SLAVS are the largest Indo-European ethno-linguistic group in Europe
. They are native to Central
Europe , Eastern
Europe , Southeastern
Europe , Northeastern
North Asia ,
Central Asia and West Asia
Slavic languages of the
Balto-Slavic language group.
From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit most of Central,
Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Slavic languages comprise over 50% of the territory of
Europe, therefore it is the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe
by land area. Present-day Slavic people are classified into West
East Slavs (chiefly
Russians , and
Ukrainians ), and
South Slavs (chiefly
Croats , Macedonians ,
Bulgarians ), though sometimes the
West Slavs and
East Slavs are
combined into a single group known as the
North Slavs .
* 1 Population
* 2 Ethnonym
* 3 Early history
* 3.1 First mentions
* 3.2 Migrations
* 4.1 Early Slavic states
* 5 Modern history
* 6 Languages
* 7 Religion
* 8 Ethnic groups
* 8.1 Ethnocultural subdivisions
* 8.2 List of major ethnic groups
* 9 Relations with non-Slavic people
* 9.1 Assimilation
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 Sources
* 13 External links
World map of countries with Significant (10%+) minority
populations Majority Slavic ethnicities
There are an estimated 360 million
Distribution of the East European admixture in Europe,
Austosomal researches Main article:
The Slavic autonym is reconstructed in
Proto-Slavic as *Slověninъ,
plural *Slověne. The oldest documents written in Old Church Slavonic
, dating from the 9th century, attest the autonym as Slověne
(Словѣне). The oldest mention of the Slavic ethnonym is the 6th
Procopius , writing in
Byzantine Greek – Sklaboi
(Σκλάβοι), Sklabēnoi (Σκλαβηνοί), Sklauenoi
(Σκλαυηνοί), Sthlabenoi (Σθλαβηνοί), or Sklabinoi
(Σκλαβῖνοι), while his contemporary
Jordanes refers to the
The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is usually considered a
derivation from slovo ("word "), originally denoting "people who speak
(the same language)," i.e. people who understand each other, in
contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people – němьcь,
meaning "silent, mute people" (from Slavic *němъ – "mute ,
mumbling"). The word slovo ("word") and the related slava ("glory,
fame") and slukh ("hearing") originate from the Proto-Indo-European
root *ḱlew- ("be spoken of, glory"), cognate with Ancient Greek
-κλῆς (-klês – "famous"), whence comes the name
Latin clueo ("be called"), and English loud.
Some other theories have limited support.
The English term "slave " eventually derives from the ethnonym Slav.
Slavs were captured and enslaved by the Muslims of Spain during the
ninth century AD.
Early Slavs See also:
History of Proto-Slavic
Slavic peoples in 6th century Slavic tribes from the 7th
to 9th centuries in
Slavs under name of the Antes and the
Sclaveni make their first
appearance in Byzantine records in the early 6th century. Byzantine
Justinian I (527–565), such as
Theophylact Simocatta describe tribes of these
names emerging from the area of the
Carpathian Mountains , the lower
Danube and the
Black Sea , invading the Danubian provinces of the
Eastern Empire .
Procopius wrote in 545 that "the
Sclaveni and the Antae actually had
a single name in the remote past; for they were both called
olden times." He described them as barbarians, who lived under
democracy, and that they believe in one god, "the maker of lightning"
Perun ), to whom they made sacrifice. They lived in scattered
housing, and constantly changed settlement. Regarding warfare, they
were mainly foot soldiers with small shields and battleaxes, lightly
clothed, some entering battle naked with only their genitals covered.
Their language is "barbarous" (that is, not Greek-speaking), and the
two tribes do not differ in appearance, being tall and robust, "while
their bodies and hair are neither very fair or blond, nor indeed do
they incline entirely to the dark type, but they are all slightly
ruddy in color. And they live a hard life, giving no heed to bodily
Jordanes described the
Sclaveni having swamps and
forests for their cities. Another 6th-century source refers to them
living among nearly impenetrable forests, rivers, lakes, and marshes.
Menander Protector mentions a
Daurentius (577–579) that slew an
Avar envoy of Khagan
Bayan I . The Avars asked the
Slavs to accept the
suzerainty of the Avars; he however declined and is reported as
saying: "Others do not conquer our land, we conquer theirs – so it
shall always be for us".
The relationship between the
Slavs and a tribe called the Veneti east
of the River
Vistula in the Roman period is uncertain. The name may
refer both to
Balts and Slavs.
