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SLAVS are the largest Indo-European ethno-linguistic group in Europe . They are native to Central Europe
Europe
, Eastern Europe
Europe
, Southeastern Europe
Europe
, Northeastern Europe
Europe
, North Asia
North Asia
, Central Asia
Central Asia
and West Asia . Slavs
Slavs
speak Slavic languages of the Balto-Slavic language group. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit most of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe.

States with Slavic languages comprise over 50% of the territory of Europe, therefore it is the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe by land area. Present-day Slavic people are classified into West Slavs
Slavs
(chiefly Czechs , Poles
Poles
and Slovaks ), East Slavs
East Slavs
(chiefly Belarusians
Belarusians
, Russians
Russians
, and Ukrainians
Ukrainians
), and South Slavs (chiefly Bosniaks
Bosniaks
, Croats
Croats
, Macedonians , Montenegrins , Serbs
Serbs
, Slovenes and Bulgarians ), though sometimes the West Slavs and East Slavs
East Slavs
are combined into a single group known as the North Slavs .

CONTENTS

* 1 Population * 2 Ethnonym

* 3 Early history

* 3.1 First mentions * 3.2 Migrations

* 4 Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* 4.1 Early Slavic states

* 5 Modern history

* 5.1 Pan-Slavism
Pan-Slavism

* 6 Languages * 7 Religion

* 8 Ethnic groups

* 8.1 Ethnocultural subdivisions * 8.2 List of major ethnic groups

* 9 Relations with non-Slavic people

* 9.1 Assimilation

* 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Sources * 13 External links

POPULATION

World map of countries with Significant (10%+) minority populations Majority Slavic ethnicities

There are an estimated 360 million Slavs
Slavs
worldwide.

NATION NATION-STATE NUMBERS

Russians
Russians
RUS 130,000,000

Poles
Poles
POL 57,393,000

Ukrainians
Ukrainians
UKR 46,700,000–51,800,000

Serbs
Serbs
SRB 12,100,000 –12,500,000

Czechs CZE 12,000,000

Bulgarians BUL 10,000,000

Belarusians
Belarusians
BLR 10,000,000

Croats
Croats
CRO 8,000,000

Slovaks SVK 6,940,000

Bosniaks
Bosniaks
BIH 2,800,000–4,600,000

Slovenes SVN 2,500,000

Macedonians MKD 2,200,000

Montenegrins MNE 500,000

ETHNONYM

Distribution of the East European admixture in Europe, Austosomal researches Main article: Slavs (ethnonym)

The Slavic autonym is reconstructed in Proto-Slavic as *Slověninъ, plural *Slověne. The oldest documents written in Old Church Slavonic , dating from the 9th century, attest the autonym as Slověne (Словѣне). The oldest mention of the Slavic ethnonym is the 6th century AD Procopius , writing in Byzantine Greek
Byzantine Greek
– Sklaboi (Σκλάβοι), Sklabēnoi (Σκλαβηνοί), Sklauenoi (Σκλαυηνοί), Sthlabenoi (Σθλαβηνοί), or Sklabinoi (Σκλαβῖνοι), while his contemporary Jordanes refers to the Sclaveni
Sclaveni
in Latin
Latin
.

The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is usually considered a derivation from slovo ("word "), originally denoting "people who speak (the same language)," i.e. people who understand each other, in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people – němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people" (from Slavic *němъ – "mute , mumbling"). The word slovo ("word") and the related slava ("glory, fame") and slukh ("hearing") originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew- ("be spoken of, glory"), cognate with Ancient Greek -κλῆς (-klês – "famous"), whence comes the name Pericles
Pericles
, Latin
Latin
clueo ("be called"), and English loud.

Some other theories have limited support.

The English term "slave " eventually derives from the ethnonym Slav. Slavs
Slavs
were captured and enslaved by the Muslims of Spain during the ninth century AD.

EARLY HISTORY

Main article: Early Slavs See also: History of Proto-Slavic

FIRST MENTIONS

Slavic peoples in 6th century Slavic tribes from the 7th to 9th centuries in Europe
Europe

The Slavs
Slavs
under name of the Antes and the Sclaveni
Sclaveni
make their first appearance in Byzantine records in the early 6th century. Byzantine historiographers under Justinian I
Justinian I
(527–565), such as Procopius of Caesarea , Jordanes and Theophylact Simocatta
Theophylact Simocatta
describe tribes of these names emerging from the area of the Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
, the lower Danube
Danube
and the Black Sea
Black Sea
, invading the Danubian provinces of the Eastern Empire .

Procopius wrote in 545 that "the Sclaveni
Sclaveni
and the Antae actually had a single name in the remote past; for they were both called Sporoi in olden times." He described them as barbarians, who lived under democracy, and that they believe in one god, "the maker of lightning" ( Perun ), to whom they made sacrifice. They lived in scattered housing, and constantly changed settlement. Regarding warfare, they were mainly foot soldiers with small shields and battleaxes, lightly clothed, some entering battle naked with only their genitals covered. Their language is "barbarous" (that is, not Greek-speaking), and the two tribes do not differ in appearance, being tall and robust, "while their bodies and hair are neither very fair or blond, nor indeed do they incline entirely to the dark type, but they are all slightly ruddy in color. And they live a hard life, giving no heed to bodily comforts..." Jordanes described the Sclaveni
Sclaveni
having swamps and forests for their cities. Another 6th-century source refers to them living among nearly impenetrable forests, rivers, lakes, and marshes.

