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Singhasari
Singhasari
was a Javanese Hindu– Buddhist
Buddhist
kingdom located in east Java
Java
between 1222 and 1292 (today Indonesia). The kingdom succeeded the Kingdom of Kediri
Kingdom of Kediri
as the dominant kingdom in eastern Java. The kingdom's name cognate to Singosari district of Malang
Malang
Regency, located several kilometres north of Malang
Malang
city.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Foundation 3 Expansion 4 Conflict with the Mongol 5 Fall of Singhasari 6 The beginning of Majapahit
Majapahit
empire 7 Rulers of Singhasari 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] Singhasari
Singhasari
(alternate spelling: Singosari) was mentioned in several Javanese manuscripts, including Pararaton. According to tradition, the name was given by Ken Arok during the foundation of the new kingdom to replace its old name, Tumapel, located in a fertile highland valley which today corresponds to the area in and around Malang
Malang
city. It derives from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word singha which means "lion" and sari which in Old Javanese could mean either "essence" or "to sleep". Thus Singhasari
Singhasari
could be translated as "essence of lion" or "sleeping lion". Although the lion is not an endemic animal of Java, the symbolic depiction of lions is common in Indonesian culture, attributed to the influence of Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
symbolism. Foundation[edit] See also: Ken Arok

The serene beauty of Prajnaparamita
Prajnaparamita
statue found near Singhasari temple is believed to be the portrayal statue of Queen Ken Dedes, wife of Ken Arok (the collection of National Museum of Indonesia).

Singhasari
Singhasari
was founded by Ken Arok (1182-1227/1247), whose story is a popular folktale in Central and East Java. Most of Ken Arok's life story and also the early history of Singhasari
Singhasari
was taken from the Pararaton account, which also incorporates some mythical aspects. Ken Arok was an orphan born of a mother named Ken Endok and an unknown father (some tales stated he was a son of god Brahma) in Kediri kingdom’s territory. Ken Arok rose from being a servant of Tungul Ametung, a regional ruler in Tumapel (present day Malang) to becoming ruler of Java
Java
from Kediri. He is considered the founder of the Rajasa dynasty
Rajasa dynasty
of both the Singhasari
Singhasari
and later the Majapahit
Majapahit
line of monarchs.[1] He was assassinated by Anusapati, in revenge for killing his father, Tunggul Ametung.[2]:185–187 Ken Arok's son Panji Tohjaya assassinated Anusapati, but he in turn reigned only a few months in 1248 before his nephews revolted. These two, Ranga Wuni and Mahisha Champaka, ruled together under the names Vishnuvardhana and Narasimhamurti.[2]:188 Expansion[edit]

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In the year 1275, the ambitious king Kertanegara, the fifth ruler of Singhasari
Singhasari
who had been reigning since 1254, launched a peaceful naval campaign northward towards the weak remains of the Srivijaya[2]:198 in response to continuous Ceylon pirate raids and Chola kingdom's invasion from India which conquered Srivijaya’s Kedah
Kedah
in 1025. The strongest of these Malaya kingdoms was Jambi, which captured the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
capital in 1088, then the Dharmasraya kingdom, and the Temasek
Temasek
kingdom of Singapore, and then remaining territories. The expedition is named the Pamalayu expedition was led by Admiral Mahesa Anabrang (a.k.a. Adwaya Brahman) to the Malaya region, and was also intended to secure the Malayan strait, the ‘Maritime Silk Road’ against potential Mongol
Mongol
invasion and ferocious sea pirates. These Malayan kingdoms then pledged allegiance to the king. King Kertanegara
Kertanegara
had long wished to surpass Srivijaya
Srivijaya
as a regional maritime empire, controlling sea trade routes from China
China
to India. The Pamalayu expedition from 1275 to 1292, from the time of Singhasari to Majapahit, is chronicled in the Javanese scroll Nagarakrtagama. Singhasari’s territory thus became Majapahit
Majapahit
territory. In the year 1284, king Kertanegara
Kertanegara
made a hostile Pabali expedition to Bali, which integrated Bali into the Singhasari
Singhasari
kingdom’s territory. The king also sent troops, expeditions and envoys to other nearby kingdoms such as the Sunda-Galuh kingdom, Pahang
Pahang
kingdom, Balakana kingdom (Kalimantan/Borneo), and Gurun kingdom (Maluku). He also established an alliance with the king of Champa
Champa
(Vietnam). King Kertanegara
Kertanegara
totally erased any Srivijayan influence from Java
Java
and Bali in 1290. However, the expansive campaigns exhausted most of the Kingdom’s military forces and in the future would stir a murderous plot against the unsuspecting King Kertanegara. Conflict with the Mongol[edit] See also: Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Java

A mandala of Amoghapāśa from the Singhasari
Singhasari
period

Indonesia
Indonesia
is one of the few areas in Asia that thwarted invasion by the Mongol
Mongol
horde by repelling a Mongol
Mongol
force in 1293. As the centre of the Malayan peninsula trade winds, the rising power, influence, and wealth of the Javanese Singhasari
Singhasari
empire came to the attention of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
of the Mongol
Mongol
Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
based in China. Moreover, Singhasari
Singhasari
had formed an alliance with Champa, another powerful state in the region. Both Java
Java
(Singhasari) and Champa
Champa
were worried about Mongol
Mongol
expansion and raids against neighbouring states, such as their raid of Bagan
Bagan
(Pagan) in Burma. Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
then sent emissaries demanding submission and tribute from Java. In 1280, Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
sent the first emissary to King Kertanegara, demanding Singhasari’s submission and tribute to the great Khan. The demand was refused. The next year in 1281, the Khan sent another envoy, demanding the same, which was refused again. Eight years later, in 1289, the last envoy was sent to demand the same, and Kertanegara, refused to pay tribute.[2]:198 In the audition throne room of the Singhasari
Singhasari
court, King Kertanegara humiliated the Khan by cutting and scarring Meng Ki's face, one of the Mongols' envoys (some sources even state that the king cut the envoy's ear himself). The envoy returned to China
China
with the answer—the scar—of the Javan king written on his face. Enraged by this humiliation and the disgrace committed against his envoy and his patience, in late 1292 Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
sent 1,000 war junks for a punitive expedition that arrived off the coast of Tuban, Java
Java
in early 1293. King Kertanegara, whose troops were now spread then and located elsewhere, did not realise that a coup was being prepared by the former Kediri royal lineage. Fall of Singhasari[edit]

Singhasari
Singhasari
temple built as a mortuary temple to honour Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari.

