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Sirmium
Sirmium
was a city in the Roman province
Roman province
of Pannonia. First mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by Illyrians
Illyrians
and Celts,[1] it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province
Roman province
of Pannonia Inferior. In 294 AD, Sirmium
Sirmium
was proclaimed one of four capitals of the Roman Empire. It was also the capital of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum and of Pannonia
Pannonia
Secunda. Sirmium
Sirmium
was located on the Sava river, on the site of modern Sremska Mitrovica
Sremska Mitrovica
in northern Serbia. The site is protected as an Archaeological Site of Exceptional Importance. The modern region of Syrmia
Syrmia
(Srem) was named after the city. Sirmium
Sirmium
had 100,000[2] inhabitants and was one of the largest cities of its time. Colin McEvedy, however, put the population at only 7,000, based on the size of the archaeological site.[3] Ammianus Marcellinus called it "the glorious mother of cities".[citation needed]

Contents

1 History 2 Roman emperors 3 Archeological
Archeological
findings 4 Famous residents 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History[edit]

Golden Roman helmet found near Sirmium; it has been exhibited in the Museum of Vojvodina in Novi Sad.

Map of the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum, 318–79, with its capital in Sirmium.

A scale model of Sirmium
Sirmium
in the Visitors Center in Sremska Mitrovica.

Remains of Sirmium
Sirmium
stand on the site of the modern-day Sremska Mitrovica, 55 km west of Belgrade
Belgrade
(Roman Singidunum) and 145 km away from Kostolac
Kostolac
(Roman Viminacium). Archaeologists have found traces of organized human life on the site of Sirmium
Sirmium
dating from 5,000 BC.[4] The city was firstly mentioned in the 4th century BC and was originally inhabited by the Illyrians
Illyrians
and Celts[5] (by the Pannonian-Illyrian Amantini[6] and the Celtic Scordisci[7]). The Triballi
Triballi
king Syrmus was later considered the eponymous founder of Sirmium, but the roots are different, and the two words only became conflated later.[8] The name Sirmium
Sirmium
by itself means "flow, flowing water, wetland", referring to its close river position on the nearby Sava. With the Celtic tribe of Scordisci
Scordisci
as allies, the Roman proconsul Marcus Vinicius took Sirmium
Sirmium
in around 14 BC.[9][10] In the 1st century AD, Sirmium
Sirmium
gained the status of a Roman colony, and became an important military and strategic center of the Pannonia
Pannonia
province. The Roman emperors Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, and Claudius II
Claudius II
prepared war expeditions in Sirmium. In 103 Pannonia
Pannonia
was split into two provinces: Pannonia
Pannonia
Superior and Pannonia
Pannonia
Inferior, and Sirmium
Sirmium
became the capital city of the latter. In 296 Diocletian
Diocletian
reorganized Pannonia
Pannonia
into four provinces: Pannonia Prima, Pannonia
Pannonia
Valeria, Pannonia
Pannonia
Savia and Pannonia
Pannonia
Secunda, and Sirmium
Sirmium
became the capital of Pannonia
Pannonia
Secunda. He joined them with Noricum
Noricum
and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
to establish the Diocese of Pannonia, with Sirmium
Sirmium
as its capital also. In 293, with the establishment of the Tetrarchy, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was split into four parts; Sirmium
Sirmium
emerged as one of the four capital cities (along with Trier, Mediolanum, and Nicomedia), and was the capital of emperor Galerius. With the establishment of Praetorian prefectures in 318, the capital of the prefecture of Illyricum was Sirmium, remaining so until 379, when the westernmost Diocese of Illyricum, Pannonia
Pannonia
(including Sirmium), was detached and joined to the prefecture of Italia assuming the name of Diocese of Illyricum. The eastern part of Illyricum remained a separate prefecture under the East Roman (Byzantine) Empire with its new capital in Thessalonica. From the 4th century, the city was an important Christian center, and the seat of the Bishop of Sirmium. Five church councils, the Councils of Sirmium, took place in Sirmium. The city also had an imperial palace, a horse-racing arena, a mint, an arena theatre, and a theatre, as well as many workshops, public baths, temples, public palaces and luxury villas. Ancient historian Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
called it "the glorious mother of cities". The mint in Sirmium
Sirmium
was connected with the mint in Salona
Salona
and silver mines in the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
through the Via Argentaria. At the end of the 4th century Sirmium
Sirmium
came under the sway of the Goths, and later, was again annexed to the East Roman Empire. In 441 the Huns
Huns
conquered Sirmium; it remained for more than a century in the hands of various other tribes, such as Eastern Goths
Goths
and Gepids. For a short time, Sirmium
Sirmium
was the centre of the Gepids
Gepids
and king Cunimund minted gold coins there. After 567, Sirmium
Sirmium
was returned to the East Roman Empire. The Pannonian Avars
Pannonian Avars
conquered and destroyed the city in 582. Roman emperors[edit]

