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Sinhalese (/ˌsɪn(h)əˈliːz, ˌsɪŋ(ɡ)ə-/), known natively as Sinhala (Sinhalese: සිංහල; siṁhala [ˈsiŋɦələ]),[3] is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.[4][5][6] Sinhalese is also spoken as a second language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, totalling about four million.[7] It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.[5] Sinhalese is written using the Sinhalese script, which is one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script
Brahmi script
closely related to the Kadamba alphabet.[8] Sinhalese is one of the official and national languages of Sri Lanka. Sinhalese, along with Pali, played a major role in the development of Theravada
Theravada
Buddhist literature.[5][6] The oldest Sinhalese Prakrit inscriptions found are from the third to second century BCE following the arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka,[9][10] the oldest extant literary works date from the ninth century. The closest relative of Sinhalese is the Maldivian language.[10]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Stages of historical development 2.2 Phonetic development 2.3 Western vs. Eastern Prakrit features 2.4 Pre-1815 Sinhalese literature

3 Ecology

3.1 Substratum influence in Sinhalese 3.2 Influences from neighbouring languages 3.3 Foreign influence 3.4 Influences on other languages 3.5 Numerals

4 Accents and dialects 5 Diglossia 6 Writing system 7 Phonology 8 Morphology

8.1 Nominal morphology

8.1.1 Cases 8.1.2 Number marking 8.1.3 Indefinite article

8.2 Verbal morphology

9 Syntax 10 Semantics

10.1 Discourse

11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 Further reading 15 External links

Etymology[edit] Main article: Names of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
§ Sinhala Sinhala (Siṃhāla) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term; the corresponding Middle Indo-Aryan (Eḷu) word is Sīhala. The name is a derivation from siṃha, the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word for "lion"[11] Siṃhāla is attested as a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name of the island of in the Bhagavata Purana. The name is sometimes glossed as "abode of lions", and attributed to a supposed former abundance of lions on the island.[12] History[edit] According to the chronicle Mahavamsa, written in Pali, Prince Vijaya and his entourage merged with two exotic tribes of ancient India present in Lanka, the Yakkha and Naga peoples. In the following centuries, there was substantial immigration from Eastern India (Kalinga, Magadha)[13] which led to an admixture of features of Eastern Prakrits.[citation needed] Stages of historical development[edit] The development of the Sinhalese language
Sinhalese language
is divided into four periods:

Sinhalese Prakrit (until 3rd century CE) Proto-Sinhalese (3rd – 7th century CE) Medieval Sinhalese (7th – 12th century CE) Modern Sinhalese (12th century – present)

Phonetic development[edit] The most important phonetic developments of the Sinhalese language include

the loss of the aspiration distinction (e.g. kanavā "to eat" corresponds to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
khādati, Hindi
Hindi
khānā) the loss of a vowel length distinction; long vowels in the modern language are due to loanwords (e.g. vibāgaya "exam" < Sanskrit vibhāga) and sandhi, either after elision of Intervocalic consonants (e.g. dānavā "to put" < damanavā) or in originally compound words. the simplification of consonant clusters and geminate consonants into geminates and single consonants respectively (e.g. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
viṣṭā "time" > Sinhalese Prakrit viṭṭa > Modern Sinhalese viṭa) development of /j/ to /d/ (e.g. däla "web" corresponds to Sanskrit jāla)