Menander Protector mentions a Daurentius (577–579) that slew an Avar envoy of Khagan Bayan I . The Avars asked the Slavs
Slavs
to accept the suzerainty of the Avars; he however declined and is reported as saying: "Others do not conquer our land, we conquer theirs – so it shall always be for us".

The relationship between the Slavs
Slavs
and a tribe called the Veneti east of the River Vistula
Vistula
in the Roman period is uncertain. The name may refer both to Balts and Slavs.

MIGRATIONS

East Slavic tribes, 8th and 9th centuries

According to eastern homeland theory, prior to becoming known to the Roman world, Slavic -speaking tribes were part of the many multi-ethnic confederacies of Eurasia
Eurasia
– such as the Sarmatian, Hun and Gothic empires. The Slavs
Slavs
emerged from obscurity when the westward movement of Germans in the 5th and 6th centuries CE (thought to be in conjunction with the movement of peoples from Siberia
Siberia
and Eastern Europe: Huns
Huns
, and later Avars and Bulgars ) started the great migration of the Slavs
Slavs
, who settled the lands abandoned by Germanic tribes fleeing the Huns
Huns
and their allies: westward into the country between the Oder and the Elbe
Elbe
- Saale
Saale
line; southward into Bohemia
Bohemia
, Moravia
Moravia
, much of present-day Austria
Austria
, the Pannonian plain and the Balkans
Balkans
; and northward along the upper Dnieper
Dnieper
river. Perhaps some Slavs
Slavs
migrated with the movement of the Vandals
Vandals
to Iberia and north Africa.

Around the 6th century, Slavs
Slavs
appeared on Byzantine borders in great numbers. The Byzantine records note that grass would not regrow in places where the Slavs
Slavs
had marched through, so great were their numbers. After a military movement even the Peloponnese and Asia
Asia
Minor were reported to have Slavic settlements. This southern movement has traditionally been seen as an invasive expansion. By the end of the 6th century, Slavs
Slavs
had settled the Eastern Alps regions .

MIDDLE AGES

EARLY SLAVIC STATES

Life of the East Slavs, by Sergey Ivanov

When their migratory movements ended, there appeared among the Slavs the first rudiments of state organizations, each headed by a prince with a treasury and a defense force. Moreover, it was the beginning of class differentiation, and nobles pledged allegiance either to the Frankish / Holy Roman Emperors or the Byzantine Emperors .

In the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo
Samo
, who supported the Slavs
Slavs
fighting their Avar rulers, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, which, however, most probably did not outlive its founder and ruler. This provided the foundation for subsequent Slavic states to arise on the former territory of this realm with Carantania
Carantania
being the oldest of them. Very old also are the Principality of Nitra and the Moravian principality (see under Great Moravia
Moravia
). In this period, there existed central Slavic groups and states such as the Balaton Principality , but the subsequent expansion of the Magyars , as well as the Germanisation of Austria
Austria
, separated the northern and southern Slavs. The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681, and the Slavic language Old Church Slavonic became the main and official of the empire in 864. Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was instrumental in the spread of Slavic literacy and Christianity to the rest of the Slavic world.

MODERN HISTORY

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Slavs
Slavs
in their Original Homeland, by Alphonse Mucha
Alphonse Mucha
Since the 16th century east Slavs
Slavs
settled most of Siberia
Siberia
reaching Kamchatka and the Pacific island of Sakhalin

As of 1878, there were only three free Slavic states in the world: the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
. Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was also free but was de jure vassal to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
until official independence was declared in 1908. In the entire Austro-Hungarian Empire of approximately 50 million people, about 23 million were Slavs. The Slavic peoples who were, for the most part, denied a voice in the affairs of the Austria-Hungary, were calling for national self-determination. Because of the vastness and diversity of the territory occupied by Slavic people, there were several centers of Slavic consolidation. In the 19th century, Pan-Slavism
Pan-Slavism
developed as a movement among intellectuals, scholars, and poets, but it rarely influenced practical politics and did not find support in some Slavic nations. Pan-Slavism
Pan-Slavism
became compromised when the Russian Empire started to use it as an ideology justifying its territorial conquests in Central Europe
Europe
as well as subjugation of other Slavic ethnic groups such as Poles
Poles
and Ukrainians, and the ideology became associated with Russian imperialism.

During World War I
World War I
, representatives of the Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes set up organizations in the Allied countries to gain sympathy and recognition. In 1918, after World War I ended, the Slavs
Slavs
established such independent states as Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
, and the State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
(which merged into Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
).

During World War II, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
planned to kill, deport, or enslave the Slavic and Jewish population of occupied Eastern Europe
Europe
to create Living space for German settlers, and also planned the starvation of 80 million people in the Soviet Union. The partial fulfilment of these plans resulted in the deaths of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war.