East Slavic tribes, 8th and 9th centuries
According to eastern homeland theory, prior to becoming known to the
Roman world, Slavic -speaking tribes were part of the many
multi-ethnic confederacies of
Eurasia – such as the Sarmatian, Hun
and Gothic empires. The
Slavs emerged from obscurity when the westward
movement of Germans in the 5th and 6th centuries CE (thought to be in
conjunction with the movement of peoples from
Siberia and Eastern
Huns , and later Avars and
Bulgars ) started the great
migration of the
Slavs , who settled the lands abandoned by Germanic
tribes fleeing the
Huns and their allies: westward into the country
between the Oder and the
Saale line; southward into
Moravia , much of present-day
Austria , the
Pannonian plain and the
Balkans ; and northward along the upper
Dnieper river. Perhaps some
Slavs migrated with the movement of the
Vandals to Iberia and north
Around the 6th century,
Slavs appeared on Byzantine borders in great
numbers. The Byzantine records note that grass would not regrow in
places where the
Slavs had marched through, so great were their
numbers. After a military movement even the
were reported to have Slavic settlements. This southern movement has
traditionally been seen as an invasive expansion. By the end of the
Slavs had settled the Eastern Alps regions .
EARLY SLAVIC STATES
Life of the East Slavs, by Sergey Ivanov
When their migratory movements ended, there appeared among the Slavs
the first rudiments of state organizations, each headed by a prince
with a treasury and a defense force. Moreover, it was the beginning of
class differentiation, and nobles pledged allegiance either to the
Holy Roman Emperors or the
Byzantine Emperors .
In the 7th century, the Frankish merchant
Samo , who supported the
Slavs fighting their Avar rulers, became the ruler of the first known
Slav state in Central Europe, which, however, most probably did not
outlive its founder and ruler. This provided the foundation for
subsequent Slavic states to arise on the former territory of this
Carantania being the oldest of them. Very old also are the
Principality of Nitra and the Moravian principality (see under Great
Moravia ). In this period, there existed central Slavic groups and
states such as the
Balaton Principality , but the subsequent expansion
of the Magyars , as well as the
Austria , separated
the northern and southern Slavs. The
First Bulgarian Empire was
founded in 681, and the
Old Church Slavonic became the
main and official of the empire in 864.
Bulgaria was instrumental in
the spread of Slavic literacy and Christianity to the rest of the
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Slavs in their Original Homeland, by
Since the 16th century east
Slavs settled most of
Kamchatka and the Pacific island of Sakhalin
As of 1878, there were only three free Slavic states in the world:
Russian Empire ,
Bulgaria was also free
but was de jure vassal to the
Ottoman Empire until official
independence was declared in 1908. In the entire Austro-Hungarian
Empire of approximately 50 million people, about 23 million were
Slavs. The Slavic peoples who were, for the most part, denied a voice
in the affairs of the Austria-Hungary, were calling for national
self-determination. Because of the vastness and diversity of the
territory occupied by Slavic people, there were several centers of
Slavic consolidation. In the 19th century,
Pan-Slavism developed as a
movement among intellectuals, scholars, and poets, but it rarely
influenced practical politics and did not find support in some Slavic
Pan-Slavism became compromised when the Russian Empire
started to use it as an ideology justifying its territorial conquests
Europe as well as subjugation of other Slavic ethnic groups
Poles and Ukrainians, and the ideology became associated with
World War I
World War I , representatives of the Czechs, Slovaks, Poles,
Serbs, Croats, and
Slovenes set up organizations in the Allied
countries to gain sympathy and recognition. In 1918, after World War
I ended, the
Slavs established such independent states as
Czechoslovakia , the
Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic , and the State of
Serbs (which merged into
During World War II,
Nazi Germany planned to kill, deport, or enslave
the Slavic and Jewish population of occupied Eastern
Europe to create
Living space for German settlers, and also planned the starvation of
80 million people in the Soviet Union. The partial fulfilment of
these plans resulted in the deaths of an estimated 19.3 million
civilians and prisoners of war.
The first half of the 20th century in
Russia and the
Soviet Union was
marked by a succession of wars, famines and other disasters, each
accompanied by large-scale population losses. Stephen J. Lee
estimates that, by the end of World War II in 1945, the Russian
population was about 90 million fewer than it could have been
The common Slavic experience of communism combined with the repeated
usage of the ideology by Soviet propaganda after World War II within
Eastern bloc (
Warsaw Pact ) was a forced high-level political and
economic hegemony of the USSR dominated by Russians. A notable
political union of the 20th century that covered most
South Slavs was
Yugoslavia , but it ultimately broke apart in the 1990s along with the
Soviet Union .