Western vs. Eastern Prakrit features[edit] An example for a Western feature in Sinhalese is the retention of initial /v/ which developed into /b/ in the Eastern languages (e.g. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
viṃśati "twenty", Sinhalese visi-, Hindi
Hindi
bīs). An example of an Eastern feature is the ending -e for masculine nominative singular (instead of Western -o) in Sinhalese Prakrit. There are several cases of vocabulary doublets, e.g. the words mässā ("fly") and mäkkā ("flea"), which both correspond to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
makṣikā but stem from two regionally different Prakrit words macchiā and makkhikā (as in Pali). Pre-1815 Sinhalese literature[edit] During the career of Christopher Reynolds as a Sinhalese lecturer at the SOAS, University of London, he extensively researched the Sinhalese language
Sinhalese language
and its pre-1815 literature: the Sri Lankan government awarded him the Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Ranjana medal for this. He wrote the 377-page An anthology of Sinhalese literature up to 1815, selected by the UNESCO
UNESCO
National Commission of Ceylon[14] Ecology[edit] Substratum influence in Sinhalese[edit] According to Geiger, Sinhalese has features that set it apart from other Indo-Aryan languages. Some of the differences can be explained by the substrate influence of the parent stock of the Vedda language.[15] Sinhalese has many words that are only found in Sinhalese, or shared between Sinhalese and Vedda and not etymologically derivable from Middle or Old Indo-Aryan. Common examples are kola for leaf in Sinhalese and Vedda, dola for pig in Vedda and offering in Sinhalese. Other common words are rera for wild duck, and gala for stones (in toponyms used throughout the island).[16] There are also high frequency words denoting body parts in Sinhalese, such as olluva for head, kakula for leg, bella for neck and kalava for thighs, that are derived from pre-Sinhalese languages of Sri Lanka.[17] The author of the oldest Sinhalese grammar, Sidatsangarava, written in the 13th century CE, recognised a category of words that exclusively belonged to early Sinhalese. The grammar lists naramba (to see) and kolamba (fort or harbour) as belonging to an indigenous source. Kolamba is the source of the name of the commercial capital Colombo.[18][19] Influences from neighbouring languages[edit] In addition to many Tamil loanwords, several phonetic and grammatical features present in neighbouring Dravidian languages, setting today's spoken Sinhalese apart from its Northern Indo-Aryan siblings, bear witness to the close interactions with Dravidian speakers. However, formal Sinhalese is more similar to Pali
Pali
and medieval Sinhalese. Some of the features that may be traced to Dravidian influence are –

the distinction between short e, o and long ē, ō the loss of aspiration left-branching syntax the use of the attributive verb of kiyana "to say" as a subordinating conjunction with the meanings "that" and "if", e.g.:

ඒක අළුත් කියලා මම දන්නවා

ēka aḷut kiyalā mama dannavā

it new having-said I know

"I know that it is new."

ඒක අළුත්ද කියලා මම දන්නේ නැහැ

ēka aḷut-da kiyalā mama dannē nähä

it new-? having-said I know-EMP not

"I do not know whether it is new." Foreign influence[edit] As a result of centuries of colonial rule, modern Sinhalese contains some Portuguese, Dutch and English loanwords. Influences on other languages[edit] Macanese Patois
Macanese Patois
or Macau
Macau
Creole (known as Patuá to its speakers) is a creole language derived mainly from Malay, Sinhalese, Cantonese, and Portuguese, which was originally spoken by the Macanese people of the Portuguese colony of Macau. It is now spoken by a few families in Macau
Macau
and in the Macanese diaspora. The language developed first mainly among the descendants of Portuguese settlers who often married women from Malacca
Malacca
and Sri Lanka rather than from neighbouring China, so the language had strong Malay and Sinhalese influence from the beginning. Numerals[edit] Main article: Sinhala numerals Sinhalese shares many features common to other Indo-European languages. Shared vocabulary includes the numbers up to ten. Accents and dialects[edit] Sinhalese spoken in the Southern Province (Galle, Matara and Hambantota Districts) uses several words that are not found elsewhere in the country; this is also the case for the Central and North-Central Provinces and south-eastern region ( Uva Province
Uva Province
and the surrounding area). For native speakers all dialects are mutually intelligible, and they might not even realise that the differences are significant.[20] The language of the Vedda people
Vedda people
resembles Sinhalese to a great extent, although it has a large number of words which cannot be traced to another language. The Rodiya
Rodiya
use another dialect of Sinhalese. Rodiya
Rodiya
used to be a caste in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
no longer recognizes castes. Diglossia[edit] In Sinhalese there is distinctive diglossia, as in many languages of South Asia. The literary language and the spoken language differ from each other in many aspects. The written language is used for all forms of literary texts but also orally at formal occasions (public speeches, TV and radio news broadcasts, etc.), whereas the spoken language is used as the language of communication in everyday life (see also Sinhala slang
Sinhala slang
and colloquialism). As a rule the literary language uses more Sanskrit-based words. The most important difference between the two varieties is the lack of inflected verb forms in the spoken language. The situation is analogous to one where Middle or even Old English would be the written language in Great Britain. The children are taught the written language at school almost like a foreign language. Sinhalese also has diverse slang. Most slang words and terms were regarded as taboo and most were frowned upon as non-scholarly. However, nowadays Sinhalese slang words and terms, even the ones with sexual references, are commonly used among younger Sri Lankans. Writing system[edit]