The first half of the 20th century in Russia
Russia
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was marked by a succession of wars, famines and other disasters, each accompanied by large-scale population losses. Stephen J. Lee estimates that, by the end of World War II in 1945, the Russian population was about 90 million fewer than it could have been otherwise.

The common Slavic experience of communism combined with the repeated usage of the ideology by Soviet propaganda after World War II within the Eastern bloc ( Warsaw Pact ) was a forced high-level political and economic hegemony of the USSR dominated by Russians. A notable political union of the 20th century that covered most South Slavs was Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
, but it ultimately broke apart in the 1990s along with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
.

The word "Slavs" was used in the national anthem of the Slovak Republic (1939–1945) , Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(1943–1992) and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(1992–2003), later Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro (2003–2006).

Former Soviet states, as well as countries that used to be satellite states or territories of the Warsaw Pact , have numerous minority Slavic populations, many of whom are originally from the Russian SFSR , Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
and Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
. As of now, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
has the largest Slavic minority population with most being Russians (Ukrainians, Belarusians
Belarusians
and Poles
Poles
are present as well but in much smaller numbers).

PAN-SLAVISM

Pan-Slavism
Pan-Slavism
, a movement which came into prominence in the mid-19th century, emphasized the common heritage and unity of all the Slavic peoples. The main focus was in the Balkans
Balkans
where the South Slavs had been ruled for centuries by other empires: the Byzantine Empire, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Venice. The Russian Empire used Pan-Slavism
Pan-Slavism
as a political tool; as did the Soviet Union, which gained political-military influence and control over most Slavic-majority nations between 1945 and 1948 and retained a hegemonic role until the period 1989–1991. SOUTH SLAVIC LANGUAGES. Slovene Pannonian Slovene Styrian Slovene Carinthian Slovene Carniolan Slovene Rovte Slovene Litoral Slovene Croatian Chakavian Croatian Kajkavian Croatian Shtokavian Croatian Bosnian Bosniak Bosnian Serbian Shtokavian Serbian Šumadija–Vojvodina dialect Kosovo-Resava dialect Montenegrin Montenegrin Torlakian (transitional dialect) Torlakian Macedonian Northern Macedonian Western Macedonian Central Macedonian Southern Macedonian Eastern Macedonian Bulgarian Western Bulgarian Rup Bulgarian Balkan Bulgarian Moesian Bulgarian EAST SLAVIC LANGUAGES. Russian Belarusian Ukrainian Rusyn WEST SLAVIC LANGUAGES. Polish Kashubian Silesian Polabian † Lower Sorbian Upper Sorbian Czech Slovak

LANGUAGES

Main article: Slavic languages

Proto-Slavic , the supposed ancestor language of all Slavic languages, is a descendant of common Proto-Indo-European , via a Balto-Slavic stage in which it developed numerous lexical and morphophonological isoglosses with the Baltic languages
Baltic languages
. In the framework of the Kurgan hypothesis , "the Indo-Europeans who remained after the migrations became speakers of Balto-Slavic". Proto-Slavic is defined as the last stage of the language preceding the geographical split of the historical Slavic languages . That language was uniform, and on the basis of borrowings from foreign languages and Slavic borrowings into other languages, cannot be said to have any recognizable dialects – this suggests that there was, at one time, a relatively small Proto-Slavic homeland .

Slavic linguistic unity was to some extent visible as late as Old Church Slavonic manuscripts which, though based on local Slavic speech of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
, could still serve the purpose of the first common Slavic literary language. Slavic studies began as an almost exclusively linguistic and philological enterprise. As early as 1833, Slavic languages were recognized as Indo-European. Sometimes the West Slavic and East Slavic languages are combined into a single group known as North Slavic languages .

Standardised Slavic languages that have official status in at least one country are: Belarusian , Bosnian , Bulgarian , Croatian , Czech , Macedonian , Montenegrin , Polish , Russian , Serbian , Slovak , Slovene , and Ukrainian .

The alphabets used for Slavic languages are frequently connected to the dominant religion among the respective ethnic groups. Orthodox Christians use the Cyrillic alphabet while Roman Catholics use the Latin
Latin
alphabet ; the Bosniaks, who are Muslim, also use the Latin alphabet. Additionally, some Eastern Catholics and Roman Catholics use the Cyrillic alphabet. Serbian and Montenegrin use both the Cyrillic and Latin
Latin
alphabets. There is also a Latin
Latin
script to write in Belarusian , called the Lacinka alphabet
Lacinka alphabet
.

RELIGION

The pagan Slavic populations were Christianized between the 7th and 12th centuries. Orthodox Christianity is predominant in the East and South Slavs, while Roman Catholicism is predominant in West Slavs and the western South Slavs. The religious borders are largely comparable to the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
which began in the 11th century.

