल, asval; also aswal[25] Gond: yerid, yedjal and asol[25] Kol: bana[25] Oraon: bir mendi[25] Sinhalese: වලසා, valasā; also usa[25] भालु, bhālu

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Dharaiya, N., Bargali, H.S., Sharp, T. (2016). "Melursus ursinus". IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T13143A45033815.en ^ a b The forest, the jungle, and the prairie or, Scenes with the trapper and the hunter in many lands by Alfred Elliott. Publisher T. Nelson, and Sons, Paternoster Row; Edinburgh; and New York., 1868 ^ Servheen ^ Owen, R. (1833). "The Labiated Bear". The Zoological Magazine (3): 81–85.  ^ a b Pocock, R. I. (1941). The fauna of British India
India
including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia vol. II Carnivora
Carnivora
(continued from vol. 1). Suborders Aeluroidea (part) and Arctoidea. London: Taylor and Francis. ^ Negi, Sharad Singh (2002), Handbook of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves in India
India
(3rd Edition), Indus Publishing, p. 151, ISBN 978-81-7387-128-3  ^ a b c Servheen, pp. 225–240 ^ "Balaram Ambaji Wild Life Sanctuary". Forests & Environment Department. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2016.  ^ a b " Sloth bear
Sloth bear
killed in Gujarat". The Hindu. Retrieved 2016-02-08.  ^ Joshi, A. R., Garshelis, D. L. and Smith, L. D. 1995. Home ranges of sloth bears in Nepal: Implications for conservation. Journal of Wildlife Management 59: 204−214. ^ a b c d e f g Yoganand, K.; Rice, Clifford G. and Johnsingh, A. J. T. (2013). "Sloth Bear
Bear
Melursus ursinus". In Johnsingh, A. J. T. and Manjrekar, N. Mammals of South Asia (PDF). 1. Universities Press (India). pp. 438–456. ISBN 8173715904. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2007. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Ratnayeke, S., van Manen, F.T. and Padmalal, U.K.G.K. 2007. Landscape characteristics of sloth bear range in Sri Lanka. Ursus 18: 189−202. ^ WildLifeInformation.org Archived 8 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Melursus ursinus – Sloth bear ^ McNab, Brian K. (1992). "Rate of Metabolism in the Termite-Eating Sloth Bear
Bear
(Ursus ursinus)". Journal of Mammalogy. 73 (1): 168–172. doi:10.2307/1381879.  ^ " Sloth bear
Sloth bear
videos, photos and facts – Melursus ursinus". ARKive. JSTOR 1381879. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ a b c d Hadley, B. (2008-12-21), The Sloth Bear
Bear
(PDF), Bear Specialist Group  ^ a b c d e f g h Brown, " Bear
Bear
Anatomy and Physiology" ^ "Sloth Bear". The Animal
Animal
Files. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "Sloth Bear". Arktofile.net. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "San Diego Zoo's Animal
Animal
Bytes: Sloth Bear". Sandiegozoo.org. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ a b c Storey, Harry (2008). Hunting and Shooting in Ceylon. Dabney Press. pp. 268–. ISBN 978-1-4097-2852-8.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Brown, " Bear
Bear
Behavior and Activities" ^ Servheen, p. 219 ^ Servheen, p. 226 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Finn, F. (1929). Sterndale's Mammalia of India. A New and Abridged Edition, thoroughly revised and with an Appendix on the Reptilia. Calcutta
Calcutta
and Simla: Thacker, Spink & Co.  ^ Anderson, Kenneth (1954). Nine Man-Eaters and One Rogue. p. 251. ISBN 1-887269-11-8.  ^ Servheen, pp. 226–7 ^ a b Mills, Stephen (2004). Tiger. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Firefly Books. p. 168. ISBN 1-55297-949-0.  ^ Tigers eat sloth bears, don’t they? ^ a b c Perry, Richard (1965). The World of the Tiger. p. 260. ASIN: B0007DU2IU.  ^ Schaller, George B. (1984) The Deer and the Tiger: A Study of Wildlife in India, Midway Reprint, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-73631-8 ^ Bear