ආයුබෝවන් (āyubōvan) means "welcome", literally wishing one a long life

Main articles: Sinhalese alphabet
Sinhalese alphabet
and Sinhalese Braille The Sinhalese alphabet, Sinhala hodiya, is based on the ancient Brahmi script, as are most Indian scripts. The Sinhalese alphabet
Sinhalese alphabet
is closely related to South Indian Grantha alphabet
Grantha alphabet
and Khmer alphabet
Khmer alphabet
taken the elements from the related Kadamba alphabet.[21][8] The Sinhalese writing system is an abugida, where the consonants are written with letters while the vowels are indicated with diacritics (pilla) on those consonants, unlike English where both consonants and vowels are full letters, or Urdu
Urdu
where vowels need not be written at all. Also, when a diacritic is not used, an "inherent vowel", either /a/ or /ə/, is understood, depending on the position of the consonant within the word. For example, the letter ක k on its own indicates ka, either /ka/ or /kə/. The various vowels are written කා kā, කැ kä, කෑ kǟ (after the consonant), කි ki, කී kī (above the consonant), කු ku, කූ kū (below the consonant), කෙ ke, කේ kē (before the consonant), කො ko, කෝ kō (surrounding the consonant). There are also a few diacritics for consonants, such as r. For simple /k/ without a vowel, a vowel-cancelling diacritic (virama) called hal kirīma is used: ක් k. Several of these diacritics occur in two forms, which depend on the shape of the consonant letter. Vowels also have independent letters but these are only used at the beginning of words where there is no preceding consonant to add a diacritic to. The complete alphabet consist of 60 letters, 18 for vowels and 42 for consonants. However, only 57 (16 vowels and 41 consonants) are required for writing colloquial spoken Sinhalese (suddha Sinhala). The rest indicate sounds that have gotten lost in the course of linguistic change, such as the aspirates, are restricted to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Pali loan words. Sinhalese is written from left to right and the Sinhalese character set (the Sinhalese script) is only used for this one language.[citation needed] The alphabetic sequence is similar to those of other Brahmic scripts:

a/ā ä/ǟ i/ī u/ū [ŗ] e/ē [ai] o/ō [au] k [kh] g [g] ṅ c [ch] j [jh] [ñ] ṭ [ṭa] ṭ [ṭh] ḍ [ḍh] ṇ t [th] d [dh] n p [ph] b [bh] m y r l v [ś ṣ] s h ḷ f

Phonology[edit]

Sinhalese vowel chart, from Perera & Jones (1919:5)

The presence of so-called prenasalized consonants. A very short homorganic nasal is added before a voiced stop consonant. The nasal is syllabified with the onset of the following syllable, which means that the moraic weight of the preceding syllable is left unchanged.