The majority of contemporary Slavic populations who profess a religion are Orthodox, followed by Catholic, while a small minority are Protestant
Protestant
. There are minor Slavic Muslim groups. Religious delineations by nationality can be very sharp; usually in the Slavic ethnic groups the vast majority of religious people share the same religion. Some Slavs
Slavs
are atheist or agnostic : in the Czech Republic 20% were atheists according to a 2012 poll.

The main Slavic ethnic groups by religion:

Mainly Eastern Orthodoxy :

* Russians
Russians
* Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(incl. Rusyns ) * Serbs
Serbs
* Bulgarians (from Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and adjacent lands, plus Bessarabian Bulgarians ) * Belarusians
Belarusians
* Macedonians * Montenegrins

Mainly Roman Catholicism :

* Poles
Poles
(incl. Silesians
Silesians
, Kashubians ) * Czechs (incl. Moravians
Moravians
) * Croats
Croats
(incl. Šokci ) * Slovaks * Slovenes * Sorbs * Bunjevci * Banat Bulgarians

Mainly Islam
Islam
:

* Bosniaks
Bosniaks
(including Muslims by nationality ) * Pomaks * Gorani * Torbeshi

ETHNIC GROUPS

ETHNOCULTURAL SUBDIVISIONS

European countries where a Slavic language is the official one on the entire territory West Slavic East Slavic South Slavic

Slavs
Slavs
are customarily divided along geographical lines into three major subgroups: West Slavs, East Slavs, and South Slavs, each with a different and a diverse background based on unique history, religion and culture of particular Slavic groups within them. Apart from prehistorical archaeological cultures, the subgroups have had notable cultural contact with non-Slavic Bronze - and Iron Age
Iron Age
civilisations. Modern Slavic nations and ethnic groups are considerably diverse both genetically and culturally, and relations between them – even within the individual ethnic groups themselves – are varied, ranging from a sense of connection to mutual feelings of hostility.

* The West Slavs have origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe
Europe
after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period . They are noted as having mixed with Germanics and Balts. The West Slavs came under the influence of the Western Roman Empire (Latin) and of the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. * The East Slavs
East Slavs
have origins in early Slavic tribes who mixed with Finno-Ugric peoples and Balts. Their early Slavic component, Antes , mixed or absorbed Iranians , and later received influence from the Khazars and Vikings
Vikings
. The East Slavs
East Slavs
trace their national origins to the tribal unions of Kievan Rus\' , beginning in the 10th century. They came particularly under the influence of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) and of the Eastern Orthodox Church ; Eastern Catholic Churches later became established in the 16th century in areas such as Ukraine
Ukraine
. * The South Slavs from most of the region have origins in early Slavic tribes who mixed with the local Proto-Balkanic tribes (Illyrian , Dacian , Thracian , Pannonian , Paeonian and Hellenic tribes ), Celtic tribes
Celtic tribes
(most notably the Scordisci ), as well as with Romans (and the Romanized remnants of the former groups), and also with remnants of temporarily settled invading East Germanic, Asiatic or Caucasian tribes such as Gepids , Huns
Huns
, Avars and Bulgars . The original inhabitants of present-day Slovenia
Slovenia
and continental Croatia have origins in early Slavic tribes who mixed with Romans and romanized Celtic and Illyrian people as well as with Avars and Germanic peoples (Lombards and East Goths). The South Slavs (except the Slovenes and Croats) came under the cultural sphere of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and of the Eastern Orthodox Church and Islam
Islam
, while the Slovenes and the Croats were influenced by Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
(Latin), Holy Roman Empire and, thus by the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
.

LIST OF MAJOR ETHNIC GROUPS

ETHNIC GROUP LANGUAGE FAMILY

Russians
Russians
East Slavs
East Slavs

Poles
Poles
West Slavs

Ukrainians
Ukrainians
East Slavs
East Slavs

Serbs
Serbs
South Slavs

Czechs West Slavs

Bulgarians South Slavs

Belarusians
Belarusians
East Slavs
East Slavs

Croats
Croats
South Slavs

Slovaks West Slavs

Bosniaks
Bosniaks
South Slavs

Slovenes South Slavs

Macedonians South Slavs

Montenegrins South Slavs

Silesians
Silesians
1 West Slavs

Moravians
Moravians
1 West Slavs

Kashubians 1 West Slavs

Notes

^1 The ethnic classification is disputed. See main article for further information.

RELATIONS WITH NON-SLAVIC PEOPLE

ASSIMILATION

West Slav tribes in 9th/10th century

Throughout their history, Slavs
Slavs
came into contact with non-Slavic groups. In the postulated homeland region (present-day Ukraine
Ukraine
), they had contacts with the Iranic Sarmatians and the Germanic Goths . After their subsequent spread, the Slavs
Slavs
began assimilating non-Slavic peoples. For example, in the Balkans, there were Paleo-Balkan peoples, such as Romanized and Hellenized ( Jireček Line
Jireček Line
) Illyrians , Thracians
Thracians
and Dacians
Dacians
, as well as Greeks
Greeks
and Celtic Scordisci . Over time, due to the larger number of Slavs, most descendants of the indigenous populations of the Balkans
Balkans
were Slavicized. The Thracians and Illyrians vanished as defined ethnic groups from the population during this period – although the modern Albanian nation claims descent from the Illyrians. Exceptions are Greece, where because Slavs were fewer than Greeks, they came to be Hellenized (aided in time by more Greeks
Greeks
returning to Greece in the 9th century and the role of the church and administration); and Romania, where Slavic people settled en route for present-day Greece, Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and East Thrace
East Thrace
, where the Slavic population gradually assimilated. Bulgars were also assimilated by local Slavs
Slavs
but their ruling status and subsequent control of land cast the nominal legacy of Bulgarian country and people onto all future generations. The Romance speakers within the fortified Dalmatian cities managed to retain their culture and language for a long time. Dalmatian Romance was spoken until the high Middle Ages. But, they too were eventually assimilated into the body of Slavs.