The word "Slavs" was used in the national anthem of the Slovak
Republic (1939–1945) ,
Yugoslavia (1943–1992) and the Federal
Yugoslavia (1992–2003), later
Serbia and Montenegro
Former Soviet states, as well as countries that used to be satellite
states or territories of the
Warsaw Pact , have numerous minority
Slavic populations, many of whom are originally from the Russian SFSR
Ukrainian SSR and
Byelorussian SSR . As of now,
Kazakhstan has the
largest Slavic minority population with most being Russians
Poles are present as well but in much
Pan-Slavism , a movement which came into prominence in the mid-19th
century, emphasized the common heritage and unity of all the Slavic
peoples. The main focus was in the
Balkans where the
South Slavs had
been ruled for centuries by other empires: the Byzantine Empire,
Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Venice. The Russian Empire
Pan-Slavism as a political tool; as did the Soviet Union, which
gained political-military influence and control over most
Slavic-majority nations between 1945 and 1948 and retained a hegemonic
role until the period 1989–1991. SOUTH SLAVIC LANGUAGES.
Slovene Pannonian Slovene Styrian Slovene Carinthian Slovene
Carniolan Slovene Rovte Slovene Litoral Slovene Croatian
Chakavian Croatian Kajkavian Croatian Shtokavian Croatian Bosnian
Bosniak Bosnian Serbian Shtokavian Serbian
Šumadija–Vojvodina dialect Kosovo-Resava dialect Montenegrin
Montenegrin Torlakian (transitional dialect) Torlakian Macedonian
Northern Macedonian Western Macedonian Central Macedonian
Southern Macedonian Eastern Macedonian Bulgarian Western Bulgarian
Rup Bulgarian Balkan Bulgarian Moesian Bulgarian EAST
SLAVIC LANGUAGES. Russian Belarusian Ukrainian Rusyn
WEST SLAVIC LANGUAGES.
Polish Kashubian Silesian Polabian †
Lower Sorbian Upper Sorbian
Proto-Slavic , the supposed ancestor language of all Slavic
languages, is a descendant of common Proto-Indo-European , via a
Balto-Slavic stage in which it developed numerous lexical and
morphophonological isoglosses with the
Baltic languages . In the
framework of the
Kurgan hypothesis , "the Indo-Europeans who remained
after the migrations became speakers of Balto-Slavic". Proto-Slavic
is defined as the last stage of the language preceding the
geographical split of the historical
Slavic languages . That language
was uniform, and on the basis of borrowings from foreign languages and
Slavic borrowings into other languages, cannot be said to have any
recognizable dialects – this suggests that there was, at one time, a
Proto-Slavic homeland .
Slavic linguistic unity was to some extent visible as late as Old
Church Slavonic manuscripts which, though based on local Slavic speech
Thessaloniki , could still serve the purpose of the first common
Slavic literary language.
Slavic studies began as an almost
exclusively linguistic and philological enterprise. As early as 1833,
Slavic languages were recognized as Indo-European. Sometimes the West
Slavic and East
Slavic languages are combined into a single group
known as North
Slavic languages .
Slavic languages that have official status in at least
one country are: Belarusian , Bosnian , Bulgarian , Croatian , Czech ,
Macedonian , Montenegrin , Polish , Russian , Serbian , Slovak ,
Slovene , and Ukrainian .
The alphabets used for
Slavic languages are frequently connected to
the dominant religion among the respective ethnic groups. Orthodox
Christians use the Cyrillic alphabet while Roman Catholics use the
Latin alphabet ; the Bosniaks, who are Muslim, also use the Latin
alphabet. Additionally, some Eastern Catholics and Roman Catholics use
the Cyrillic alphabet. Serbian and Montenegrin use both the Cyrillic
Latin alphabets. There is also a
Latin script to write in
Belarusian , called the
Lacinka alphabet .
The pagan Slavic populations were Christianized between the 7th and
12th centuries. Orthodox Christianity is predominant in the East and
South Slavs, while Roman Catholicism is predominant in
West Slavs and
the western South Slavs. The religious borders are largely comparable
East–West Schism which began in the 11th century.