Labial Dental/ Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal

Nasal m n̪ ɳ ɲ ŋ

Stop voiceless p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

voiced b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

prenasalised ᵐb ⁿd̪ ᶯɖ

ᵑɡ

Fricative (f) s

(ʃ)

h

Rhotic

r

Approximant ʋ l

j

Front Central Back

short long short long short long

Close i iː

u uː

Mid e eː ə

o oː

Open æ æː a aː

Morphology[edit] Nominal morphology[edit] The main features marked on Sinhalese nouns are case, number, definiteness and animacy. Cases[edit] Sinhalese distinguishes several cases. Next to the cross-linguistically rather common nominative, accusative, genitive, dative and ablative, there are also less common cases like the instrumental. The exact number of these cases depends on the exact definition of cases one wishes to employ. For instance, the endings for the animate instrumental and locative cases, atiŋ and laᵑgə, are also independent words meaning "with the hand" and "near" respectively, which is why they are not regarded to be actual case endings by some scholars. Depending on how far an independent word has progressed on a grammaticalisation path, scholars will see it as a case marker or not. The brackets with most of the vowel length symbols indicate the optional shortening of long vowels in certain unstressed syllables.

animate sg inanimate sg animate pl inanimate pl

NOM miniha(ː) potə minissu pot

ACC miniha(ː)və potə minissu(nvə) pot

INSTR miniha(ː) atiŋ poteŋ minissu(n) atiŋ potvəliŋ

DAT miniha(ː)ʈə potəʈə minissu(ɳ)ʈə potvələʈə

ABL miniha(ː)geŋ poteŋ minissu(n)geŋ potvaliŋ

GEN miniha(ː)ge(ː) pote(ː) minissu(ŋ)ge(ː) potvələ

LOC miniha(ː) laᵑgə pote(ː) minissu(n) laᵑgə potvələ

VOC miniho(ː) - minissuneː -

Gloss man book men books

Number marking[edit] In Sinhalese animate nouns, the plural is marked with -o(ː), a long consonant plus -u, or with -la(ː). Most inanimates mark the plural through disfix. Loanwords from English mark the singular with ekə, and do not mark the plural. This can be interpreted as a singulative number.

SG ammaː deviyaː horaː pothə reddə kanthoːruvə sathiyə bus ekə paːrə

PL amməla(ː) deviyo(ː) horu poth redi kanthoːru sathi bus paːrəval

Gloss mother(s) god(s) thief(ves) book(s) cloth(es) office(s) week(s) bus(ses) street(s)

On the left hand side of the table, plurals are longer than singulars. On the right hand side, it is the other way round, with the exception of paːrə "street". Note that [+animate] lexemes are mostly in the classes on the left-hand side, while [-animate] lexemes are most often in the classes on the right hand. Indefinite article[edit] The indefinite article is -ek for animates and -ak for inanimates. The indefinite article exists only in the singular, where its absence marks definiteness. In the plural, (in)definiteness does not receive special marking. Verbal morphology[edit] Sinhalese distinguishes three conjugation classes. Spoken Sinhalese does not mark person, number or gender on the verb (literary Sinhalese does). In other words, there is no subject–verb agreement.

1st class

2nd class

3rd class

verb verbal adjective verb verbal adjective verb verbal adjective

present (future) kanəvaː kanə arinəvaː arinə pipenəvaː pipenə

past kæːvaː kæːvə æriyaː æriyə pipunaː pipunə

anterior kaːlaː kaːpu ærəlaː ærəpu pipilaː pipicca

simultaneous kanə kanə / ka kaa(spoken) / arinə arinə / æra æra(spoken) / pipenə pipenə/ pipi pipi(spoken) /

infinitive kannə/kanḍə / arinnə/arinḍə / pipennə/pipenḍə /

emphatic form kanneː / arinneː / pipenneː /

gloss eat / open / blossom /

Syntax[edit]

Left-branching language (see branching), which means that determining elements are usually put in front of what they determine (see example below). SOV (subject–object–verb) word order, common to most left-branching languages. As a left-branching language, there are no prepositions, only postpositions (see Adposition). Example: "under the book" translates to පොත යට /pot̪ə yaʈə/, literally "book under". There are almost no conjunctions as English that or whether, but only non-finite clauses that are formed by the means of participles and verbal adjectives. Example: "The man who writes books" translates to පොත් ලියන මිනිසා /pot̪ liənə miniha/, literally "books writing man". An exception to this is statements of quantity which usually stand behind what they define. Example: "the four flowers" translates to මල් හතර /mal hat̪ərə/, literally "flowers four". On the other hand, it can be argued that the numeral is the head in this construction, and the flowers the modifier, so that a better English rendering would be "a floral foursome" Sinhalese has no copula: "I am rich" translates to මම පොහොසත් /mamə poːsat̪/, literally "I rich". There are two existential verbs, which are used for locative predications, but these verbs are not used for predications of class-membership or property-assignment, unlike English is.