In the Western Balkans, South Slavs and Germanic Gepids intermarried with Avar invaders, eventually producing a Slavicized population. In Central Europe, the Slavs
Slavs
intermixed with Germanic and Celtic peoples, while the eastern Slavs
Slavs
encountered Uralic and Scandinavian peoples . Scandinavians ( Varangians ) and Finnic peoples were involved in the early formation of the Rus\' state but were completely Slavicized after a century. Some Finno-Ugric tribes in the north were also absorbed into the expanding Rus population. At the time of the Magyar migration, the present-day Hungary
Hungary
was inhabited by Slavs, numbering about 200,000, and by Romano- Dacians
Dacians
who were either assimilated or enslaved by the Magyars. In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchak and the Pecheneg
Pecheneg
, caused a massive migration of East Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north. In the Middle Ages, groups of Saxon ore miners settled in medieval Bosnia
Bosnia
, Serbia
Serbia
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, where they were Slavicized. The Limes Saxoniae forming the border between the Saxons to the west and the Obotrites to the east

Polabian Slavs
Polabian Slavs
(Wends) settled in eastern parts of England
England
(the Danelaw ), apparently as Danish allies. Polabian-Pomeranian Slavs
Slavs
are also known to have even settled on Norse age Iceland
Iceland
. Saqaliba refers to the Slavic mercenaries and slaves in the medieval Arab world in North Africa
North Africa
, Sicily
Sicily
and Al-Andalus . Saqaliba served as caliph's guards. In the 12th century, Slavic piracy in the Baltics increased. The Wendish Crusade was started against the Polabian Slavs
Polabian Slavs
in 1147, as a part of the Northern Crusades . Niklot , pagan chief of the Slavic Obodrites, began his open resistance when Lothar III , Holy Roman Emperor , invaded Slavic lands. In August 1160 Niklot was killed, and German colonization ( Ostsiedlung ) of the Elbe-Oder region began. In Hanoverian Wendland , Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Lusatia
Lusatia
, invaders started germanization . Early forms of germanization were described by German monks: Helmold
Helmold
in the manuscript Chronicon Slavorum and Adam of Bremen in Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
. The Polabian language survived until the beginning of the 19th century in what is now the German state of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
. In Eastern Germany , around 20% of Germans have historic Slavic paternal ancestry, as revealed in Y-DNA testing. Similarly, in Germany, around 20% of the foreign surnames are of Slavic origin.

Cossacks , although Slavic-speaking and practicing as Orthodox Christians , came from a mix of ethnic backgrounds, including Tatars and other Turks . Many early members of the Terek Cossacks were Ossetians .

The Gorals of southern Poland
Poland
and northern Slovakia
Slovakia
are partially descended from Romance-speaking Vlachs
Vlachs
, who migrated into the region from the 14th to 17th centuries and were absorbed into the local population. The population of Moravian Wallachia also descend of this population.

Conversely, some Slavs
Slavs
were assimilated into other populations. Although the majority continued south, attracted by the riches of the territory which would become Bulgaria, a few remained in the Carpathian basin. There they were ultimately assimilated into the Magyar or Romanian peoples. Numerous river and other placenames in Romania are of Slavic origin.

SEE ALSO

Part of a series on

INDO-EUROPEAN TOPICS

Languages -------------------------

* List of Indo-European languages

------------------------- Historical

* Albanian * Armenian

* Balto-Slavic

* Baltic * Slavic

* Celtic * Germanic

* Hellenic

* Greek

* Indo-Iranian

* Indo-Aryan * Iranian

* Italic

* Romance

Extinct

* Anatolian * Tocharian

Paleo-Balkan Dacian Illyrian Liburnian Messapian Mysian Paeonian Phrygian Thracian ------------------------- Reconstructed

* Proto-Indo-European language

* Phonology : Sound laws , Accent , Ablaut

------------------------- Hypothetical

* Daco-Thracian * Graeco-Armenian * Graeco-Aryan * Graeco-Phrygian * Indo-Hittite * Italo-Celtic * Thraco-Illyrian

------------------------- Grammar

* Vocabulary * Root * Verbs * Nouns * Pronouns * Numerals * Particles

------------------------- Other

* Proto-Anatolian * Proto-Armenian * Proto-Germanic ( Proto-Norse ) * Proto-Celtic * Proto-Italic * Proto-Greek * Proto-Balto-Slavic ( Proto-Slavic ) * Proto-Indo-Iranian (Proto-Iranian )