The majority of contemporary Slavic populations who profess a
religion are Orthodox, followed by Catholic, while a small minority
Protestant . There are minor Slavic Muslim groups. Religious
delineations by nationality can be very sharp; usually in the Slavic
ethnic groups the vast majority of religious people share the same
Slavs are atheist or agnostic : in the Czech Republic
20% were atheists according to a 2012 poll.
The main Slavic ethnic groups by religion:
Mainly Eastern Orthodoxy :
Bulgaria and adjacent lands, plus Bessarabian
Mainly Roman Catholicism :
Muslims by nationality )
European countries where a
Slavic language is the official one
on the entire territory West Slavic East Slavic South Slavic
Slavs are customarily divided along geographical lines into three
major subgroups: West Slavs, East Slavs, and South Slavs, each with a
different and a diverse background based on unique history, religion
and culture of particular Slavic groups within them. Apart from
prehistorical archaeological cultures, the subgroups have had notable
cultural contact with non-Slavic Bronze - and
Iron Age civilisations.
Modern Slavic nations and ethnic groups are considerably diverse both
genetically and culturally, and relations between them – even within
the individual ethnic groups themselves – are varied, ranging from a
sense of connection to mutual feelings of hostility.
West Slavs have origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in
East Germanic tribes had left this area during
the migration period . They are noted as having mixed with Germanics
and Balts. The
West Slavs came under the influence of the Western
Roman Empire (Latin) and of the Roman
Catholic Church .
East Slavs have origins in early Slavic tribes who mixed with
Finno-Ugric peoples and Balts. Their early Slavic component, Antes ,
mixed or absorbed Iranians , and later received influence from the
Vikings . The
East Slavs trace their national origins to
the tribal unions of Kievan Rus\' , beginning in the 10th century.
They came particularly under the influence of the Eastern Roman Empire
(Byzantine Empire) and of the
Eastern Orthodox Church ; Eastern
Catholic Churches later became established in the 16th century in
areas such as
South Slavs from most of the region have origins in early
Slavic tribes who mixed with the local Proto-Balkanic tribes (Illyrian
, Dacian , Thracian , Pannonian , Paeonian and
Hellenic tribes ),
Celtic tribes (most notably the
Scordisci ), as well as with Romans
(and the Romanized remnants of the former groups), and also with
remnants of temporarily settled invading East Germanic, Asiatic or
Caucasian tribes such as
Huns , Avars and
Bulgars . The
original inhabitants of present-day
Slovenia and continental Croatia
have origins in early Slavic tribes who mixed with Romans and
romanized Celtic and Illyrian people as well as with Avars and
Germanic peoples (Lombards and East Goths). The
South Slavs (except
Slovenes and Croats) came under the cultural sphere of the Eastern
Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), of the
Ottoman Empire and of the
Eastern Orthodox Church and
Islam , while the
Slovenes and the Croats
were influenced by
Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire (Latin), Holy Roman Empire
and, thus by the Roman
Catholic Church .
LIST OF MAJOR ETHNIC GROUPS
^1 The ethnic classification is disputed. See main article for
RELATIONS WITH NON-SLAVIC PEOPLE
West Slav tribes in 9th/10th century
Throughout their history,
Slavs came into contact with non-Slavic
groups. In the postulated homeland region (present-day
Ukraine ), they
had contacts with the Iranic
Sarmatians and the Germanic
Goths . After
their subsequent spread, the
Slavs began assimilating non-Slavic
peoples. For example, in the Balkans, there were Paleo-Balkan peoples,
such as Romanized and Hellenized (
Jireček Line )
Dacians , as well as
Greeks and Celtic
Scordisci . Over
time, due to the larger number of Slavs, most descendants of the
indigenous populations of the
Balkans were Slavicized. The Thracians
Illyrians vanished as defined ethnic groups from the population
during this period – although the modern Albanian nation claims
descent from the Illyrians. Exceptions are Greece, where because Slavs
were fewer than Greeks, they came to be Hellenized (aided in time by
Greeks returning to Greece in the 9th century and the role of the
church and administration); and Romania, where Slavic people settled
en route for present-day Greece, Republic of Macedonia,
East Thrace , where the Slavic population gradually assimilated.
