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Sky plc[4][5][6][7] is a pan-European media and telecommunications company headquartered in London. It has operations in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, Austria, Italy
Italy
and Spain. Sky is Europe's biggest and leading media company and largest pay-TV broadcaster, with 21 million subscribers and 30,000 employees as of 2015.[3][8] Initially formed in 1990 by the equal merger of Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting, BSkyB
BSkyB
became the UK's largest digital subscription television company. In 2014, after completing the acquisition of Sky Italia
Sky Italia
and Sky Deutschland, the merged company changed its name to Sky plc.[9] Sky is listed on the London
London
Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of approximately £18.75 billion (€26.76 billion) as of 2015.[10] Rupert Murdoch's 21st Century Fox
21st Century Fox
owns a 39.14% controlling stake in the company;[11] on 9 December 2016, following a previous attempt under News Corporation
News Corporation
that was affected by the News International phone hacking scandal, 21st Century Fox
21st Century Fox
announced it had agreed to buy the remainder of Sky, pending government approval. As of July 2017, it has been subject to government review. The Walt Disney Company announced in December 2017 that it would acquire 21st Century Fox, including the Sky stake, while Comcast
Comcast
made a counter-offer in February 2018.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Foundation 1.2 Premier League
Premier League
football 1.3 Flotation 1.4 Launch of Sky Digital 1.5 Amstrad
Amstrad
takeover 1.6 Virgin Media
Virgin Media
Television acquisition 1.7 Attempted takeover by News Corporation 1.8 European acquisitions 1.9 Proposed takeover by 21st Century Fox