Philology

* Hittite texts * Hieroglyphic Luwian * Linear B
Linear B
* Rigveda
Rigveda
* Avesta * Homer
Homer
* Behistun * Gaulish epigraphy * Latin
Latin
epigraphy * Runic epigraphy * Ogam * Gothic Bible * Armenian Bible * Slanting Brahmi
Slanting Brahmi
* Old Irish glosses

Origins

* Homeland * Proto-Indo-Europeans * Society * Religion

------------------------- Mainstream

* Kurgan hypothesis * Indo-European migrations
Indo-European migrations
* Eurasian nomads

------------------------- Alternative and fringe

* Anatolian hypothesis * Armenian hypothesis * Paleolithic Continuity Theory * Baltic homeland * Indigenous Aryans
Indigenous Aryans

Archaeology Chalcolithic (Copper Age)

Pontic Steppe

* Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture

* Steppe cultures

* Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk

* Yamna

* Mikhaylovka culture
Mikhaylovka culture

Caucasus

* Maykop

East-Asia

* Afanasevo

Eastern Europe

* Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni

Northern Europe

* Corded ware

* Baden * Middle Dnieper
Dnieper

------------------------- Bronze Age
Bronze Age

Pontic Steppe

* Chariot
Chariot
* Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna

Northern/Eastern Steppe

* Abashevo culture
Abashevo culture
* Andronovo * Sintashta

Europe

* Beaker * Globular Amphora culture * Corded ware * Tumulus * Unetice * Urnfield * Lusatian * Nordic Bronze Age
Bronze Age
* Terramare * Trzciniec

South-Asia

* BMAC * Yaz * Gandhara grave

------------------------- Iron Age
Iron Age

Steppe

* Chernoles

Europe

* Thraco-Cimmerian * Hallstatt * Jastorf

Caucasus

* Colchian

India

* Painted Grey Ware * Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware

Peoples and societies Bronze Age
Bronze Age

* Anatolians * Armenians
Armenians
* Mycenaean Greeks
Greeks
* Indo-Iranians
Indo-Iranians

Iron Age
Iron Age

Indo-Aryans

* Indo-Aryans

Iranians

* Iranians

* Scythians * Persians * Medes

Europe

* Celts
Celts

* Gauls
Gauls
* Celtiberians
Celtiberians
* Insular Celts
Celts

* Hellenic peoples * Italic peoples
Italic peoples
* Germanic peoples

* Paleo- Balkans
Balkans
/ Anatolia
Anatolia
:

* Thracians
Thracians
* Dacians
Dacians
* Illyrians * Phrygians
Phrygians

Middle Ages
Middle Ages

East-Asia

* Tocharians

Europe

* Balts * Slavs
Slavs
* Albanians * Medieval Europe
Europe

Indo-Aryan

* Medieval India

Iranian

* Greater Persia
Greater Persia

Religion and mythology Reconstructed

* Proto-Indo-European religion
Proto-Indo-European religion
* Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

------------------------- Historical

* Hittite

Indian

* Vedic

* Hinduism

* Buddhism
Buddhism
* Jainism
Jainism

Iranian

* Persian

* Zoroastrianism

* Kurdish

* Yazidism * Yarsanism
Yarsanism

* Scythian

* Ossetian

Other

* Armenian

Europe

* Paleo- Balkans
Balkans
* Greek * Roman

* Celtic

* Irish * Scottish * Breton * Welsh * Cornish

* Germanic

* Anglo-Saxon * Continental * Norse

* Baltic

* Latvian * Lithuanian

* Slavic * Albanian

Practices

* Fire-sacrifice * Horse sacrifice * Sati * Winter solstice
Winter solstice
/ Yule
Yule

Indo-European studies Scholars

* Marija Gimbutas * J.P. Mallory

Institutes

* Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European

Publications

* Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture * The Horse, the Wheel and Language
The Horse, the Wheel and Language
* Journal of Indo-European Studies * Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch * Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

* v * t * e

* Ethnic groups in Europe
Europe
* Gord (archaeology) * Haplogroup R1a * Lech, Čech, and Rus * List of modern ethnic groups * List of Slavic tribes * Panethnicity * Pan-Slavic colors * Slavic names