Bear
Tiger
Tiger
confrontation – 10 pics that tell a story. Dickysingh.com (2011-04-10). Retrieved on 2011-09-26. ^ Fox, Michael W. (1984). The Whistling Hunters: Field Studies of the Asiatic Wild Dog
Dog
(Cuon Alpinus). Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 150. ISBN 0-87395-843-8.  ^ Tiwari, S.K. (1999) Animal
Animal
Kingdom of the World, Sarup & Sons, ISBN 81-7625-071-6 ^ "Sloth Bear". Arkive: Images of Life on earth. Retrieved 2010-02-14.  ^ Kottur, Samad (2012). Daroji-an ecological destination. Hubli, Karnataka, India: Drongo Media. ISBN 978-93-5087-269-7.  ^ Brown ^ a b Anderson, Kenneth (1957) "The Black Bear
Bear
of Mysore", in Man Eaters and Jungle Killers, Allen & Unwin, archive.org ^ a b A Book of Man Eaters by Brigadier General R.G. Burton, Mittal Publications ^ Roosevelt, Theodore (1983) Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail. University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0-8032-8913-8] ^ Rajpurohit, K. S. & Krausman, P. R. (2000). "Human – sloth-bear conflicts in Madhya Pradesh, India". Wildl. Soc. Bull. 28 (2): 393–9. JSTOR 3783697.  ^ Bargali, H. S.; Akhtar, Naim; Chauhan, N. P. S. (2005). "Characteristics of sloth bear attacks and human casualties in North Bilaspur Forest Division, Chhattisgarh, India" (PDF). Ursus. 16 (2): 263–267. doi:10.2192/1537-6176(2005)016[0263:COSBAA]2.0.CO;2.  ^ Cornish, C. J.; Selous, Frederick Courteney; Johnston, Harry Hamilton; Maxwell; Herbert; Sir (1902). The living animals of the world; a popular natural history with one thousand illustrations. Vol. 1: Mammals. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company.  ^ Russell, C. E. M. (2008). Bullet and Shot in Indian Forest, Plain and Hill – With Hints to Beginners in Indian Shooting. Phillips Press. pp. 197–. ISBN 978-1-4437-6231-1.  ^ Anderson, Kenneth. 9. The Bond of Love ^ Dancing Bears in India. wildlifesos.org ^ "Last Indian dancing bear set free". BBC News. 18 December 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "Katrick Satyanarayan: How we rescued the "dancing" bears". Ted.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ Catton, Charles (1788). " Animal
Animal
of the bear-kind, Plate 10". Animals drawn from Nature and engraved in aqua-tinta. I. and J. Taylor.  ^ Kipling, Rudyard; Karlin, Daniel (1989). The jungle books. Penguin. pp. 350–. ISBN 978-0-14-018316-0. 

Cited sources[edit]

Brown, Gary (1993). The Great Bear
Bear
Almanac. Lyons & Burford. ISBN 1558212108.  Garshelis, D. L.; Joshi, A. R.; Smith, J. L. D. & Rice, C. G. (1999). "Sloth Bear
Bear
Conservation Action Plan" (PDF). In Servheen, C.; Herrero, S. & Peyton, B. Bears: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC Bear
Bear
Specialist Group. ISBN 2831704626. 

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Melursus ursinus

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Melursus ursinus (category)

PDF1 PDF2 Field Trip Earth – Field Trip Earth is a conservation education website operated by the North Carolina Zoological Society. Sloth Bear
Bear
at Animal
Animal
Diversity Web

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga ( Elephant
Elephant
seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q145016 ADW: Melursus ARKive: melursus-ursinus EoL: 328075 Fossilworks: 104032 GBIF: 2433395 iNaturalist: 41651 ITIS: 621848 IUCN: 13143 MSW: 14000947 NCBI: 9

.