2 Management 3 Financial performance 4 Current operations

4.1 Subsidiaries 4.2 Ventures 4.3 Partnerships

5 Former operations

5.1 Stake in ITV

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History Further information: Sky Television plc, British Satellite Broadcasting, and Sky (United Kingdom) Foundation British Sky Broadcasting
Broadcasting
was formed by the merger of Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting
British Satellite Broadcasting
on 2 November 1990.[12] Both companies had begun to struggle financially and were both suffering financial losses as both competed against each other for viewers. The Guardian later characterised the merger as "effectively a takeover by News Corporation".[13] The merger was investigated by Office of Fair Trading[14] and was cleared a month later since many of the represented views were more concerned about contractual arrangements which had nothing to do with competition.[15] The Independent Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Authority was not consulted about the deal; after approval, the IBA demanded precise details about the merger, stated they were considering the repercussions of the deal to ultimately determine whether BSB contracts were null and void.[16][17] On 17 November, the IBA decided to terminate BSB's contract, but not immediately, as it was deemed unfair to 120,000 viewers who had bought BSB devices.[18] Sam Chisholm was appointed CEO[19] in a bid to reorganise the new company, which, continued to make losses of £10 million per week. The defunct BSB's HQ, Marco Polo House
Marco Polo House
were sold, 39% of the new company's employees were made redundant to leave just under 1000 employees,[13] many of the new senior BSkyB
BSkyB
executive roles were given to Sky personnel with many BSB leaving the company. In April the nine Sky/BSB channels had been condensed into five, with EuroSport being dropped soon after the Sky Sports
Sky Sports
launch.[20] Chisholm also renegotiated the merged company's expensive deals with the Hollywood studios, slashing the minimum guaranteed payments. The defunct Marcopolo I satellite was sold in December 1993 to Sweden's NSAB, and Marcopolo II went to Norway's Telenor
Telenor
in July 1992[21] after the ITC was unable to find new companies to take over the BSB licences and compete with BSkyB. News International
News International
received 50%, Pearson PLC 17.5%, Chargeurs 17.5%, Granada 12%, Reed International 2% of the new shares in the company.[22] By September 1991, the weekly losses had been reduced to £1.5M a week, Rupert Murdoch
Rupert Murdoch
said "there were strong financial marketing and political reason[s] for making the compromise merger instead of letting BSB die. Many of the lessons had been learnt with more than half the running cost of the combined company". Further cuts in losses were a direct result of 313,000 new customers joining during the first half of 1991.[23] By March 1992, BSkyB
BSkyB
posted its first operating profits, of £100,000 per week, with £3.8 million weekly from subscriptions and £1 million from advertising, but continued to be burdened with £1.28 billion of debt. James Capel forecast BSkyB
BSkyB
would still be indebted in 2000.[24] Premier League
Premier League
football Main article: Sky Sports Further information: Broadcasting
Broadcasting
and the foundation of the Premier League In the autumn of 1991, talks were held for the broadcast rights for Premier League
Premier League
for a five-year period, from the 1992 season.[25] ITV were the current rights holders for the Football League, and fought hard to gain the new rights. ITV had increased its offer from £18m to £34m per year to obtain the new rights.[26] BSkyB
BSkyB
joined forces with the BBC[27] to make a counter bid. The BBC
BBC
was given the highlights of most of the matches, while BSkyB
BSkyB
paying £304m for the Premier League rights, would give them a monopoly of all live matches, up to 60 per year from the 1992–93 season. [28] Murdoch has described sport as a "battering ram" for pay-television, providing a strong customer base.[29] A few weeks after the deal, ITV went to the High court to get an injunction as it believed their details were leaked before the decision was taken. ITV also asked the Office of Fair Trading
Office of Fair Trading
to also investigate since it believed Rupert Murdoch's media empire via the newspapers had influence the deal.[30] A few days later neither action took effect, ITV believed BSkyB
BSkyB
was telephoned and informed of its £262m bid, and Premier League
Premier League
advised BSkyB
BSkyB
to increase its counter bid.[31] BSkyB
BSkyB
retained the rights paying £670m 1997–2001 deal, but was challenged by On Digital[32] for the rights from 2001–2004, thus were forced to £1.1 billion which give them 66 live games a year.[33] Following a lengthy legal battle with the European Commission, which deemed the exclusivity of the rights to be against the interests of competition and the consumer, BSkyB's monopoly came to an end from the 2007–08 season. In May 2006, the Irish broadcaster Setanta Sports was awarded two of the six Premiership packages that the English FA offered to broadcasters. Sky picked up the remaining four for £1.3bn.[34] Flotation In October 1994,[35] BSkyB
BSkyB
announced its plans to float the company on the UK and US stock exchanges, selling off 20% of the company.[36] The stock flotation reduced Murdoch's holding to 40 percent and raised £900m, which allowed the company to cut its debt in half. Sam Chisholm said "By any standards this is an excellent result, in every area of the company has performed strongly".[37] Chisholm, became one of the world's most highly paid television executives.[38] In 1995, BSkyB
BSkyB
opened its second customer management centre at Dunfermline, Scotland,[39] in addition to its original centre at Livingston which opened in 1989. BSkyB
BSkyB
entered the FTSE 100 index, operation profits increased to £155M a year, and Pearson sold off its 17.5% stake in the company.[40] Sam Chisholm resigned from BSkyB
BSkyB
due to a rift with Rupert Murdoch.[41] A week later, Murdoch was quoted as saying "I cannot understand the fuss; BSkyB
BSkyB
was grossly overpriced", which caused further rifts with the new management.[42] Launch of Sky Digital In 1997, BSkyB
BSkyB
formed a partnership with Carlton and Granada to bid for the right for the new digital terrestrial network. In June, it was awarded the right to start the service, ONdigital
ONdigital
under the condition BSkyB
BSkyB
withdrew from the group's bid.[43] In February 2003 BSkyB
BSkyB
wished to renegotiate its deal with MTV to reduce its payment from £20m. Chief executive Tony Ball said "We're definitely prepared to stare them down if we can't get a sensible deal, MTV, and other channels, have done particularly well out of the growth of Sky but the opportunity for savings is now there and Sky will be taking it," he added. "MTV has done extremely well out of that original deal."[44] On 17 April 2003 BSkyB
BSkyB
launched its own range of music channels Scuzz
Scuzz
and Flaunt with The Vault being added in Summer 2003, as part of its plan to create its own original channels for the platform.[45] Within 18 months the channels failed to make impact, and were outsourced to the Chart Show Channels company.[46] Shortly afterwards it acquired Artsworld, giving a majority of subscribers full access to the channel. The buyout was part of James Murdoch's strategy to improve the perceptions BSkyB
BSkyB
which could lead to potential new subscribers. John Cassy, the channel manager of Artsworld, said: "It is great news for the arts that a dedicated cultural channel will be available to millions of households."[47] In early 2007 Freeview overtook Sky Digital with nearly 200,000 more subscribers at the end of 2006, while cable broadcaster Virgin Media had three million customers.[48] Amstrad
Amstrad
takeover In July 2007, BSkyB
BSkyB
announced the takeover of Amstrad
Amstrad
for £125m, a 23.7% premium on its market capitalisation.[49] Virgin Media
Virgin Media
Television acquisition On 4 June 2010, BSkyB
BSkyB
and Virgin Media
Virgin Media
announced that they had reached agreement for the acquisition by BSkyB
BSkyB
of Virgin Media Television.[50][51] Virgin1 was also a part of the deal and was rebranded as Channel One on 3 September 2010, as the Virgin name was not licensed to Sky.[52][53] The new carriage deals are understood to be for up to nine years.[54] On 29 June 2010, The Competition Authority in Ireland cleared the proposed transaction.[55] On 20 July 2010, The Office of Fair Trading
Office of Fair Trading
announced that they would review BSkyB's acquisition of the Virgin Media
Virgin Media
Television business to judge whether it posed any competition concerns in the UK.[56] The OFT planned to investigate the deal to see whether it could constitute a qualifying merger under the Enterprise Act 2002. The watchdog invited interested parties from the industry to comment on the sale, including its potential impact on the pay-TV market. On 14 September 2010, the OFT decided not to refer BSkyB's takeover of Virgin Media's TV channels to the Competition Commission.[57] Attempted takeover by News Corporation Main article: News Corporation
News Corporation
takeover bid for BSkyB In June 2010, News Corporation
News Corporation
made a bid for complete ownership of BSkyB. However, following the News International
News International
phone hacking scandal, critics and politicians began to question the appropriateness of the proposed takeover. The resulting reaction forced News Corp. to withdraw its bid for the company in July 2011.[58][59] The scandal forced the resignation of James Murdoch, who was the chairman of both BSkyB
BSkyB
and News International, from his executive positions in the UK, with Nicholas Ferguson taking over as Chairman
Chairman
of BSkyB.[60] In September 2012, Ofcom
Ofcom
ruled that BSkyB
BSkyB
was still fit to hold broadcast licenses in the UK, but criticised James Murdoch's handling of the scandal.[61] On 28 June 2013, News Corporation
News Corporation
was split into two publicly-traded companies; the company's publishing operations (including News International, renamed News UK) and broadcasting operations in Australia were spun into a new company known as News Corp, while the company's broadcast media assets, including its 39.14% stake in Sky, were re-named 21st Century Fox.[62] European acquisitions On 12 May 2014, BSkyB
BSkyB
confirmed that it was in talks with its largest shareholder, 21st Century Fox, about acquiring 21st Century Fox's 57.4% stake in Sky Deutschland
Sky Deutschland
and its 100% stake in Sky Italia. The enlarged company (dubbed "Sky Europe" in the media) will consolidate 21st Century Fox's European digital TV assets into one company.[63][64] The £4.9 billion takeover deal was formally announced on 25 July, where BSkyB
BSkyB
would acquire 21st Century Fox's stakes in Sky Deutschland
Sky Deutschland
and Sky Italia. BSkyB
BSkyB
also made a required takeover offer to Sky Deutschland's minority shareholders,[65] resulting in BSkyB
BSkyB
acquiring 89.71% of Sky Deutschland's share capital. The acquisitions were completed on 13 November.[9] British Sky Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Group plc changed its name to Sky plc
Sky plc
to reflect the European acquisitions, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
operations were renamed Sky UK
Sky UK
Limited. Sky plc
Sky plc
bought out the remaining minority shareholders in Sky Deutschland
Sky Deutschland
during 2015, using a squeeze-out procedure to obtain the remaining shares and delist Sky Deutschland
Sky Deutschland
on 15 September 2015.[66] Proposed takeover by 21st Century Fox On 9 December 2016, 21st Century Fox
21st Century Fox
announced that it had made an offer to acquire the remainder of Sky plc
Sky plc
for £11.7 billion at a value of £10.75 per-share. It marks Fox's second attempt to take over Sky, as its previous attempt under News Corporation
News Corporation
was affected by the News International
News International
scandal. The two companies reached an agreement on the deal on 15 December; it is subject to regulatory approval.[67][68] On 29 June 2017, culture secretary Karen Bradley
Karen Bradley
recommended that the deal be subject to a six-month review by the Competition and Markets Authority to examine its overall effects on the industry. Ofcom
Ofcom
had expressed concern that this deal would give the Murdoch family "material influence over news providers with a significant presence across all key platforms" and "increased influence over the UK news agenda and the political process". However, the regulator did deem a Fox-owned Sky would be "fit and proper" to hold broadcast licences, despite the recent sexual harassment controversies that had emerged at the U.S. Fox News
Fox News
Channel, as there was no evidence to the contrary.[69][70][71] Avaaz filed an opposition to Ofcom's assessment that 21st Century Fox
21st Century Fox
would be "fit and proper" to own Sky and its broadcast licences, alleging Ofcom
Ofcom
"made mistake after mistake in deciding to give the Murdochs a clean bill of health to take over more of our media".[72] In October 2017, Sky told the CMA that it would be prompted to review the position of Sky News
Sky News
if "the continued provision of Sky News
Sky News
in its current form unduly impeded merger and/or other corporate opportunities available in relation to Sky's broader business." This implied that closing the channel entirely was an option if it hindered the sale; Sky News
Sky News
has operated on a loss of at least £40 million per-year.[73][74] On 14 December 2017, The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
announced that it would, in turn, acquire 21st Century Fox, including its stake in Sky plc, barring specific U.S. assets. Fox stated that this purchase would "not alter [its] full commitment and obligation to conclude our proposed transaction." Analysts suggested that Disney's proposed transaction could ease regulatory concerns over Fox's purchase of Sky, as the company will eventually lose its ties to the Murdoch family. Disney also has a narrower scope of media ownership in the country than the Murdoch family.[75] Sky already has a relationship with Disney for its Sky Cinema
Sky Cinema
service, holding pay television rights to its films in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and operating a dedicated Sky Cinema
Sky Cinema
channel devoted to Disney content.[76] In a preliminary report issued 23 January 2018, the Competition and Markets Authority assessed that, in its present form, the proposed transaction was not in the public interest. Citing the plurality of media that the Murdoch family would control, the CMA recommended that Sky News
Sky News
either be "insulated" from the Murdoch trust or divested, so that it is editorially independent from the Murdoch family. The final report is expected to be presented to the government by May.[77] On 20 February 2018, Fox issued a proposed package of concessions to the CMA, including an independent editorial board and 10-year funding commitment for Sky News. This commitment would be inherited by Disney if it were to go ahead with its own purchase.[78][79] On 27 February 2018, Comcast, a competing conglomerate with interests in media (NBCUniversal, owner of the film studio Universal Pictures and U.S. media rights to the Premier League) and telecom (including cable internet and television services), made a £22.1 billion counter-offer for Sky, at a value of £12.50 per-share. The Wall Street Journal reported that Fox had declined a US$60 billion acquisition offer by Comcast
Comcast
in favour of its deal with Disney, due to anti-competition concerns.[80][81][82] NBCUniversal
NBCUniversal
CEO Steve Burke stated that purchasing Sky would roughly double its presence in English-speaking markets, and allow for distribution synergies between NBCUniversal
NBCUniversal
and Sky's respective networks and in-house studios (such as Sky producing programmes for U.S. broadcast on NBCUniversal properties, and vice versa with Sky's European properties). Fox stated that it "remains committed to its recommended cash offer for Sky", and that Comcast
Comcast
had not yet made a "firm offer".[83] On 3 April 2018, Fox proposed additional remedies to satisfy regulatory concerns, including Disney having offered to acquire Sky News. The proposed sale would be a separate transaction from Disney's proposed acquisition of 21st Century Fox
21st Century Fox
assets, and not be conditional on its completion.[84] Management The first CEO of BSkyB
BSkyB
was Sam Chisholm, who was CEO of Sky TV before the merger. Chisholm served in this position until 1997. He was followed by Mark Booth who was credited with leading the company through the introduction of Sky. Tony Ball was appointed in 1999 and completed the company's analogue to digital conversion. He is also credited with returning the company to profit and bringing subscriber numbers to new heights. In 2003, Ball announced his resignation and James Murdoch, son of Rupert Murdoch
Rupert Murdoch
was announced as his successor. This appointment caused allegations of nepotism from shareholders.[85] On 7 December 2007, it was announced that Rupert Murdoch
Rupert Murdoch
would be stepping down as BSkyB's non-executive chairman and would be replaced by his son, James. In turn, James stepped down as CEO of BSkyB, to be replaced by Jeremy Darroch.[86] The current 13 company directors include James Murdoch
James Murdoch
(chairman), Nicholas Ferguson (chief executive), David Darroch (chief executive officer), Andrew Griffith (chief executive officer), Martin Gilbert (chief executive officer), Matthieu Pigasse (managing director), Tracy Clarke (bank executive), David Lewis (chief executive officer), Andrew Sukawaty (manager), Adine Axen (director), John Nallen (company director) and Charles Carey (chief executive officer and president).[87] Financial performance Financial results have been as follows:[2]