Semantics[edit] There is a four-way deictic system (which is rare): There are four demonstrative stems (see demonstrative pronouns) මේ /meː/ "here, close to the speaker", ඕ /oː/ "there, close to the person addressed", අර /arə/ "there, close to a third person, visible" and ඒ /eː/ "there, close to a third person, not visible". Discourse[edit] Sinhalese is a pro-drop language: Arguments of a sentence can be omitted when they can be inferred from context. This is true for subject—as in Italian, for instance—but also objects and other parts of the sentence can be "dropped" in Sinhalese if they can be inferred. In that sense, Sinhalese can be called a "super pro-drop language", like Japanese. Example: The sentence කොහෙද ගියේ [koɦed̪ə ɡie], literally "where went", can mean "where did I/you/he/she/we... go". See also[edit]

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
portal Languages portal

Sinhala honorifics Sinhala Idioms and Proverbs Sinhala keyboard Sinhala slang Sinhalese people

References[edit]

^ a b Sinhalese at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(19th ed., 2016) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sinhala". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh ^ "Census of Population and Housing 2011". www.statistics.gov.lk. Retrieved 2017-04-06.  ^ a b c "Sinhalese people".. 2017-04-04.  ^ a b "Sinhala". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-04-06.  ^ "Census of Population and Housing 2001" (PDF). Statistics.gov.lk. Retrieved 16 November 2013.  ^ a b Jayarajan, Paul M. (1976-01-01). History of the Evolution of the Sinhala Alphabet. Colombo
Colombo
Apothecaries' Company, Limited.  ^ Danesh Jain, George Cardona. Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. p. 847.  ^ a b "Introduction ~ හැඳින්වීම - Wikibooks, open books for an open world". en.wikibooks.org. Retrieved 2017-04-06.  ^ Caldwell, Robert (1875). "A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages". London: Trübner & Co.: 86.  ^ "Chinese Account of Ceylon". The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia. 20: 30. 1836.  ^ "WWW Virtual Library Sri Lanka : Sri Lanka: A Short History of Sinhala Language". Lankalibrary.com. Retrieved 16 November 2013.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
Collection of Representative Works, Sinhalese Series, George Allen and Unwin Limited, London 1970".  ^ Gair 1998, p. 4 ^ Van Driem 2002, p. 230 ^ Indrapala 2007, p. 45 ^ Indrapala 2007, p. 70 ^ Gair 1998, p. 5 ^ "Sinhalese Language". American Language Services. Retrieved 20 August 2011.  ^ "Ancient Scripts: Sinhala". www.ancientscripts.com. Retrieved 2016-04-07. 

Bibliography[edit]

Gair, James: Sinhala and Other South Asian Languages, New York 1998. Indrapala, Karthigesu (2007). The evolution of an ethnic identity: The Tamils in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
C. 300 BCE to C. 1200 CE. Colombo: Vijitha Yapa. ISBN 978-955-1266-72-1.  Perera, H.S.; Jones, D. (1919). A colloquial Sinhalese reader in phonetic transcription. Manchester: Longmans, Green & Co.  Van Driem, George (15 Jan 2002). Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-10390-2. 

Further reading[edit]

Clough, B. (1997). Sinhala English Dictionary (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.  Gair, James; Paolillo, John C. (1997). Sinhala. Newcastle: München.  Gair, James (1998). Studies in South Asian Linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509521-9.  Geiger, Wilhelm (1938). A Grammar of the Sinhalese Language. Colombo.  Karunatillake, W.S. (1992). An Introduction to Spoken Sinhala. Colombo.  [several new editions]. Zubair, Cala Ann (2015). "Sexual violence and the creation of an empowered female voice". Gender and Language. Equinox. 9 (2): 279–317. doi:10.1558/genl.v9i2.17909.  (Article on the use of slang amongst Sinhalese Raggers.)