Bulgars were also assimilated by local
Slavs but their ruling status
and subsequent control of land cast the nominal legacy of Bulgarian
country and people onto all future generations. The Romance speakers
within the fortified Dalmatian cities managed to retain their culture
and language for a long time. Dalmatian Romance was spoken until the
high Middle Ages. But, they too were eventually assimilated into the
body of Slavs.
In the Western Balkans,
South Slavs and Germanic
with Avar invaders, eventually producing a Slavicized population. In
Central Europe, the
Slavs intermixed with Germanic and Celtic peoples,
while the eastern
Slavs encountered Uralic and Scandinavian peoples .
Varangians ) and Finnic peoples were involved in the
early formation of the Rus\' state but were completely Slavicized
after a century. Some Finno-Ugric tribes in the north were also
absorbed into the expanding Rus population. At the time of the Magyar
migration, the present-day
Hungary was inhabited by Slavs, numbering
about 200,000, and by Romano-
Dacians who were either assimilated or
enslaved by the Magyars. In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant
incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchak and the
Pecheneg , caused a massive migration of East Slavic populations to
the safer, heavily forested regions of the north. In the Middle Ages,
groups of Saxon ore miners settled in medieval
Bulgaria , where they were Slavicized. The
Limes Saxoniae forming
the border between the
Saxons to the west and the
Obotrites to the
Polabian Slavs (Wends) settled in eastern parts of
Danelaw ), apparently as Danish allies. Polabian-Pomeranian
also known to have even settled on Norse age
to the Slavic mercenaries and slaves in the medieval Arab world in
North Africa ,
Saqaliba served as caliph's
guards. In the 12th century, Slavic piracy in the Baltics increased.
Wendish Crusade was started against the
Polabian Slavs in 1147, as
a part of the
Northern Crusades .
Niklot , pagan chief of the Slavic
Obodrites, began his open resistance when
Lothar III , Holy Roman
Emperor , invaded Slavic lands. In August 1160
Niklot was killed, and
German colonization (
Ostsiedlung ) of the Elbe-Oder region began. In
Hanoverian Wendland ,
Lusatia , invaders
started germanization . Early forms of germanization were described by
Helmold in the manuscript
Chronicon Slavorum and Adam of
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum
Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum . The Polabian
language survived until the beginning of the 19th century in what is
now the German state of
Lower Saxony . In
Eastern Germany , around
20% of Germans have historic Slavic paternal ancestry, as revealed in
Y-DNA testing. Similarly, in Germany, around 20% of the foreign
surnames are of Slavic origin.
Cossacks , although Slavic-speaking and practicing as Orthodox
Christians , came from a mix of ethnic backgrounds, including Tatars
and other Turks . Many early members of the
Terek Cossacks were
Gorals of southern
Poland and northern
Slovakia are partially
descended from Romance-speaking
Vlachs , who migrated into the region
from the 14th to 17th centuries and were absorbed into the local
population. The population of
Moravian Wallachia also descend of this
Slavs were assimilated into other populations.
Although the majority continued south, attracted by the riches of the
territory which would become Bulgaria, a few remained in the
Carpathian basin. There they were ultimately assimilated into the
Magyar or Romanian peoples. Numerous river and other placenames in
Romania are of Slavic origin.
Part of a series on
* List of
Paleo-Balkan Dacian Illyrian Liburnian Messapian Mysian
Paeonian Phrygian Thracian
* Phonology : Sound laws , Accent , Ablaut
* Proto-Indo-Iranian (Proto-Iranian )
* Gaulish epigraphy
* Runic epigraphy
* Old Irish glosses
Alternative and fringe
Paleolithic Continuity Theory
* Baltic homeland
Chalcolithic (Copper Age)
Domestication of the horse
* Steppe cultures
* Sredny Stog
* Corded ware
* Multi-cordoned ware
Globular Amphora culture
* Corded ware
* Gandhara grave
* Painted Grey Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
Peoples and societies
* Hellenic peoples
Religion and mythology Reconstructed
Winter solstice /
Indo-European studies Scholars
Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European
Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture
The Horse, the Wheel and Language
The Horse, the Wheel and Language
Journal of Indo-European Studies
Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch
Indo-European Etymological Dictionary
* Ethnic groups in
Lech, Čech, and Rus
List of modern ethnic groups
List of Slavic tribes
* ^ Geography and ethnic geography of the
Balkans to 1500
* ^ Barford 2001 , p. 1.
* ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (18 September 2006). "Slav (people)
– Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 18
* ^ Kamusella, Tomasz; Nomachi, Motoki; Gibson, Catherine (2016).