Revenue and profit or loss, by fiscal year

Year ended Revenue (£m) Profit/(loss) before tax (£m) Net profit/ (loss)(£m)

30 June 2017 12,916 803 691

30 June 2016 11,965 752 663

30 June 2015 9,989 1,516 1,952

30 June 2014 7,632 1,082 865

30 June 2013 7,235 1,257 979

30 June 2012 6,791 1,189 906

30 June 2011 6,597 1,014 810

30 June 2010 5,709 1,173 878

30 June 2009 5,359 456 259

30 June 2008 4,952 60 (127)

30 June 2007 4,551 815 499

30 June 2006 4,148 798 551

30 June 2005 4,048 631 425

30 June 2004 3,656 480 322

30 June 2003 3,186 128 190

30 June 2002 2,776 (1,276) (1,383)

30 June 2001 2,306 (515) (539)

30 June 2000 1,847 (263) (272)

30 June 1999 1,545 (389) (285)

30 June 1998 1,434 271 249

30 June 1997 1,270 314 288

30 June 1996 1,008 257 –

30 June 1995 778 155 –

30 June 1994 550 93 –

30 June 1993 380 (76) –

30 June 1992 233 (188) –

30 June 1991 93 (759) –

Current operations Subsidiaries

Sky UK
Sky UK
Ltd The original Sky Television plc, now a holding company for Sky plc's United Kingdom
United Kingdom
operations.[88]

Sky Subscriber Services Ltd Operating company for the Sky pay-television service.[89]

Sky In-Home Services Ltd Home installations of satellite dishes and set-top boxes.[90]

Sky Broadband
Sky Broadband
Ltd and Sky Home Communications Ltd Operating companies for Sky's broadband and telephony services, including Be Un Limited which was acquired from Telefónica UK/O2.[91]

Sky Ireland Operating company for Sky pay-television service in Ireland.[92]

Sky Italia
Sky Italia
Srl Operating company for Sky pay-television service in Italy.[93]

Sky Deutschland
Sky Deutschland
AG Operating company for Sky pay-television service in Germany
Germany
and Austria.[94]

Sky Spain In September 2017, Sky launched an over-the-top video streaming service in Spain, featuring content from 21st Century Fox, Disney, NBCUniversal, Turner and Viacom.[95]

Acetrax A video on demand movie rental service.[96]

Amstrad British electronics company acquired by BSkyB.[49]

The Cloud Wi-Fi provider acquired by BSkyB.[97]

Ventures

A&E Networks UK (50%) – with A&E Networks. Operates History, Lifetime and CI channels.[98]

Arena Racing Company (48.5%)[99] Operates At the Races

Australian News Channel Pty Limited (33.3%)[99] – with Seven Network and Nine Entertainment Co.
Nine Entertainment Co.
Operates Sky News
Sky News
Australia

Ginx TV
Ginx TV
Ltd (50%) - with ITV plc[100]

Nickelodeon UK Ltd (40%)[99] – with Viacom
Viacom
International Media Networks Europe, part of Viacom. Operates Nickelodeon and associated channels

Beamly (10%)[101]

Love Productions (70%)[102]

Partnerships

Comedy Central (UK and Ireland)
Comedy Central (UK and Ireland)
(25%)[99] – with Paramount British Pictures, part of Viacom/National Amusements

DTV Services Ltd (20%) – with Arqiva, BBC, Channel 4
Channel 4
and ITV plc. Manages and markets the Freeview brand.[103]

