The Info List - Sivas

( Latin
and Greek: Sebastia, Sebastea, Sebasteia, Sebaste, Σεβάστεια, Σεβαστή; Armenian: Սեբաստիա) is a city in central Turkey
and the seat of Sivas
Province. According to a 2011 estimate, its urban population is 425,297. The city, which lies at an elevation of 1,278 metres (4,193 ft) in the broad valley of the Kızılırmak river, is a moderately-sized trade center and industrial city, although the economy has traditionally been based on agriculture. Rail repair shops and a thriving manufacturing industry of rugs, bricks, cement, and cotton and woolen textiles form the mainstays of the city's economy. The surrounding region is a cereal-producing area with large deposits of iron ore which are worked at Divriği. Sivas
is also a communications hub for the north-south and east-west trade routes to Iraq and Iran, respectively. With the development of railways, the city gained new economic importance as junction of important rail lines linking the cities of Ankara, Kayseri, Samsun, and Erzurum. The city is linked by air to Istanbul. The popular name Sebastian derives from the Latin
Sebastianus and Greek Sebastianòs, Σεβαστιανός, meaning someone from the city.[3][4]


1 History

1.1 Ancient and medieval

2 Climate 3 Economy 4 Sights 5 Sports

5.1 Museums 5.2 Madrasahs

6 Cuisine 7 International relations

7.1 Twin towns and sister cities

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] Ancient and medieval[edit]

Former Sivas

Gök Medrese, built by the Seljuk Turks

Excavations at a mound known as Topraktepe indicate Hittite settlement in the area as early as 2600 BC,[citation needed] though little is known of Sivas' history prior to its emergence in the Roman period. In 64 BC as part of his reorganization of Asia Minor after the Third Mithridatic War, Pompey
the Great founded a city on the site called "Megalopolis".[5] Numismatic evidence suggests that Megalopolis changed its name in the last years of the 1st century BC to "Sebaste", which is the feminine form of the Greek name corresponding to Augustus. The name "Sivas" is the Turkish version deriving from the name Sebasteia, as the city was known during the late Roman (Byzantine) empire. Sebasteia became the capital of the province of Armenia Minor
Armenia Minor
under the emperor Diocletian, was a town of some importance in the early history of the Christian Church; in the 4th century it was the home of Saint Blaise
Saint Blaise
and Saint Peter of Sebaste, bishops of the town, and of Eustathius, one of the early founders of monasticism in Asia Minor. It was also the place of martyrdom of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, also 4th century. Justinian I
Justinian I
had a fortified wall around it rebuilt in the 6th century. Sebasteia was the first important city to be plundered by Turkish tribes in 1059.[6] In August of that year the troops of various emirs gathered before the unwalled city. Initially they hesitated to sack it, mistaking that the domes of the several Christian churches were tends of military camps. As soon as they realized that the city was defenceless they burned it for eight days, slaughtered a large part of its population and took many prisoners.[7] The city came under the domain of Turkmen Danishmend
dynasty (1071–1174) after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. After the death of Danişmend Gazi, Sivas
passed to Nizamettin Yağıbasan who won it after a struggle with Danişmend Gazi's successors. In 1174, the city was captured by Seljuk ruler Kilij Arslan II
Kilij Arslan II
and periodically served as capital of the Seljuk empire along with Konya. Under Seljuk rule, Sivas
was an important center of trade along the silk road and site of a citadel, along with mosques and madrasahs (Islamic educational institutions), four of which survive today and one of which houses the Sivas
Museum. Then it passed to the Ilkhanids, Eretna
and Kadı Burhanettin.