The Palgrave Handbook of Slavic Languages, Identities and Borders.
London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137348395 .
* ^ Serafin, Mikołaj (January 2015). "Cultural Proximity of the
Slavic Nations" (PDF). Retrieved April 28, 2017.
* ^ Živković, Tibor; Crnčević, Dejan; Bulić, Dejan; Petrović,
Vladeta; Cvijanović, Irena; Radovanović, Bojana (2013). The World of
the Slavs: Studies of the East, West and South Slavs: Civitas,
Oppidas, Villas and Archeological Evidence (7th to 11th Centuries AD).
Belgrade: Istorijski institut. ISBN 8677431047 .
* ^ "Нас 150 миллионов -Русское
соотечественники, русские за
границей, русские за рубежом,
население, русские общины, диаспора,
эмиграция". Russkie.org. 20 February 2012. Retrieved 29 April
* ^ including 36,522,000 single ethnic identity, 871,000 multiple
ethnic identity (especially 431,000 Polish and Silesian, 216,000
Polish and Kashubian and 224,000 Polish and another identity) in
Poland (according to the census 2011) and estimated 20,000,000 out of
Poland Świat Polonii, witryna Stowarzyszenia Wspólnota Polska:
"Polacy za granicą" (Polish people abroad as per summary by Świat
Polonii, internet portal of the Polish Association Wspólnota Polska)
* ^ Paul R. Magocsi (2010). A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its
Peoples. University of Toronto Press. pp. 10–. ISBN
* ^ Theodore E. Baird; Amanda Klekowski von Koppenfels (June 2011).
"The Serbian Diaspora and Youth: Cross-Border Ties and Opportunities
for Development" (PDF). University of Kent at Brussels: 5. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-18.
* ^ "
Serbs around the World by region" (PDF). Serbian Unity
Congress. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2013.
* ^ "Tab. 6.2 Obyvatelstvo podle národnosti podle krajů" (PDF).
Czech Statistical Office (in Czech). 2011. Archived from the original
(PDF) on 31 January 2012.
* ^ Kolev, Yordan, Българите извън България
1878 – 1945, 2005, р. 18 Quote:"В началото на ХХI в.
общият брой на етническите българи в
България и зад граница се изчислява на
около 10 милиона души/In 2005 the number of Bulgarians
is 10 million people
* ^ The Report:
Bulgaria 2008. Oxford Business Group. 2008. p. 8.
ISBN 978-1-902339-92-4 . Retrieved 26 March 2016.
* ^ Karatnycky, Adrian (2001). Freedom in the World: The Annual
Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, 2000–2001.
Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-7658-0884-4
. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
* ^ Daphne Winland (2004), "Croatian Diaspora", in Melvin Ember;
Carol R. Ember; Ian Skoggard, Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and
Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics;
Volume II: Diaspora Communities, 2 (illustrated ed.), Springer
Science+Business , p. 76, ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9 , It is estimated
that 4.5 million Croatians live outside
* ^ "Hrvatski Svjetski Kongres". Archived from the original on
2003-06-23. Retrieved June 1, 2016. , Croatian World Congress , "4.5
Croats and people of Croatian heritage live outside of the
Bosnia and Herzegovina"
* ^ National Minorities in Inter-State Relations. 14 February 2011.
Retrieved 29 April 2013.
* ^ including 4,353,000 in
Slovakia (according to the census 2011),
147,000 single ethnic identity, 19,000 multiple ethnic identity
(especially 18,000 Czech and Slovak and 1,000 Slovak and another
Czech Republic (according to the census 2011), 53,000 in
Serbia (according to the census 2011), 762,000 in the USA (according
to the census 2010), 2,000 single ethnic identity and 1,000 multiple
ethnic identity Slovak and Polish in
Poland (according to the census
2011), 21,000 single ethnic identity, 43,000 multiple ethnic identity
Canada (according to the census 2006)
* ^ Zupančič, Jernej (August 2004). "Ethnic Structure of Slovenia
Slovenes in Neighbouring Countries" (PDF). Slovenia: a
geographical overview. Association of the Geographic Societies of
Slovenia. Retrieved 10 April 2008.
* ^ Nasevski, Boško; Angelova, Dora; Gerovska, Dragica (1995).
Матица на Иселениците на Македонија
(IN MACEDONIAN). SKOPJE: MACEDONIAN EXPATRIATION ALMANAC \'95. PP.
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