Former operations Stake in ITV ITV plc
ITV plc
has been the subject of a flurry of rumoured take-over and merger bids since it was formed. For example, on 9 November 2006, NTL announced that it had approached ITV plc
ITV plc
about a proposed merger.[104][105] The merger was effectively blocked by BSkyB
BSkyB
on 17 November 2006 when it controversially bought a 17.9% stake in ITV plc for £940 million,[106] a move that attracted anger from NTL shareholder Richard Branson[107] and an investigation from media and telecoms regulator Ofcom.[108] On 6 December 2006, NTL announced that it had complained to the Office of Fair Trading
Office of Fair Trading
about BSkyB's move. NTL stated that it had withdrawn its attempt to buy ITV plc, citing that it did not believe that there was any possibility to make a deal on favourable terms.[109] On 17 July 2014, BSkyB's 6.4% stake in ITV was sold to Liberty Global, valued at £481 million.[110] See also

Sky UK Sky Ireland Sky Deutschland Sky Italia Amstrad The Cloud

References

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21st Century Fox
agree £18.5bn takeover deal". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 15 December 2016.  ^ " Fox News
Fox News
Scandals, Political Influence Concerns Cast Long Shadow Over Sky Review". Variety. Retrieved 29 June 2017.  ^ "Murdoch's Sky bid likely to be referred to competition authorities". The Guardian. 29 June 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.  ^ "Major Setback for Murdoch in $15 Billion Sky Takeover". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 June 2017.  ^ "Fox's Sky Deal Faces Challenge to "Fit and Proper" Decision". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 29 September 2017.  ^ "Sky threatens to shut down Sky News". BBC
BBC
News. 8 November 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ Plummer, Robert (15 December 2017). " Sky News
Sky News
faces uncertain future". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ White, Peter (14 December 2017). "Disney-Fox Deal: Sky Deal Still On The Table, Expected To Close By June 2018". Deadline. Retrieved 14 December 2017.  ^ Deans, Jason (21 February 2013). "Sky Movies Disney: new channel to show UK TV film premieres". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 December 2017.  ^ Sweney, Mark (23 January 2018). "Rupert Murdoch's Sky bid is not in public interest, says regulator". the Guardian. Retrieved 24 January 2018.  ^ "Fox Ties Disney to Sky News
Sky News
Guarantee to Win Takeover Approval". Bloomberg. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ Mitchell, Robert (20 February 2018). "Fox Offers to Increase Sky News Commitment to Satisfy British Competition Watchdog". Variety. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ "Murdoch bid for Sky challenged by US giant". BBC
BBC
News. 27 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ Haring, Bruce (12 February 2018). " Comcast
Comcast
Mulls Renewing Its 21st Century Fox Assets Pursuit – Report". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 24 February 2018.  ^ " Comcast
Comcast
May Make Another Bid for 21st Century Fox
21st Century Fox
(Report)". Variety. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.  ^ White, Peter (27 February 2018). "NBCU's Steve Burke Claims Comcast's $31B Sky Deal Will Boost Scripted TV & Film Fortunes, Fox Notes No "Firm Offer" Was Made; 21st Century Fox
21st Century Fox
Reacts – Update". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 27 February 2018.  ^ Clarke, Stewart (3 April 2018). "Disney Could Acquire Sky News
Sky News
in Fox-Sky Deal's Latest Twist". Variety. Retrieved 3 April 2018.  ^ Bell, Emily (5 November 2003). "Rupert and the joys of nepotism". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ " BSkyB
BSkyB
– Investor Relations – Press Release". Phx.corporate-ir.net. 7 December 2007. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ "Sky PLC DueDil". www.duedil.com. Retrieved 1 December 2015.  ^ Forrester, Chris (2011). High Above: The untold story of Astra, Europe's leading satellite company. Springer. ISBN 978-3642120084.  ^ "Sky Subscriber Services". Virgin Media. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ "Mr Stuart Trigg v Sky In-home Services Ltd". Employment Tribunal. 25 April 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ "Sky Q to allow people to do away with satellite dish". Think broadband. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ "Sky to invest Euro 1bn in Dublin HQ". Irish Times. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ "Sky: Andrea Zappia nuovo ad Sky Italia". ANSA (in Italian). 8 January 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2013.  ^ Christoph Steitz and Harro Ten Wolde (14 January 2013). "News Corp to grab control of Sky Deutschland". Reuters.  ^ Sky Launches Low-Cost Streaming Service in Spain
Spain
- Stewart Clarke, Variety, 11 September 2017 ^ "Sky acquires Acetrax as it prepares for NOW TV launch". Digital Spy. 3 May 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2013.  ^ " BSkyB
BSkyB
reels in Wi-Fi network operator The Cloud". The Register. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2013.  ^ Thorne, Clive D.; Davis, Georgia. "High Court finds that 'history' can be repeated". International Law Office. Globe Business Media Group. Retrieved 28 November 2016.  ^ a b c d "Group investments" (PDF). Annual Report 2009. British Sky Broadcasting. 2010. p. 109. Retrieved 20 March 2010.  ^ "UK games channel targets 12m viewers". Market for Home Computing and Video Games. 23 February 2011.  ^ "Sky enters strategic partnership with zeebox". BSkyB. 9 January 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2013.  ^ "Sky acquires majority stake in Love Productions". BSkyB. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.  ^ "About us". Freeview. Archived from the original on 5 April 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2010. Freeview is managed by DTV Services Ltd, a company owned and run by its five shareholders – BBC, BSkyB, Channel 4, ITV and Arqiva.  ^ "Ntl Incorporated Discussions with ITV plc" (Press release). NTL. 9 November 2006. Archived from the original on 13 November 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2006.  ^ "ITV and NTL 'in merger talks'" (Press release). ITV plc. 9 November 2006. Archived from the original on 30 November 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2006.  ^ Welsh, James (17 November 2006). "Sky buys 17.9% of ITV". Digital Spy. Retrieved 6 December 2006.  ^ Wilkes, Neil (20 November 2006). "Sky/ITV: Branson statement in full". Digital Spy. Retrieved 6 December 2006.  ^ Welsh, James (21 November 2006). " Ofcom
Ofcom
examines impact of Sky's ITV stake". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on 27 November 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2006.  ^ Oatts, Joanne (6 December 2006). " NTL complains about Sky as it drops plans for ITV Ofcom". Digital Spy. Retrieved 6 December 2006.  ^ Clover, Julian (17 July 2014). " Liberty Global
Liberty Global
makes £481m investment in ITV". Broadband TV News. Retrieved 17 July 2014. 