Three golden helmets found near Sirmium, "kept" by 80 Roman legionnaires, Museum of Vojvodina in Novi Sad

Ten Roman emperors were born in this city or in its surroundings: Herennius Etruscus
Herennius Etruscus
(251), Hostilian
Hostilian
(251), Decius
Decius
(249–51), Claudius II (268-270), Quintillus
Quintillus
(270), Aurelian
Aurelian
(270–75), Probus (276–82), Maximian
Maximian
(285–310), Constantius II
Constantius II
(337–61), and Gratian
Gratian
(367–83). The last emperor of the united Roman Empire, Theodosius I
Theodosius I
(378–95), became emperor in Sirmium. The usurpers Ingenuus
Ingenuus
and Regalianus
Regalianus
also declared themselves emperors in this city (in 260) and many other Roman emperors spent some time in Sirmium, including Marcus Aurelius, who might have written parts of his famous work Meditations
Meditations
in the city. Sirmium
Sirmium
was, most likely, the site of the death of Marcus Aurelius, of smallpox, in March of 180 CE.[11] Archeological
Archeological
findings[edit]

Julian solidus, ca. 361, from Sirmium
Sirmium
mint

On the location Glac near Sirmium
Sirmium
is found unexcavated the palace of Emperor Maximianus Herculius
Maximianus Herculius
built on the place where his parents worked as laborers on the estate of a Roman column. During the construction of the hospital in 1971, was found in monumental Jupiter's sanctuary with more than eighty of the altar, which is the second largest in Europe. Sirmium
Sirmium
had two bridges with which she was bridged river Sava, of which indicate the historical sources, bridge Ad Basanti and Artemida's bridge. After the 313th the Sirmium
Sirmium
became an important Christian centre. So far revealed are eight early Christian churches, of which they are dedicated to St. Irenaeus, St. Demetrius. and Sv. Sinenot. During work on the new Sremska Mitrovica
Sremska Mitrovica
trade center in 1972, a worker accidentally broke into an old Roman pot, about 2m deep, over the site of an old Sirmium
Sirmium
settlement. 33 gold Roman coins enclosed in a leather pouch were found inside a Roman house wall, probably the hidden savings of a wealthy Roman family stashed centuries ago. Of this extraordinary rare find of Sirmium
Sirmium
minted coins were 4 Constantius II
Constantius II
era coins, considered the most valuable examples from the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
of the fourth century AD. Ironically, the worker's name was Zlatenko (meaning Golden, or Golden Man in Serbian, Aurelius in Latin). The only known unexcavated Roman Hippodrome
Hippodrome
in the world is in Sirmium.[12][13][14] A colossal building about 150m wide and 450m long lies directly under the Sremska Mitrovica
Sremska Mitrovica
town center and just beside the old Sirmium
Sirmium
Emperor's Palace (one of just a few Sirmium
Sirmium
publicly accessible archeological sites). The presence of the arena has clearly affected the layout of the present town ( Sremska Mitrovica
Sremska Mitrovica
is today about 2–4m above ground line of former Sirmium
Sirmium
settlement). Recently announced cultural and archeological projects for preserving and popularising Sirmium
Sirmium
sites haven't included any activity dealing with the arena, probably due to the extent of the large arena — the entire present town center might have to be excavated.