REFERENCES

* ^ Geography and ethnic geography of the Balkans
Balkans
to 1500 * ^ Barford 2001 , p. 1. * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (18 September 2006). "Slav (people) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 18 August 2010. * ^ Kamusella, Tomasz; Nomachi, Motoki; Gibson, Catherine (2016). The Palgrave Handbook of Slavic Languages, Identities and Borders. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137348395 . * ^ Serafin, Mikołaj (January 2015). "Cultural Proximity of the Slavic Nations" (PDF). Retrieved April 28, 2017. * ^ Živković, Tibor; Crnčević, Dejan; Bulić, Dejan; Petrović, Vladeta; Cvijanović, Irena; Radovanović, Bojana (2013). The World of the Slavs: Studies of the East, West and South Slavs: Civitas, Oppidas, Villas and Archeological Evidence (7th to 11th Centuries AD). Belgrade: Istorijski institut. ISBN 8677431047 . * ^ "Нас 150 миллионов -Русское зарубежье, российские соотечественники, русские за границей, русские за рубежом, соотечественники, русскоязычное население, русские общины, диаспора, эмиграция". Russkie.org. 20 February 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2013. * ^ * ^ including 36,522,000 single ethnic identity, 871,000 multiple ethnic identity (especially 431,000 Polish and Silesian, 216,000 Polish and Kashubian and 224,000 Polish and another identity) in Poland
Poland
(according to the census 2011) and estimated 20,000,000 out of Poland
Poland
Świat Polonii, witryna Stowarzyszenia Wspólnota Polska: "Polacy za granicą" (Polish people abroad as per summary by Świat Polonii, internet portal of the Polish Association Wspólnota Polska) * ^ Paul R. Magocsi (2010). A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples. University of Toronto Press. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-1-4426-1021-7 . * ^ Theodore E. Baird; Amanda Klekowski von Koppenfels (June 2011). "The Serbian Diaspora and Youth: Cross-Border Ties and Opportunities for Development" (PDF). University of Kent at Brussels: 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-18. * ^ " Serbs
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Bulgaria
2008. Oxford Business Group. 2008. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-902339-92-4 . Retrieved 26 March 2016. * ^ Karatnycky, Adrian (2001). Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, 2000–2001. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-7658-0884-4 . Retrieved 7 June 2015. * ^ Daphne Winland (2004), "Croatian Diaspora", in Melvin Ember; Carol R. Ember; Ian Skoggard, Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities, 2 (illustrated ed.), Springer Science+Business , p. 76, ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9 , It is estimated that 4.5 million Croatians live outside Croatia
Croatia
... * ^ "Hrvatski Svjetski Kongres". Archived from the original on 2003-06-23. Retrieved June 1, 2016. , Croatian World Congress , "4.5 million Croats
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Croatia
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Slovakia
(according to the census 2011), 147,000 single ethnic identity, 19,000 multiple ethnic identity (especially 18,000 Czech and Slovak and 1,000 Slovak and another identity) in Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(according to the census 2011), 53,000 in Serbia
Serbia
(according to the census 2011), 762,000 in the USA (according to the census 2010), 2,000 single ethnic identity and 1,000 multiple ethnic identity Slovak and Polish in Poland
Poland
(according to the census 2011), 21,000 single ethnic identity, 43,000 multiple ethnic identity in Canada
Canada
(according to the census 2006) * ^ Zupančič, Jernej (August 2004). "Ethnic Structure of Slovenia and Slovenes in Neighbouring Countries" (PDF). Slovenia: a geographical overview. Association of the Geographic Societies of Slovenia. Retrieved 10 April 2008. * ^ Nasevski, Boško; Angelova, Dora; Gerovska, Dragica (1995). Матица на Иселениците на Македонија (IN MACEDONIAN). SKOPJE: MACEDONIAN EXPATRIATION ALMANAC \'95. PP. 52–53. * ^ Procopius, History of the Wars,, VII. 14. 22–30, VIII.40.5 * ^ Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, V.33. * ^ "The Story of Africa BBC World Service". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-10. * ^ "Procopius, History of the Wars, VII. 14. 22–30". Clas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 4 April 2014. * ^ Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, V. 35. * ^ Maurice's Strategikon: handbook of Byzantine military strategy, trans. G.T. Dennis (1984), p. 120. * ^ Curta 2001 , pp. 91–92, 315. * ^ Mallory & Adams "Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture * ^ Cyril A. Mango (1980). Byzantium, the empire of New Rome. Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-16768-8 . * ^ Tachiaos, Anthony-Emil N. 2001. Cyril and Methodius of Thessalonica: The Acculturation of the Slavs. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. * ^ Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou 1992: Middle Ages * ^ "Austria-Hungary". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 20 August 2009. * ^ Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe
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between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books. p. 416. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9 . * ^ Dorland, Michael (2009). Cadaverland: Inventing a Pathology of Catastrophe for Holocaust Survival: The Limits of Medical Knowledge and Memory in France. Tauber Institute for the Study of European Jewry series. Waltham, Mass: University Press of New England. p. 6. ISBN 1-58465-784-7 . * ^ Rummel, Rudolph (1994). Death by Government. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-56000-145-4 . * ^ Mark Harrison (2002). "Accounting for War: Soviet Production, Employment, and the Defence Burden, 1940–1945". Cambridge University Press. p. 167. ISBN 0-521-89424-7 * ^ Stephen J. Lee (2000). "European dictatorships, 1918–1945". Routledge. p.86. ISBN 0-415-23046-2 . * ^ F. Kortlandt, The spread of the Indo-Europeans, Journal of Indo-European Studies, vol. 18 (1990), pp. 131–140. Online version, p.4. * ^ F. Kortlandt, The spread of the Indo-Europeans, Journal of Indo-European Studies, vol. 18 (1990), pp. 131–140. Online version, p.3. * ^ J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (2006), pp. 25–26. * ^ Curta 2001 . * ^ "Religious preferences of the population of Ukraine". Sociology poll by Razumkov Centre , SOCIS
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(2015) * ^ "Национален съвет за сътрудничество по етническите и интеграционните въпроси". Government.bg. Retrieved 2016-11-22. * ^ "FIELD LISTING :: RELIGIONS". CIA. * ^ GUS, Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludnosci 2011: 4.4. Przynależność wyznaniowa (National Survey 2011: 4.4 Membership in faith communities) p. 99/337 (PDF file, direct download 3.3 MB). ISBN 978-83-7027-521-1 Retrieved 27 December 2014. * ^ Robert Bideleux; Ian Jeffries (January 1998). A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-16112-1 . * ^ Kobyliński, Zbigniew (1995). "The Slavs". In McKitterick, Rosamond . The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 1, C.500-c.700. The New Cambridge Medieval History. 1, C.500-c.700. Cambridge University Press. p. 531. ISBN 9780521362917 . * ^ Roman Smal Stocki (1950). Slavs
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and Teutons: The Oldest Germanic-Slavic Relations. Bruce. * ^ Raymond E. Zickel; Library of Congress. Federal Research Division (1 December 1991). Soviet Union: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-8444-0727-2 . * ^ Comparative Politics. Pearson Education India. pp. 182–. ISBN 978-81-317-6033-8 . * ^ Vlasto 1970 , p. 237. * ^ Fine 1991 , p. 41. * ^ Fine 1991 , p. 35. * ^ Balanovsky, O; Rootsi, S; Pshenichnov, A; Kivisild, T; Churnosov, M; Evseeva, I; Pocheshkhova, E; Boldyreva, M; et al. (2008). "Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context" . AJHG. 82 (1): 236–250. PMC 2253976  . PMID 18179905 . doi :10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.019 . * ^ A B A Country Study: Hungary. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress
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. Retrieved 6 March 2009. * ^ Klyuchevsky, Vasily (1987). The course of the Russian history. v.1: "Myslʹ. ISBN 5-244-00072-1 . Retrieved 9 October 2009. * ^ Shore, Thomas William (2008). Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race – A Study of the Settlement of England
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and the Tribal Origin of the Old English People. READ BOOKS. pp. 84–102. ISBN 1-4086-3769-3 . * ^ Lewis (1994). "Lewis 1994, ch 1". Archived from the original on 1 April 2001. * ^ Eigeland, Tor. 1976. "The golden caliphate". Saudi Aramco World, September/October 1976, pp. 12–16. * ^ "Wend – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. 13 September 2013. Archived from the original on 2008-05-07. Retrieved 4 April 2014. * ^ "Polabian language". Britannica.com. Retrieved 4 April 2014. * ^ "Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: from early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements" . European Journal of Human Genetics. 21: 415–22. 2013. PMC 3598329  . PMID 22968131 . doi :10.1038/ejhg.2012.190 . * ^ "Y-chromosomal STR haplotype analysis reveals surname-associated strata in the East-German population". European Journal of Human Genetics. 14: 577–582. 2006. doi :10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201572 . Retrieved 25 January 2006. * ^ Alexandru Xenopol , Istoria românilor din Dacia Traiană, 1888, vol. I, p. 540