External links

Sky plc
Sky plc
official website Sky (United Kingdom) Sky Ireland Sky Deutschland Sky Austria Sky Italia Amstrad The Cloud Sky plc
Sky plc
companies grouped at OpenCorporates List of Channels on Sky (UK & Ireland) (TV Channel Lists)

v t e

Sky plc

UK and Ireland

Channels

Sky One Sky Two Sky Arts Sky Atlantic Sky Living Sky Cinema Sky News Sky Sports Sky Sports
Sky Sports
Box Office Sky Sports
Sky Sports
F1 Sky Sports
Sky Sports
News Challenge Pick Real Lives

Defunct channels

PremPlus Sky 2 (1996–97) Sky Arts Sky Soap Sky Scottish .tv The Amp The Comedy Channel Sky News
Sky News
Ireland Sky Real Lives Sky Travel The Sports Channel The Movie Channel The Power Station Now Galaxy Channel One Bravo Bravo 2 Challenge Jackpot Sky Living
Sky Living
Loves Sky 3D

Joint ventures

At the Races A&E Networks UK

Blaze Crime & Investigation History H2 Lifetime

Nickelodeon UK

Nickelodeon Nick Jr. Nick Jr. Too Nicktoons

Paramount UK Partnership

Comedy Central Comedy Central Extra

Sky News
Sky News
Arabia

Defunct Magazines

Sky Magazine Sky Kids

Other

Amstrad Freesat
Freesat
from Sky On Demand Sky Sports
Sky Sports
Active Sky+
Sky+
HD Sky Betting & Gaming Sky Broadband Sky Active Sky Go Sky Text Sky Vision Sky+ Now TV The Cloud Sky 3D Open....

Germany
Germany
and Austria

Sky 1 Sky Arts Sky Atlantic Sky Cinema Sky Krimi Sky Select Sky Sport Sky Sport News Sky Bundesliga Sky 3D

Italy

Channels

Sky Arte Sky Atlantic Sky Cinema Sky Meteo24 Sky Primafila Sky Sport Sky Sport F1 Sky Sport MotoGP Sky Sport 24 Sky Calcio Sky TG24 Sky Uno Sky Radio Cielo TV8

Defunct channels

Sky Vivo Sky Show Sky 3D

Other

Sky HD Stream TV

See also

21st Century Fox British Satellite Broadcasting Digibox Granada Sky Broadcasting Living TV Group Minidish Sky Multichannels Sky Picnic Sky Studios Sky Television plc Timeline of Sky TV

Links to related articles

v t e

British Satellite Broadcasting

BSB channels (top) and their replacement by the merger (bottom)

   

Galaxy ▼ Sky One

The Movie Channel ▼ Retained

Now ▼ Sky News
Sky News
& Sky Arts

The Power Station ▼ Sky Movies

The Sports Channel ▼ Sky Sports

Other: Marco Polo House Marcopolo (now Thor) Sky Sky Television plc

v t e

21st Century Fox

Corporate directors

Rupert Murdoch
Rupert Murdoch
(Executive Co-Chairman) Lachlan Murdoch
Lachlan Murdoch
(Executive Co-Chairman) James Murdoch
James Murdoch
(CEO) Chase Carey

v t e

Fox Entertainment Group

20th Century Fox

20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
Animation 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
Home Entertainment Fox Star Studios Blue Sky Studios Fox Searchlight Pictures Fox Studios Australia Fox Music

Fox Television Group

20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
Television 20th Television Fox 21 Television Studios Fox Television Animation Fox Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Company

Endemol
Endemol
Shine GroupJV

Endemol

USA

Authentic Entertainment True Entertainment 51 Minds Entertainment

UK

Tiger Aspect Productions Zeppotron

Australia India

Shine Group

Bossa Studios ChannelFlip Dragonfly Friday TV Kudos Metronome Princess Productions Shine America Shine TV

CORE Media Group

19 Entertainment Sharp Entertainment

Fox News
Fox News
Group

Fox News
Fox News
Channel Fox Business Network Fox News
Fox News
Radio Fox Nation

Fox Television Stations

Movies!JV MyNetworkTV Fox Television Stations
Fox Television Stations
Productions

Fox

KDFW KMSP KRIV KSAZ KTBC KTTV KTVU WAGA WFLD WJBK WJZY WNYW WOFL WOGX WTTG WTVT WTXF

MyNetworkTV

KCOP KDFI KTXH KUTP WDCA WFTC WMYT WPWR WRBW WWOR

Other

WPWR (CW) KICU (Ind.)

Fox Networks Group

FX Networks

FX FXX FX Movie Channel

Fox Sports

Big Ten NetworkJV Fox Deportes Fox Sports Networks Fox Sports 1 Fox Sports 2 Fox Soccer Plus Fox College Sports YES Network

Fox Networks Group International

Fox

Asia Bulgaria Finland Germany, Austria
Austria
and Switzerland Greece and Cyprus India Italy Latin America Arabia Netherlands Poland Portugal Balkans Spain Turkey UK and Ireland Hungary Norway Russia Estonia Lithuania Latvia Sweden Belgium

Fox Life

Asia Bulgaria Croatia Greece and Cyprus Italy India Latin America Portugal Spain Turkey

FX

Australia Asia CanadaJV Latin America Turkey

Fox Sports

Africa Asia Australia Fox Sports and EntertainmentJV (Japan) Brazil Europe Italy Latin America Middle East NetherlandsJV

Fox Sports Eredivisie Fox Sports International

Philippines Fox Sports Racing (Canada and Caribbean) Turkey JTBC3 Fox SportsJV (South Korea) Fox Sports News (Australia) Fuel TV (Europe, Middle East and Africa) Fox Footy
Fox Footy
(Australia) Fox League
Fox League
(Australia)

National Geographic

National Geographic

Africa Asia Australia and New Zealand Brazil CanadaJV France Germany Greece India Latin America Netherlands Portugal Scandinavia South Korea UK and Ireland Turkey

Nat Geo WildJV

Canada Europe Latin America

Nat Geo Mundo Nat Geo People Nat Geo Music Nat Geo Kids

Spanish Latin America Brazil

FXX

CanadaJV

Fox Crime

Asia Bulgaria Italy Portugal Serbia Turkey

Fox Comedy

Italy Poland Portugal MENA

Fox Movies

MENA Portugal Balkans Japan Asia

24Kitchen

Netherlands Portugal Turkey

Fox Premium

Brazil Latin America

Other

Channel V Fox Action Movies Fox Family Movies TVNJV (Asia) Fox Animation (Italy) BabyTV Fox Classics (Japan) Fox Filipino Fox Kids
Fox Kids
(Finland) FXM (Latin America) Viajar
Viajar
(Spain) Voyage (France) YourTV
YourTV
(UK and Ireland)

STAR TV

Star World

Premiere

Star Movies

Action

Star Sports

China India

Star Plus

UK and Ireland

Movies OK Star Bharat Star Utsav Star Gold Star Vijay
Star Vijay
(81%) Star Jalsha Star Pravah Jalsha Movies Asianet
Asianet
Communications

Asianet Asianet
Asianet
Plus Asianet
Asianet
Suvarna Asianet
Asianet
Movies

Star Chinese Movies Star Chinese Channel Star Entertainment Channel Phoenix Television
Phoenix Television
(17.6%)

Phoenix InfoNews Channel Phoenix Movies Channel Phoenix Hong Kong Channel Phoenix Chinese News and Entertainment Channel Phoenix North America Chinese Channel

Fox Sports Digital Media

FoxSports.com

Investments

Fox Telecolombia
Fox Telecolombia
(51%)

Other

Fox Digital Entertainment Zero Day Fox 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
World (Malaysia) (license to Resort World by Genting Group) 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
World (Dubai)