External links[edit]

Look up सिंहल in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Sinhala edition of, the free encyclopedia

Look up Sinhala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Sinhala.

Charles Henry Carter. A Sinhalese-English dictionary. Colombo: The "Ceylon Observer" Printing Works; London: Probsthain & Co., 1924. Simhala Sabdakosa Karyamsaya. Sanksipta Simhala Sabdakosaya. Kolamba : Samskrtika Katayutu Pilibanda Departamentuva, 2007-2009. Madura Online English-Sinhala Dictionary and Language Translator Kapruka Sinhala dictionary Sinhala dictionary resources online Sinhala Dictionary Sinhala Script Sinhala dictionary (Beta) Sinhala for iOS Sinhala Dictionary for Android

v t e

Sinhalese language

Sri Lanka Sinhalese people

Stages

Elu Proto-Sinhala Medieval Sinhala Modern Sinhala

Dialects

Central Southern Maldivian Rodiya
Rodiya
dialect Vedda language

Academic

Literature Literary Sinhala Sinhala name Pali

Sinhala and other languages

Influenced by

Dutch English Portuguese Sanskrit Tamil

Influenced

Macanese Patois

Writing system

Alphabet Braille Numerals Archaic numbers Romanization (transliteration) Keyboard Typewriter Unicode block

Grammar and vocabulary

Grammar Spoken Sinhalese Gender differences Honorifics Slang Dictionaries

Phonology

Phonology

Events

Hela Havula Sinhala Only Act Software

v t e

Languages of Sri Lanka

Official languages

Sinhalese Tamil

Semiofficial language

English

Others

Malay Pali1 Portuguese Creole Vedda Gypsy Telugu Sri Lankan sign languages

Formerly spoken and Extinct

Arwi Ceylon Dutch Rodiya2

1a liturgical language 2a dialect of Sinhala

v t e

Modern Indo-Aryan languages

Dardic

Dameli Domaaki Gawar-Bati Indus Kohistani Kalami Kalash Kashmiri Khowar Kundal Shahi Mankiyali Nangalami Palula Pashayi Sawi Shina Shumashti Torwali Ushoji

Northern

Eastern

Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa

Central

Garhwali Kumaoni

Western

Dogri Kangri Mandeali

North- western

Punjabi

Punjabi

dialects

Lahnda

Hindko Khetrani Pahari-Pothwari Saraiki

Sindhi

Jadgali Kutchi Luwati Memoni Sindhi

Western

Gujarati

Aer Gujarati Jandavra Koli Lisan ud-Dawat Parkari Koli Saurashtra Vaghri

Bhil

Bhili Gamit Kalto Vasavi

Rajasthani

Bagri Goaria Gujari Jaipuri Malvi Marwari Mewari Dhatki

Others

Domari Khandeshi Romani

list of languages

Central

Western

Braj Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Hindustani

Hindi

Bombay Hindi

Urdu

Dakhini Hyderabadi Urdu Rekhta

Khariboli Kannauji Sansi Sadhukadi

Eastern

Awadhi Bagheli Chhattisgarhi Fiji Hindi

Others

Danwar Parya

Eastern

Bihari

Angika Bhojpuri Caribbean Hindustani Vajjika Magahi Maithili Majhi Sadri

Bengali– Assamese

Assamese Bengali

dialects

Bishnupriya Manipuri Chakma Chittagonian Goalpariya Hajong Kamrupi Kharia Thar Kurmukar Rangpuri Rohingya Sylheti Tanchangya

Odia

Odia Kosli Bodo Parja Kupia Reli

Halbic

Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari

Others

Mal Paharia

Southern

Marathi–Konkani

Konkani Kukna Marathi others..

Insular

Maldivian Sinhalese

Unclassified

Chinali Sheikhgal

Pidgins/ creoles

Andaman Creole Hindi Haflong Hindi Nagamese Nefamese Vedda

See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani languages; Iranian languages

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