SOURCES

* Dvornik, Francis (1962). The Slavs
Slavs
in European History and Civilization. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-0799-6 . * Curta, Florin (2001). The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube
Danube
Region, c. 500–700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe
Europe
in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Barford, Paul M. (2001). The Early Slavs: Culture and Society in Early Medieval Eastern Europe. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-3977-3 . * Vlasto, A. P. (1970). The Entry of the Slavs
Slavs
Into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs. CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-07459-9 . * Curta Florin, http://www.academia.edu/229543/The_early_Slavs_in_Bohemia_and_Moravia_a_response_to_my_critics * Fine, John Van Antwerp, Jr. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08149-7 . * Lacey, Robert. 2003. Great Tales from English History. Little, Brown and Company. New York. 2004. ISBN 0-316-10910-X . * Lewis, Bernard. Race and Slavery
Slavery
in the Middle East. Oxford Univ. Press. * Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, Maria. 1992. The "Macedonian Question": A Historical Review. © Association Internationale d'Etudes du Sud-Est Europeen (AIESEE, International Association of Southeast European Studies), Comité Grec. Corfu: Ionian University. (English translation of a 1988 work written in Greek.) * Rębała, Krzysztof, et al.. 2007. Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper
Dnieper
basin. Journal of Human Genetics, May 2007, 52(5): 408–414.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SLAVS .

Look up SLAV in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny in Eastern and Western Slavs, B. Malyarchuk, T. Grzybowski, M. Derenko, M. Perkova, T. Vanecek, J. Lazur, P. Gomolcaknd I. Tsybovsky, Oxford Journals

* Texts on Wikisource:

* "Slavs". Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
. 1920. * "Slavs". The New Student\'s Reference Work. 1914. * Leopold Lénard (1913). "The Slavs". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

* v * t * e

.