In 1292, Duke Jayakatwang, a vassal king from the Kingdom of Daha (also known as Kediri or Gelang-gelang), prepared his army to conquer Singhasari
Singhasari
and kill its king if possible, assisted by Arya Viraraja,[2]:199 a regent from Sumenep on the island of Madura. The Kediri (Gelang-gelang) army attacked Singhasari
Singhasari
simultaneously from both north and south. The king only realised the invasion from the north and sent his son-in-law, Nararya Sanggramawijaya, famously known as Raden Wijaya, northward to vanquish the rebellion. The northern attack was put at bay, but the southern attackers successfully remained undetected until they reached and sacked the unprepared capital city of Kutaraja. Jayakatwang usurped and killed Kertanagara during the Tantra
Tantra
sacred ceremony, thus bring a tragic end to the Singhasari
Singhasari
kingdom. Having learned of the fall of the Singhasari
Singhasari
capital of Kutaraja due to Kediri's treachery, Raden Wijaya
Raden Wijaya
tried to defend Singhasari
Singhasari
but failed. He and his three colleagues, Ranggalawe, Sora and Nambi, went to exile under the favour of the same regent (Bupati) Arya Wiraraja of Madura, Nambi's father, who then turned his back to Jayakatwang. With Arya Wiraraja's patronage, Raden Wijaya, pretending to submit to King Jayakatwang, won favour from the new monarch of Kediri, who granted him permission to open a new settlement north of mount Arjuna, the Tarik forest. In this wilderness, Wijaya found many bitter Maja fruits, so it was called Majapahit
Majapahit
(literally meaning “bitter Maja”), the future capital of the empire. The beginning of Majapahit
Majapahit
empire[edit]

The land of Singhasari
Singhasari
when at its peak during 1291

Early 1293, the Mongol
Mongol
naval forces arrived on the north coast of Java (near Tuban) and on the Brantas River
Brantas River
mouth to flank what they thought was Singhasari. Raden Wijaya
Raden Wijaya
found the opportunity to use the unsuspecting Mongols to overthrow Jayakatwang. Raden Wijaya’s army allied with the Mongols in March 1293 and battle ensued between Mongol forces against Daha forces in the creek bed of Kali Mas river, a distributary of Brantas River, which was followed by the battle of Mongol
Mongol
forces against Daha forces that attacked the Majapahit
Majapahit
regional army led by Raden Wijaya. The Mongols then stormed Daha and Jayakatwang finally surrendered and executed. Once Jayakatwang was eliminated, Raden Vijaya then turned his troops on his former Mongol
Mongol
allies, forcing them to withdraw from the island of Java
Java
on 31 May 1293.[2]:200–201 The victor, Prince Wijaya, son-in-law of Kertanegara, the last Singhasari
Singhasari
king, then ascended the throne as Kertajasa Jayawardhana, the first king of the great Majapahit
Majapahit
Empire, on 12 November 1293. Rulers of Singhasari[edit]

Genealogy diagram of Rajasa Dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.

Ken Arok 1222–1227[2]:185–187 Anusapati 1227–1248[2]:187–188 Panji Tohjaya 1248[2]:188 Vishnuvardhana-Narasimhamurti 1248–1268[2]:188 Kertanegara
Kertanegara
1268–1292[2]:188

See also[edit]

Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

List of monarchs of Java Kidal Temple Jago Temple

References[edit]

^ Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia. Books Google. Retrieved 25 July 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824803681. 

Further reading[edit]

Saidihardjo, Dr. M. Pd., A.M, Sardiman, Drs., Sejarah untuk SMP, Tiga Serangkai, Solo, 1987, 4th reprint edition in 1990

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Singhasari.

The Origins of Rajasa Dynasty Beginnings to 1500: The Old Kingdoms and the Coming of Islam, a timeline of Indonesian history until 1500 AD

v t e

Former states in Indonesia

Java

Hindu/Buddhist

Blambangan Galuh Isyana Janggala Kahuripan Kalingga Majapahit Medang Medang Kamulan Rajasa Salakanagara Sanjaya Shailendra Singhasari Srivijaya Sunda Tarumanagara

Islamic

Banten Cirebon Demak Kalinyamat Mataram Pajang Sumedang Larang Surakarta Yogyakarta

Sumatra

Hindu/Buddhist

Dharmasraya Kantoli Kediri Majapahit Melayu Mauli Pannai Samaskuta Sanfotsi Srivijaya

Islamic

Aceh Aru Asahan Deli Jambi Johor Langkat Malacca Pagaruyung Riau-Lingga Samudera Pasai Serdang Siak

Kalimantan

Banjar Brunei Bulungan Kutai Lanfang Republic Negara Daha Pontianak Sambas Sarawak Tanjungpura

Sulawesi

Gowa Bone Luwu Toraja Wajo

Lesser Sunda Islands

Bali Bima Larantuka Sumbawa Tambora

West Timor

Amabi Amanatun Amanuban Amarasi Sonbai Wehali

Maluku

.