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A slide projector is an opto-mechanical device for showing photographic slides. 35 mm slide projectors, direct descendants of the larger-format magic lantern, first came into widespread use during the 1950s as a form of occasional home entertainment; family members and friends would gather to view slide shows, which typically consisted of slides snapped during vacations and at family events. Slide projectors were also widely used in educational and other institutional settings. Photographic film
Photographic film
slides and projectors have mostly been replaced by image files on digital storage media shown on a projection screen by using a video projector or simply displayed on a large-screen video monitor.

Contents

1 History 2 Components 3 Types of projectors 4 Manufacturers 5 See also 6 Slide projector
Slide projector
in cinematography 7 References

History[edit]

Continuous-Slide Lantern, ca. 1881

A continuous-slide lantern was patented in 1881.[1] It included a dissolving-view apparatus. [2] Components[edit] A projector has four main elements:

electric incandescent light bulb or other light source (usually fan-cooled) reflector and "condensing" lens to direct the light to the slide slide holder focusing lens

A flat piece of heat-absorbing glass is often placed in the light path between the condensing lens and the slide, to avoid damaging the latter. This glass transmits visible wavelengths but absorbs infrared. Light passes through the transparent slide and lens, and the resulting image is enlarged and projected onto a perpendicular flat screen so the audience can view its reflection. Alternatively, the image may be projected onto a translucent "rear projection" screen, often used for continuous automatic display for close viewing. This form of projection also avoids the audience interrupting the light stream by casting their shadows on the projection or by bumping into the projector. Types of projectors[edit]

Straight-tray slide projectors Round-tray slide projectors Stack-loader slide projectors Slide cube projectors Dual slide projectors Single slide projectors (manual form) Dissolve projectors Viewer slide projectors Stereo slide projectors project two slides simultaneously with different polarizations, making slides appear as three-dimensional to viewers wearing polarizing glasses Medium-format slide projectors Large-format slide projectors for use on stages, at large events, or for architectural and advertising installations where high light output is needed. Overhead projectors

Manufacturers[edit] List of known manufacturers of slide projectors:

Agfa
Agfa
Gevaert, Germany (-1984) -> Reflecta (1984-) Bauer (de), Germany -> Bosch; ceased production Bausch & Lomb; ceased production Bell & Howell / TDC, USA: "Headliner"; ceased production Braun AG, Germany: "D", "PA"; ceased production Braun Foto Technik, Germany: "Paximat", "Multimag" -> Reflecta VEB DEFA, Germany: "Filius" -> VEB Gerätewerk Friedrichshagen: "Filius"; ceased production Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak
(-2004): "Carousel-S", "Ektagraphic", "Ektapro" -> Leica Elmo, Japan Enna, Germany; ceased production Erno Photo, Germany; ceased production VEB Feinmess, Germany; ceased production Filmoli, Germany -> Gebr. Martin, Germany; ceased production Foto Quelle, Germany: "Revue"; ceased distribution GAF, USA; ceased distribution Götschmann, Germany (1978-2009) -> Gecko-Cam (2009-) Hasselblad, Sweden; ceased production HASPE, Germany; ceased production Hähnel, Germany; ceased production Inox, France: "Prestige" -> Prestinox Kindermann (de), Germany: "Diafocus" -> Leica Leitz, Germany (1958-): "Prado" -> Leica Projektion GmbH Zett Gerätewerk, Germany (1990-2004): "Pradovit", "Pradovit RT" -> Leica Camera, Germany (2004-2006): "Pradovit"; ceased production Liesegang (de), Germany: "Fantax", "Diafant", "Fantimat"; ceased production Malinski, Germany: "Prokyon", "Malicolor" -> Pentacon Minolta, Japan; ceased production Minox, Germany: "Minomat"; ceased production Navitar, USA Nikon, Japan; ceased production Ernst Plank, Germany: "Noris", "Trumpf"; ceased production Pentacon, Germany: "Aspectar", "Malicolor"; ceased production Asahi Pentax, Japan; ceased production Prestinox, France -> Plawa Condor (1969-?); ceased production Pouva, Germany; ceased production RBT, Germany Queen, Germany: "Automat"; ceased distribution Reflecta, Germany: "Multimag" Rollei, Germany (1960-2007): "Rolleiscop", "Rolleivision" -> Franke & Heidecke, Germany (2007-2009): "Rolleivision" -> DHW Fototechnik, Germany (2009-2015): "Rolleivision"; ceased production Royal, Germany?; ceased distribution Sankyo, Japan; ceased production Sawyer's, USA; company sold to GAF Silma (it), Italy -> Bauer and Rollei; ceased production TAV Simda (fr) Vicom Vivitar, USA Voigtländer, Germany: "Perkeo" -> Zett Zeiss Ikon, Germany (1964/1969-): "Ikolux" -> Zett Zeiss Jena, Germany -> Pentacon, Germany Zett, Germany (1928-1989): "Fafix", "Zett", "Zettomat", "Perkeo" -> Leica Projektion GmbH Zett Gerätewerk, Germany (1990-2004) CBИTЯ3ъ, Russia: "ABTO"; ceased production

See also[edit]

Slide viewer Carousel slide projector Presentation slide

Slide projector
Slide projector
in cinematography[edit]

The Slide Projector
Projector
Web Series

References[edit]

^ The Canadian Patent Office Record and Mechanics' Magazine, Volume 9. 1881.  ^ Sloane, T. O'Conor. Facts Worth Knowing Selected Mainly from the Scientific American for Household, Workshop, and Farm Embracing Practical and Useful Information for Every Branch of Industry. Hartford: S. S. Scranton & Co. 1895.

Murphy, Burt (February 1973). Slide projectors get smarter all the time. Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 2011-10-22. 

v t e

Display technology

Video displays

Current generation

Eidophor Electroluminescent display (ELD) Electronic paper

E Ink Gyricon

Light emitting diode display (LED) Cathode ray tube
Cathode ray tube
(CRT) (Monoscope) Liquid-crystal display
Liquid-crystal display
(LCD)

TFT TN LED Blue Phase IPS

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panel (PDP)

ALiS

Digital Light Processing
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Next generation

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AMOLED

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Non-video

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Seven-segment display
(SSD) Nine-segment display Fourteen-segment display
Fourteen-segment display
(FSD) Sixteen-segment display
Sixteen-segment display
(SISD)

3D display

Stereoscopic Autostereoscopic Multiscopic Hologram

Holographic display Computer-generated holography

Volumetric Musion Eyeliner Fog display

Static media

Movie projector Neon sign Destination sign Slide projector Transparency Laser beam

Display capabilities

EDID

CEA-861

DisplayID DisplayHDR

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High-dynamic-range imaging
(HDRI) Color
Color
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Comparison of display technology

v t e

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head

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