Defunct

20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
Records 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox
Video Bem Simples CBS/Fox Video ESPN Asia ESPN Philippines ESPNews Asia Fox Atomic Fox Animation Studios Foxstar Productions Fox Faith Fox Football Channel Fox Footy
Fox Footy
Channel Fox Interactive Fox Kids Fox Life
Fox Life
Netherlands Fox Movie Channel Fox Next Fox Reality Channel Fox Sports Houston Fox Sports News Asia Fox Sports Türkiye Fox Sports World Canada Fox Soccer Fox 21 Television Studios Fox Video FSN Chicago Fuel TV Australia Fuel TV Portugal FX Greece FX India GXT Life OK Metromedia MTM Enterprises MBC3 MTV Nat Geo y Yo New World Pictures Prime Network Regency Television Speed Speed Australia Speed Latin America Star One SportsChannel America Utilísima Viva Cinema

v t e

Star Group

China

Star Chinese Channel Star Chinese Movies Star Sports Star Sports
Star Sports
2 Star Entertainment Channel Xing Kong (47%) Fortune Star

India

Channel [V] India Star Bharat Star Gold Star Jalsha Star Movies Star Movies
Star Movies
Action Jalsha Movies Life OK Movies OK Star Plus

UK

Star Pravah Star Utsav Star World Star World Premiere Star Sports Star Suvarna Asianet
Asianet
Communications

Asianet Asianet
Asianet
Plus Asianet
Asianet
Movies Asianet
Asianet
Middle East

Hathway
Hathway
(17%) Star Vijay
Star Vijay
(81%) Star Utsav
Star Utsav
Movies MAA TV Tata Sky (30%)

Star Select

Broadcast Middle East (50%)

Farsi1 Zemzemeh

Rotana (15%)

Investments and joint ventures

Sky (39.1%) STAR DEN (50%) Hulu
Hulu
(36%, Joint venture with NBCUniversal, Time Warner
Time Warner
and The Walt Disney Company) National Geographic Partners (73%, Joint venture with the National Geographic Society)

See also: List of assets owned by 21st Century Fox, News Corp, News Corporation, Proposed acquisition by Disney

v t e

2011–2012 News Corporation
News Corporation
scandal

Events

News International
News International
phone hacking scandal News of the World
News of the World
royal phone hacking scandal News Corporation
News Corporation
takeover bid for BSkyB News of the World
News of the World
phone hacking scandal investigations

Companies and organisations

News Corporation

News International

News of the World The Sun The Times The Sunday Times

News Limited

Other

BSkyB Culture, Media and Sport Committee Federal Bureau of Investigation Harbottle & Lewis Independent Police Complaints Commission Metropolitan Police

role

Ofcom Press Complaints Commission Serious Fraud Office Solicitors Regulation Authority

People

Known victims

7/7 attack victims Leslie Ash Gordon Brown Lee Chapman Charlotte Church Steve Coogan Anne Diamond Milly Dowler Garry Flitcroft Sheryl Gascoigne Hugh Grant Andy Gray Tessa Jowell Gerry and Kate McCann Elle Macpherson Sienna Miller Ian Paisley Ian Paisley, Jr. Sara Payne John Prescott J. K. Rowling

Metropolitan Police

Sue Akers Peter Clarke Andy Hayman Paul Stephenson John Yates

News Corporation

Rebekah Brooks Jonathan Chapman Daniel Cloke Andy Coulson Tom Crone Wendi Deng Murdoch James Desborough Viet Dinh Ian Edmondson Clive Goodman Baron Grabiner Simon Greenberg Les Hinton Sean Hoare Lawrence Jacobs Joel Klein Stuart Kuttner William Lewis Paul McMullan Greg Miskiw Tom Mockridge Glenn Mulcaire James Murdoch Rupert Murdoch Colin Myler Lucy Panton Jamie Pyatt Jonathan Rees Neville Thurlbeck Neil Wallis James Weatherup

Other

Nick Davies Lord Fowler Lord Justice Leveson Jay Rockefeller Paul Staines Tom Watson John Whittingdale

Investigations and legal cases

HM Advocate v Sheridan and Sheridan Leveson Inquiry Operation Elveden Operation Kalmyk Operation Tuleta Operation Weeting R v Coulson, Brooks and others

In popular culture

Dial M for Murdoch Great Britain

Related topics

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Hacked Off Operation Glade Operation Motorman Phone hacking Phreaking Politico-media complex Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 Social engineering

Category

v t e

Media in the United Kingdom

UK national newspapers, magazines, and other periodicals

Newspapers (History)

Berliner

The Guardian The Observer

Broadsheet

Financial Times The Daily Telegraph The Sunday Telegraph The Sunday Times

Compact

i The Times

Middle-market

Daily Express Daily Mail The Mail on Sunday

Tabloid

Daily Mirror Sunday Mirror Morning Star The Sunday People Daily Star Daily Star Sunday The Sun Sunday Sport

Magazines & other periodicals

List of magazines by circulation

Radio in the UK

National stations

BBC

Analogue / digital Radio 1 Radio 2 Radio 3 Radio 4 5 Live Digital only Radio 1Xtra Radio 4 Extra 5 Live Sports Extra 6 Music Asian Network World Service BBC
BBC
National DAB (multiplex)

Independent / commercial

Analogue / digital Absolute Radio Classic FM Heart Kiss Talksport Digital only Absolute 80s Absolute 90s BFBS Radio Capital Xtra Digital One (multiplex) Heart 80s Heart Extra heat The Hits Jazz FM Kerrang! Kiss Fresh Kisstory LBC Magic Planet Rock Premier Christian Radio Radio X RNIB Connect Radio Sound Digital (multiplex) Smooth Extra Talkradio UCB UK Virgin Radio UK

Regional & local stations

BBC

List of BBC
BBC
Local Radio stations List of BBC
BBC
Regional Radio stations

Independent / commercial

List of community radio stations List of local commercial radio stations List of semi-national / regional analogue and digital radio stations

Other stations

List of hospital radio stations Pirate radio Restricted Service Licence (RSL)

List of RSL stations

List of satellite radio stations List of student and schools radio

Other

Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House FM broadcasting The Studios, MediaCityUK Radio Academy

Radio Academy Awards

Radio Independents Group RAJAR Most listened to programmes

Television in the UK

Principal channels (List)

BBC

BBC
BBC
One BBC
BBC
Two BBC
BBC
Four BBC
BBC
News BBC
BBC
Parliament CBBC CBeebies

ITV

ITV ITV2 ITV3 ITV4 CITV ITV Encore ITVBe ITV Box Office

Ch 4

Channel 4 E4 Film4 More4 4seven

Ch 5

Channel 5 5Prime 5Spike 5Star 5USA

Sky

Challenge Pick Real Lives Sky One Sky Two Sky Arts Sky Atlantic Sky Cinema Sky Living Sky News Sky Sports Sky Sports
Sky Sports
F1 Sky Sports
Sky Sports
News

UKTV

Alibi Dave Drama Eden Gold Good Food Home Really W Yesterday

Sony Pictures
Sony Pictures
Television

Chart Show TV Chart Show Hits Movies4Men Pop Pop Max Starz TV Sony Channel Sony Movie Channel Scuzz Tiny Pop True Crime True Entertainment True Movies truTV The Vault