Paşa-Mosque at Atatürk-boulevard

The city was acquired by Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I
Bayezid I
(1389–1402). In 1398, Tamerlane
swept into the area and his forces destroyed the city in 1400, after which it was recaptured by the Ottomans in 1408.[8] Under the Ottomans, Sivas
served as the administrative center of the province of Rum until about the late 19th century. The Armenian Apostolic Church maintained six Armenian churches in Sivas, being the Meryemana, Surp Sarkis, Surp Minas, Surp Prgitsh, Surp Hagop, Surp Kevork, four monasteries Surp Nschan, Surp Hreshdagabed, Surp Anabad, Surp Hntragadar, an Armenian Apostolic orphanage and several schools. The Armenian Catholic Church
Armenian Catholic Church
and the Latins also had one church and a metropolitan of Sebastea.[9] Two Protestant churches and eight, mostly German- and American-staffed, schools. During the genocide against Armenians as well as against Greek Christians from July 5, 1915 onwards, the Christian community of Sivas
was exterminated by deportations and mass executions.[10] The Sivas Congress
Sivas Congress
(Heyet-i Temiliye) was held in this city 4–11 September 1919.[11] With the arrival of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–1938), the founder of the Turkish Republic, from Amasya, the Congress of Sivas
Congress of Sivas
is considered a turning point in the formation of the Turkish Republic. It was at this congress that Atatürk's position as chair of the executive committee of the national resistance was confirmed (see Turkish War of Independence). Sivas
was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 500 lira banknote of 1927-1939.[12] On 2 July 1993, 37 participants in an Alevi
cultural and literary festival were killed when a mob of demonstrators set fire to the Madimak hotel in Sivas
during a violent protest by some 15,000 members of various radical Islamist
groups against the presence of Aziz Nesin. The deaths resulted in the Turkish government taking a harder stance against religious fanaticism, militant Islam, and antisecularism. In late 2006, there was a campaign by the Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
Cultural Institute to convert the former hotel into a museum to commemorate the tragedy, now known as the Sivas
massacre. Climate[edit] Sivas
has a dry-summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsb), with warm and dry summers and cold and snowy winters. The driest months are July and August and the wettest are April and May.

Climate data for Sivas

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.6 (58.3) 17.5 (63.5) 25.0 (77) 29.0 (84.2) 32.0 (89.6) 35.2 (95.4) 40.0 (104) 39.4 (102.9) 34.6 (94.3) 30.3 (86.5) 22.8 (73) 19.4 (66.9) 40 (104)

Average high °C (°F) 0.8 (33.4) 2.4 (36.3) 8.2 (46.8) 15.2 (59.4) 20.0 (68) 24.0 (75.2) 27.9 (82.2) 28.4 (83.1) 24.6 (76.3) 18.4 (65.1) 10.5 (50.9) 3.8 (38.8) 15.35 (59.62)

Daily mean °C (°F) −3.3 (26.1) −2.1 (28.2) 3.0 (37.4) 9.1 (48.4) 13.6 (56.5) 17.2 (63) 20.2 (68.4) 20.1 (68.2) 16.2 (61.2) 10.9 (51.6) 4.6 (40.3) −0.4 (31.3) 9.09 (48.38)

Average low °C (°F) −7.1 (19.2) −6.3 (20.7) −1.6 (29.1) 3.5 (38.3) 7.3 (45.1) 10.1 (50.2) 12.3 (54.1) 12.0 (53.6) 8.4 (47.1) 4.6 (40.3) −0.1 (31.8) −3.9 (25) 3.27 (37.88)

Record low °C (°F) −34.6 (−30.3) −29.6 (−21.3) −27.6 (−17.7) −10.9 (12.4) −2.0 (28.4) −0.3 (31.5) 3.6 (38.5) 3.2 (37.8) −0.8 (30.6) −5.8 (21.6) −21.0 (−5.8) −27.0 (−16.6) −34.6 (−30.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 40.1 (1.579) 38.3 (1.508) 46.0 (1.811) 65.7 (2.587) 60.3 (2.374) 33.9 (1.335) 11.2 (0.441) 7.6 (0.299) 18.3 (0.72) 37.8 (1.488) 41.6 (1.638) 43.9 (1.728) 444.7 (17.508)

Average rainy days 12.3 11.9 13.3 14.7 14.3 8.7 3.2 3.0 4.7 8.3 9.7 12.3 116.4

Average snowy days 9 9 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 36

Average relative humidity (%) 77 77 72 64 61 57 53 52 54 62 72 76 64.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 77.5 95.2 151.9 186 257.3 318 372 359.6 291 198.4 120 71.3 2,498.2

Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü[13]

Source #2: Climate and Temperature[14] Weather2[15]

Economy[edit] Historically, Sivas
was known for producing cereal. As of 1913, Sivas produced 79,000 tons of cereal, making it a major, and successful, industry.[16] Sivas
also had orchards, exporting produce to Constantinople.[17] Alfalfa
and copper was also produced in the area.[18][19] Sericulture
was seen in Sivas
before 1914.[20] Sights[edit]

Leaning minaret, Ulu Camii (Grand Mosque)

A cultural hub as well as an industrial one, Sivas
contains many examples of 13th-century Seljuk architecture. The Mavi Medrese from 1271, the Şifaiye Medresesi from 1218 and the Çifte Minare Medresesi from 1271, with its intricately carved façade and minarets, are among the most noteworthy monuments. The oldest surviving mosque is the Grand Mosque (Ulu Camii) completed in 1196 is famous for its simplicity. The city is also famous for its Medreses (Islamic seminaries). Gök Medresesi (the Celestial Madrasa; depicted on the obverse of the Turkish 500 lira banknote of 1927-1939[12]) and Mavi Medrese, Sifaiye Medresesi, on the other hand, was completed earlier, on the eve of the second wave of Turkic immigration to Anatolia, in 1218 and with its intricately carved façade and minarets are among the most noteworthy edifices carries on the traditional Seljuk Medrese plan. The city also contains some fine examples of the Ottoman architectural style. Kurşunlu Hamamı (Leaden Bath) which was completed in 1576, is the largest Turkish bath in the city and it contains many details from the classical Ottoman bath building. Behrampaşa Hanı (Caravansaray), was completed in 1573 and it is famous for the lion motifs around its windows. Atatürk Congress and Ethnography Museum (Atatürk Kongre ve Etnografya Müzesi) is a museum with two sections. One is a dedicated to the Ottoman heritage of Sivas. The other is to the Sivas
Congress, one of the pivotal moments in the Turkish national movement.

Street leading up to Hükümet Meydanı

The modern heart of the city is Hükümet Square (Hükümet Meydanı, also called Konak Meydanı) located just next to the Governor's mansion. This area is also home to many of the city's high end hotels and restaurants. The city's shoppers usually head to Atatürk Avenue. Sivas
is also famous for its thermal springs which have a respectable percentage in the city's income. People believe that the water of these thermal springs can cure many illnesses. The most famous thermal areas are, Sıcak Çermik, Soğuk Çermik and Kangal
Balıklı Kaplıca. Sports[edit] See also: Category:Sport in Tokat

4 Eylül Stadium

Football is the most popular sport: in the older districts above the city center children often kick balls around in the evenings in the smallest streets. The city's football club is Sivasspor, which plays its games at the Sivas
4 Eylül Stadium. The club played in Süper Lig between 2005 and 2016. Museums[edit]

Main Square of Sivas
and Mayor's Mansion

Atatürk Congress and Ethnography Museum Sivas
Arkeology Museum Madimak Science and Culture Centre[21]


Buruciye Madrasah Çifte Minareli Madrasah (Double Minaret Madrasah) Gök Madrasah (Blue Madrasah) Şifaiye Madrasah

Cuisine[edit] Specialties of Sivas
are Tarhana (a soup made using sour yogurt), Kelecos (a sour potato soup made with yoghurt) and Katmer, a kind of flatbread. One distinct feature of Sivas
cooking is the use of Madimak which is a local herb similar to Spinach. Sivas
kebabı is a variety of Kebab originating from Sivas. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Turkey Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Sivas
is twinned with:[22]

Grozny, Russia[22] Gradačac, Bosnia and Herzegovina[22] Adama, Ethiopia[22] Baku, Azerbaijan[22] Medina, Saudi Arabia[22] Alicante, Spain[22] Clermont-Ferrand, France[22][23]