Famous residents[edit]

Traianus Decius, first romanized Illyrian that became Roman Emperor (249–51), born in village Budalia
Budalia
near Sirmium

Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor (161–180), used Sirmium
Sirmium
as a residence in between Pannonian military campaigns 170–180 Maximinus, Roman emperor (235–238), ruled from residence in Sirmium. Herennius Etruscus, Roman emperor (251), born in Sirmium. Hostilian, Roman emperor (251), born in Sirmium Decius
Decius
Traian, Roman emperor (249–251), born in village Budalia
Budalia
near Sirmium. Ingenuus, Roman emperor (260), proclaimed himself emperor in Sirmium. Regalianus, Roman emperor (260), proclaimed himself emperor in Sirmium. Claudius II, Roman emperor (268–270), born in Sirmium
Sirmium
and spent most of his life there. Quintillus, Roman emperor (270), born in Sirmium Aurelian, Roman emperor (270–275), born in Sirmium
Sirmium
and also proclaimed emperor there. Probus, Roman emperor (276–282), born in Sirmium. Maximianus Herculius, Roman emperor (285–310), born near Sirmium. Galerius, Roman emperor (305–311), ruled as Caesar during the Tetrarchy
Tetrarchy
from residence in Sirmium
Sirmium
(293–296). Crispus, a Caesar of the Roman Empire. He was proclaimed Caesar in Sirmium
Sirmium
in 317. Constantine II, a Caesar of the Roman Empire. He was proclaimed Caesar in Sirmium
Sirmium
in 317. Vetranion, Roman emperor. Proclaimed himself emperor in Sirmium
Sirmium
(in 350). Constantius II, Roman emperor (337–361), born in Sirmium. Gratian, Roman emperor (367–383), born in Sirmium. Theodosius I
Theodosius I
the Great, Roman emperor (378–395). He became emperor in Sirmium. Valerius Licinius, prefect of the Diocese of Pannonia
Pannonia
with residence in Sirmium
Sirmium
(308–314). Apricanus, prefect of the Pannonia Secunda
Pannonia Secunda
province with residence in Sirmium
Sirmium
(355). Mesala, prefect of the Pannonia Secunda
Pannonia Secunda
province (373). Petronius Probus, prefect in Sirmium
Sirmium
(374). Aurelius Victor, prefect of the Pannonia Secunda
Pannonia Secunda
province (369), and author of a History of Rome until the reign of Julian. Leontius, prefect in Sirmium
Sirmium
(426).

References[edit]

^ "Mesto Sremska Mitrovica, upoznaj Srbiju". Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ "SREMSKA MITROVICA IN ROMAN TIMES". Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ McEvedy, Cities of the Classical World, (London: Allen Lane, 2011), p. 346. ^ "SREMSKA MITROVICA IN ROMAN TIMES". Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ "Mesto Sremska Mitrovica, upoznaj Srbiju". Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ "SRCE.hr". Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ "VML.de". Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ Fanula Papazoglu, The central Balkan tribes in pre-Roman times, Hakkert, 1978. ISBN 90-256-0793-4. p.74. ^ Ronald Syme, Anthony Birley, The provincial at Rome: and, Rome and the Balkans 80BC-AD14, p. 204 Google Books ^ Alan K. Bowman, Edward Champlin, Andrew Lintott, The Cambridge ancient history, 10, p. 551 ^ McLynn, Frank, Marcus Aurelius, Da Capo Press (2009), p. 417 ^ Sirmium. Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ Roman Circuses. Retrieved 1 October 2014.  ^ Bradt Travel Guide Serbia. Retrieved 1 October 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Petar Milošević, Arheologija i istorija Sirmijuma, Novi Sad, 2001. Radomir Popović, Rano hrišćanstvo u Panoniji, Vojvođanski godišnjak, sveska I, Novi Sad, 1995.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sirmium.

IMPERIAL PALACE Sirmium
Sirmium
Imperial Palace on YouTube Ancient Sirmium
Sirmium
on YouTube The Land of the Golden helmets (In Serbian) Documentary film Roman Sirmium
Sirmium
and Panonia (In Serbian) Documentary film Southern Pannonia
Pannonia
during the age of the Great Migrations

v t e

Major towns of Roman Serbia

Sirmium
Sirmium
(capital of Illyricum) - now Sremska Mitrovica

Viminacium
Viminacium
(capital of Moesia
Moesia
Superior) - now Kostolac

Naissus
Naissus
(capital of Dardania) - now Niš

Singidunum
Singidunum
- now Belgrade

Zanes - now Kladovo

Hammeum - now Prokuplje

Aeadaba - now Bela Palanka

See also: List of Roman place names in Serbia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 267016150 LCCN: n85376

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