Services & platforms

All 4

Film4oD

analogue

analogue terrestrial (defunct)

BBC
BBC
iPlayer

BBC
BBC
Three

BBC
BBC
Store TalkTalk TV
TalkTalk TV
Store BT TV cable digital

digital terrestrial List of channels

Freesat

Freesat+

Freeview high-definition

List of channels

ITV

ITV Hub, STV Player

local television My5 Now TV (Sky plc) Real Digital Restricted Service Licence satellite

List of channels

Sky

Freesat
Freesat
from Sky On Demand Sky+ Sky+
Sky+
HD

Talk Talk
Talk
TV Top Up TV TVPlayer Virgin Media

FilmFlex TiVo V+

YouView Zattoo

Studios

Current

BBC
BBC
Elstree Centre BBC
BBC
Pacific Quay The Bottle Yard Studios Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House, Belfast Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House, Bristol Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House, Cardiff Elstree Studios (Shenley Road) Gas Street Studios The Leeds Studios The London
London
Studios The Maidstone Studios Mailbox Birmingham MediaCityUK Osterley Television Centre Roath Lock Television Centre, London

Defunct

British and Dominions Imperial Studios Fountain Studios Gate Studios Granada Studios MGM-British Studios Pebble Mill Studios Teddington Studios Television Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne Television Centre, Southampton Upper Boat Studios

Other

Defunct channels Edinburgh International Television Festival History

List of years

List of channels Student television Viewing statistics

Most-watched broadcasts

Companies and organisations

Companies

Major companies

Archant Ascential Bauer Radio BBC Bloomsbury Publishing BT Group Channel Four Television Corporation Daily Mail
Daily Mail
and General Trust Dentsu Aegis Network Economist Group EMI Music Publishing Endemol
Endemol
Shine UK Global Group Guardian Media Group Haymarket Media Group Informa ITN ITV plc Johnston Press Mecom Group News UK Newsquest Northern & Shell Now TV (Sky plc) Pearson plc Press Holdings RELX Group Reuters Sky UK
Sky UK
Limited Sky plc STV Group Syco Talk Talk
Talk
Group Time Inc. UK Trinity Mirror UBM plc Virgin Media Wireless Group

Other resources

Arqiva List of largest UK book publishers

Government & regulatory bodies

Advertising Standards Authority BBC
BBC
Trust British Board of Film Classification British Film Institute Culture, Media, and Sport Select Committee Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Independent Press Standards Organisation Ofcom Press Recognition Panel S4C Authority

Industry & trades bodies

British Academy of Film and Television Arts British Phonographic Industry Broadcasting, Entertainment, Cinematograph and Theatre Union Clearcast Digital TV Group Digital UK Equity Federation Against Copyright Theft National Union of Journalists The Publishers Association Royal Television Society United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Independent Broadcasting

Other

BBC
BBC
Academy National Film and Television School National Science and Media Museum

Regional and student media

Regional media

Media in England

Birmingham London Manchester

Media in Scotland

Aberdeen Dundee Glasgow

Media in Wales

Cardiff

Student media

Student television

Category

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications
Telecommunications
history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications
Telecommunications
equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

Category Portal

v t e

Telecommunications
Telecommunications
industry in the United Kingdom

Economy of the United Kingdom Science and technology in the United Kingdom

Companies

Infrastructure providers

Arqiva Babcock International BT Wholesale and Ventures Openreach Interxion TelecityGroup Telehouse Europe

Service providers

Current

Andrews & Arnold Asda Mobile BT Group

BT Consumer BT Business and Public Sector BT Global Services EE Plusnet

Claranet Colt Group The Co-operative Cable & Wireless Communications Delight Mobile Family Mobile Inmarsat KCOM Group

Eclipse Internet

Lebara Mobile Lycamobile Mapesbury Communications O2 (UK)

Giffgaff

Sky

Sky Broadband

Talkmobile Talk Talk
Talk
Group

AOL Broadband Talk Talk
Talk
Business Talk Talk
Talk
Mobile Talk Talk
Talk
TV

Telecom Plus Tesco
Tesco
Mobile Three

SMARTY

Tru Virgin Media

Virgin Media
Virgin Media
Business Virgin Mobile UK

Vodafone

Vodafone
Vodafone
UK

Voipfone WightFibre Zen Internet

Defunct

Atlantic Telegraph Company Be Un Limited Bonelli's Electric Telegraph Company Cable & Wireless plc Cable & Wireless Worldwide Dolphin Telecom Electric Telegraph Company Energis General Post Office Ionica London
London
and Provincial District Telegraph Company Mercury Communications Mobile by Sainsbury's National Telephone Company NTL Orange UK Ovivo Post Office Telecommunications Pipex Rabbit Stan Mobile Tiscali UK T-Mobile UK Universal Private Telegraph Company

Suppliers

Current

ARM Holdings Artevea CSR Icera Metaswitch Pace Sarantel Spirent Telent

Defunct

GEC Plessey Telecommunications Marconi Company Marconi Communications PicoChip Standard Telephones and Cables

Other

Carphone Warehouse Hibu Phones 4u

Dial-a-Phone

Government and regulatory bodies

Broadband Stakeholder Group Defence Science and Technology Laboratory European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications
Telecommunications
Administrations International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union Ofcom PhonepayPlus

Industry bodies

GSM Association Internet
Internet
Service Providers Association LONAP London
London
Internet
Internet
Exchange MaNAP Symbian Foundation Internet
Internet
Telephony Services Providers’ Association

Other

Adastral Park British Approvals Board for Telecommunications British Telecommunications
Telecommunications
Act 1981 British telephone sockets BT Research BT site engineering code Communications Act 2003 Earth stations in the United Kingdom Hull Colour Pages Interception of Communications Act 1985 Internet
Internet
in the United Kingdom Telegraph Act Telegraph Act 1868 Telegraph Act 1885 Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom UK telephone code misconceptions Web blocking in the United Kingdom

Category Commons

v t e

Television in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
and Northern Ireland

Terrestrial

Digital

RTÉ One RTÉ2 TV3 TG4 3e Be3 RTÉ One
RTÉ One
+1 RTÉ News Now RTÉjr

HD

RTÉ One
RTÉ One
HD RTÉ2
RTÉ2
HD

Northern Ireland

BBC
BBC
One Northern Ireland BBC
BBC
Two Northern Ireland UTV UTV +1 Channel 4 Channel 5

HD

BBC
BBC
One Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
HD BBC
BBC
Two HD UTV HD Channel 4
Channel 4
HD

Cable/Satellite

TG4
TG4
HD TV3 HD Oireachtas TV Eir Sport 1 Eir Sport 2 Eir Sport 2 HD TV3 +1 Irish TV GAAGO

Local/Community

NVTV DCTV Cork Community TV

Internet

RTÉ News Now www.tg4.tv

Video on Demand (VoD)

RTÉ player TG4
TG4
Player 3Player

Future/Planned

Irish Film Channel TG4
TG4
+1 Cúla 4

Defunct

Bubble Hits Channel 6 Sky News
Sky News
Ireland Buzz TV Smile TV MiTV City Channel Dublin City Channel Galway Channel South