See also[edit]

List of people from Sivas Şifaiye Medrese Sivas
Congress Kangal
Dog Kangal
Fish Divriği
Great Mosque Rûm Eyalet


^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.  ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.  ^ Julia Cresswell (5 November 2007). Naming Your Baby: The Definitive Dictionary of First Names. A&C Black. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-7136-8313-4.  ^ Davis, J. Madison (1995). The Shakespeare Name and Place Dictionary. Routledge. p. 444. ISBN 978-1-884964-17-6.  ^ A.H.M. Jones, The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 1971), 159. ^ Rosser, John H. Historical dictionary of Byzantium (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 425. ISBN 9780810875678.  ^ Speros Vryonis, The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century (University of California Press, 1971), p. 155 ^ Henry Hoyle Howorth: History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century, 2008, p. 166 ^ Pars Tuğlacı: Tarih boyunca Batı Ermenileri tarihi. Cilt 3. (1891 – 1922), Pars Yayın ve Tic., Istanbul
und Ankara
2004 ISBN 975-7423-06-8, p. 43 ^ Raymond Kévorkian: Le Génocide des Arméniens; Odile Jacob, Paris 2006, p. 542 ^ Halil Gülbeyaz: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Vom Staatsgründer zum Mythos, Parthas, Berlin 2003, p. 87 ^ a b Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey
Archived 2009-06-03 at WebCite. Banknote Museum: 1. Emission Group - Five Hundred Turkish Lira - I. Series. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009. ^ "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Archived from the original on 2011-06-20.  ^ cite web url=http://www.climatetemp.info/turkey/sivas.html title=Weather Averages for Sivas, Turkey
Climate ] ^ cite web url=http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Turkey/Sivas/climate-profile.aspx title=September Climate History for Sivas
Local Turkey
] ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 60.  ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 62.  ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 63.  ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 74.  ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Armenia and Kurdistan. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 64.  ^ sitesi, milliyet.com.tr Türkiye'nin lider haber. "Madımak oteli Bilim ve Kültür Merkezi oldu". MİLLİYET HABER - TÜRKİYE'NİN HABER SİTESİ. Retrieved 2018-01-05.  ^ a b c d e f g h Uzaklar Yakinlaşti - Sivas
Twin Towns Archived 2013-12-27 at the Wayback Machine.(in Turkish) ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-12-26. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sivas.

State Theatre's Website Sivas
Haber Sivas
Portal Sivas
News Sivaslilar Vakfi - Everything About Sivas Sivas

v t e

in Sivas Province
Sivas Province
of Turkey


Akıncılar Altınyayla Divriği Doğanşar Gemerek Gölova Gürün Hafik İmranlı Kangal Koyulhisar Şarkışla Sivas Suşehri Ulaş Yıldızeli Zara

List of Provinces by Region



West Marmara

Balıkesir Çanakkale Edirne Kırklareli Tekirdağ


Afyonkarahisar Aydın Denizli İzmir Kütahya Manisa Muğla Uşak

East Marmara

Bilecik Bolu Bursa Düzce Eskişehir Kocaeli Sakarya Yalova

West Anatolia

Ankara Karaman Konya


Adana Antalya Burdur Hatay Isparta Kahramanmaraş Mersin Osmaniye

Central Anatolia

Aksaray Kayseri Kırıkkale Kırşehir Nevşehir Niğde Sivas Yozgat

West Black Sea

Amasya Bartın Çankırı Çorum Karabük Kastamonu Samsun Sinop Tokat Zonguldak

East Black Sea

Artvin Giresun Gümüşhane Ordu Rize Trabzon

Northeast Anatolia

Ağrı Ardahan Bayburt Erzincan Erzurum Iğdır Kars

Central East Anatolia

Bingöl Bitlis Elazığ Hakkâri Malatya Muş Tunceli Van

Southeast Anatolia

Adıyaman Batman Diyarbakır Gaziantep Kilis Mardin Siirt Şanlıurfa Şırnak

Metropolitan municipalities are bolded.

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