Channels with Irish Opt-out Feed

Sky One Sky Two Sky Living Sky Living
Sky Living
+1 Pick Challenge Sky Atlantic Sky News Sky Sports Sky Sports
Sky Sports
News At the Races Universal Channel E4 E4 +1 MTV Ireland MTV Music Nicktoons Nickelodeon Nick Jr. Nick Jr. Too Comedy Central Comedy Central +1 Comedy Central Extra E! TLC Dave Alibi Gold W Discovery Channel Investigation Discovery

v t e

Television in Germany

ARD

Das Erste One tagesschau24 ARD-alpha BR Fernsehen hr-fernsehen MDR Fernsehen NDR Fernsehen Radio Bremen TV rbb Fernsehen SR Fernsehen SWR Fernsehen WDR Fernsehen DW-TV

ZDF

ZDF ZDFneo ZDFinfo

ARD & ZDF

3sat Arte KiKa Phoenix

Mediengruppe RTL Deutschland

Free-TV

RTL Nitro RTLplus n-tv VOX (RTL/DCTP) RTL II
RTL II
(RTL/Bauer/TMG/Disney/Burda) Super RTL
Super RTL
(RTL/Disney)

Pay-TV

RTL Crime RTL Living RTL Passion GEO Television

ProSiebenSat.1 Media

Free-TV

Sat.1 ProSieben kabel eins sixx Sat.1
Sat.1
Gold ProSieben
ProSieben
Maxx kabel eins Doku

Pay-TV

ProSieben
ProSieben
Fun Sat.1
Sat.1
Emotions kabel eins classics

Viacom

Free-TV

Comedy Central Nickelodeon VIVA

Pay-TV

MTV MTV Brand New Nick Jr. Nicktoons

Discovery Networks

Free-TV

DMAX Eurosport 1 TLC

Pay-TV

Animal Planet Discovery Channel Eurosport 2

Disney–ABC

Free-TV

Disney Channel

Pay-TV

Disney Junior Disney XD Disney Cinemagic

Others

Free-TV

Bibel TV Channel 21 Deluxe Music eoTV Euronews Hope Channel Deutsch N24 Doku QVC ServusTV Sonnenklar.TV Sport1 Tele 5 Welt Zee.One

Pay-TV

13th Street A&E Animax AXN Boomerang Cartoon Network Classica Fox Channel Kinowelt TV Silverline Movie Channel Sony Channel Sportdigital Syfy TNT Film TNT Glitz TNT Serie Universal Channel Sky Deutschland
Sky Deutschland
channels

Television stations Sports broadcasting

v t e

Television in Italy

Terrestrial digital (free)

RAI

Rai 1
Rai 1
( Rai 1
Rai 1
HD) Rai 2
Rai 2
( Rai 2
Rai 2
HD) Rai 3
Rai 3
( Rai 3
Rai 3
HD) Rai 4 Rai 5 Rai Movie Rai Premium
Rai Premium
( Rai Premium
Rai Premium
HD) Rai Gulp Rai Yoyo Rai Storia Rai Scuola Rai News24 Rai Sport
Rai Sport
( Rai Sport
Rai Sport
+ HD)

Mediaset

Canale 5
Canale 5
( Canale 5
Canale 5
HD) Italia 1
Italia 1
( Italia 1
Italia 1
HD) Rete 4 La5 Italia 2 Iris Top Crime Mediaset
Mediaset
Extra Retecapri TgCom24 R101 TV

Discovery Italia

Nove (Nove HD) Real Time DMAX Giallo Focus K2 Frisbee

Cairo Communication

La7
La7
( La7
La7
HD) La7d (La7d HD)

Sky Italia

TV8 Cielo Sky TG24

Viacom

Paramount Channel Spike VH1

Sony Pictures

Cine Sony Pop

De Agostini

Alpha Super! (50% with Viacom)

Al.ma Media

Alice Marcopolo Case Design Stili Marcopolo Diari

Boing (51% Mediaset, 49% Turner Broadcasting
Broadcasting
System)

Boing Cartoonito

Scripps Networks

Food Network

Television Broadcasting
Broadcasting
System

Capri Television Capri Store Capri Fashion Capri Casinò

RTL 102.5 Hit Radio

RTL 102.5 TV Radiofreccia (Radiofreccia HD) Radio Zeta

GEDI Gruppo Editoriale

Deejay TV

Other national channels

TV2000 SuperTennis Sportitalia Top Calcio 24 Top Planet Nuvola61 Radio Italia TV Padre Pio TV France 24

Network of local televisions

7 Gold

Teleshopping and lower national channels

QVC HSE24 Juwelo Winga TV Acqua Play.me Canale Italia Vero Air TV Orler TV Air Italia Linea Italia Italia +

Terrestrial digital (pay)

Mediaset
Mediaset
Premium

Satellite television (free)

Tivù Sat

Satellite television (pay) Sky Italia

Sky Italia

Sky Uno Sky Atlantic Sky Arte Sky Cinema Sky Calcio Sky Sport Sky Sport 24 Sky Meteo24 Sky 3D

Disney Channels Worldwide

Disney Channel Disney Junior Disney XD

Viacom

Comedy Central MTV Nickelodeon Nick Jr.

Turner Broadcasting
Broadcasting
System

Cartoon Network Boomerang

TV On Demand (free)

RaiPlay Mediaset
Mediaset
On Demand LA7 On Demand Dplay

TV On Demand (pay)

Now TV Infinity TIMvision Netflix

v t e

FTSE 100 companies of the United Kingdom   → FTSE 250

3i Admiral Group Anglo American Antofagasta Ashtead Group Associated British Foods AstraZeneca Aviva BAE Systems BHP BP Barclays Barratt Developments Berkeley Group Holdings British American Tobacco British Land BT Group Bunzl Burberry Carnival Centrica Coca-Cola HBC Compass Group CRH Croda International DCC Diageo Direct Line Group easyJet Evraz Experian Ferguson Fresnillo G4S GKN GlaxoSmithKline Glencore Halma Hammerson Hargreaves Lansdown HSBC Imperial Brands Informa InterContinental Hotels Group International Airlines Group Intertek ITV Johnson Matthey Just Eat Kingfisher Land Securities Legal & General Lloyds Banking Group London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange
Group Marks & Spencer Mediclinic International Micro Focus
Micro Focus
International Mondi Morrisons National Grid Next NMC Health Old Mutual Paddy Power Betfair Pearson Persimmon Prudential Randgold Resources Royal Bank of Scotland Reckitt Benckiser RELX Group Rentokil Initial Rio Tinto Group Rolls-Royce Royal Dutch Shell RSA Insurance Group Sage Group J Sainsbury Schroders Scottish Mortgage Investment Trust Segro Severn Trent Shire Sky Smith, D.S. Smith & Nephew Smiths Group Smurfit Kappa SSE Standard Chartered Standard Life Aberdeen St. James's Place Taylor Wimpey Tesco TUI Unilever United Utilities Vodafone W

.