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Sindhi /ˈsɪndi/[9] (سنڌي‎, सिन्धी, , ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people. It is the official language of the Pakistani province of Sindh.[10][11][12] In India, Sindhi is one of the scheduled languages officially recognized by the central government. Most Sindhi speakers are concentrated in Pakistan
Pakistan
in the Sindh province, and in India, the Kutch
Kutch
region of the state of Gujarat
Gujarat
and in the Ulhasnagar
Ulhasnagar
region of the state of Maharashtra. The remaining speakers in India
India
are composed of the Sindhi Hindus
Sindhi Hindus
who migrated from Sindh, which became a part of Pakistan
Pakistan
and settled in India
India
after the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947 and the Sindhi diaspora worldwide. Sindhi language
Sindhi language
is spoken in Sindh, Balochistan
Balochistan
and Punjab provinces of Pakistan
Pakistan
as well as the states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat
Gujarat
in India
India
as well as immigrant communities in Hong Kong, Oman, Indonesia, Singapore, UAE, UK and the USA.[13]

Contents

1 Contemporary status

1.1 Sindhi Computing

1.1.1 Sindhi language
Sindhi language
Software

2 Etymology 3 Significance 4 History 5 Phonology

5.1 Consonants 5.2 Vowels

6 Grammar 7 Vocabulary

7.1 Example extract

8 Dialects 9 Writing system

9.1 Laṇḍā
Laṇḍā
scripts 9.2 Khudabadi 9.3 Khojki 9.4 Gurmukhi 9.5 Arabic
Arabic
script 9.6 Devanagari
Devanagari
script 9.7 Gujarati script 9.8 Roman Sindhi Script

10 Education 11 See also 12 References 13 Sources 14 External links

Contemporary status[edit] The Sindhi language
Sindhi language
and other native languages of Pakistan
Pakistan
are struggling to be officially given the status of national language in Pakistan. Before the inception of Pakistan, Sindhi was the national language of Sindh.[14][15][16][17] There are many Sindhi language television channels broadcasting in Pakistan
Pakistan
such as KTN, Sindh
Sindh
TV, Awaz Television Network, Mehran TV and Dharti TV. Besides this, Indian television Doordarshan
Doordarshan
have been asked by the Indian court to start a news channel for Hindu Sindhis
Sindhis
of India.[18][19] Sindhi Computing[edit] Sindhi Computing is the term used for the Software developed for the Sindhi language, these software are intended for the users to read, write and learn Sindhi language
Sindhi language
online or offline.[20] Sindhi language
Sindhi language
Software[edit] Sindhi language
Sindhi language
software such as Sindhi language
Sindhi language
keyboards have been developed for the Windows OS, Android smartphones. Various other online websites provide Sindhi keyboard such as (Keymanweb.org),[21][22] M.B Sindhi keyboard by Majid Bhurgri. A software have been developed by the Sindhi Language Authority
Sindhi Language Authority
which will end the barrier between the Arabic-Sindhi script or Perso-Sindhi script and Devanagari
Devanagari
Sindhi script; such software have also been developed by the Punjabi researchers at Punjabi University
Punjabi University
and Manchester University
Manchester University
for the Sindhi.[23][24] Official Entry into the Constitution The language is included as one of the official languages into Indian Constitution by Government of India
India
in the 21st Amendment in 1967. Etymology[edit] Main article: History of Sindh The name "Sindhi" is derived from Sindhu, the local name of the Indus River.[25] Significance[edit] See also: Sindhi literature
Sindhi literature
and Sindhi poetry When Sindh
Sindh
was occupied by British army and was annexed with Bombay, governor of the province Sir George Clerk ordered to make Sindhi the official language in the province in 1848. Sir Bartle Frere, the then commissioner of Sindh, issued orders on August 29, 1857 advising civil servants in Sindh
Sindh
to qualify examination in Sindhi. He also ordered Sindhi to be used in all official communication. Seven-grade education system commonly known as Sindhi-Final was introduced in Sindh. Sindhi Final was made a prerequisite for employment in revenue, police and education departments.[26] History[edit]

Cover of a book containing the epic Dodo Chanesar written in the Khudabadi script

Like other languages of this family, Sindhi has passed through Old Indo-Aryan (Sanskrit) and Middle Indo-Aryan (Pali, secondary Prakrits, and Apabhramsha) stages of growth, and it entered the New Indo-Aryan stage around the 10th century CE.[27][28] In the year 1868, the Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
assigned Narayan Jagannath Vaidya to replace the Abjad
Abjad
used in Sindhi, with the Khudabadi script. The script was decreed a standard script by the Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
thus inciting anarchy in the Muslim
Muslim
majority region. A powerful unrest followed, after which Twelve Martial Laws were imposed by the British authorities.[29] According to Islamic Sindhi tradition, the first translation of the Quran
Quran
into Sindhi was completed in the year 883 CE / 270 AH in Mansura, Sindh. The first extensive Sindhi translation was done by Akhund Azaz Allah Muttalawi (1747–1824 CE / 1160–1240 AH) and first published in Gujarat
Gujarat
in 1870. The first to appear in print was by Muhammad Siddiq (Lahore 1867).[30] Phonology[edit] Sindhi has a relatively large inventory of both consonants and vowels compared to other languages. Sindhi has 46 consonant phonemes and 16 vowels. The consonant to vowel ratio is around average for world's languages at 2.8.[31] All plosives, affricates, nasals, the retroflex flap and the lateral approximant /l/ have aspirated or breathy voiced counterparts. The language also features four implosives. Consonants[edit]

Sindhi consonants[32]

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Post-al. /Palatal Velar Glottal

Nasal

m mʱ

n nʱ

ɳ ɳʱ

ɲ  

ŋ  

Stop/Affricate p pʰ b bʱ t̪ t̪ʰ d̪ d̪ʱ ʈ ʈʰ ɖ ɖʱ t̠ɕ t̠ɕʰ d̠ʑ d̠ʑʱ k kʰ g gʱ

Implosive

ɓ

ɗ

ʄ~jˀ

ɠ

Fricative f

s z ʂ

x ɣ h

Approximant

ʋ  

l̪ l̪ʱ

j  

Rhotic

r  

ɽ ɽʱ

The retroflex consonants are apical postalveolar and do not involve curling back of the tip of the tongue,[33] so they could be transcribed /t̠, t̠ʰ, d̠, d̠ʱ n̠ n̠ʱ s̠ ɾ̠ ɾ̠ʱ/. The dental implosive is sometimes realized as retroflex [ɗ̠]~[ᶑ] The affricates /t̠ɕ, t̠ɕʰ, d̠ʑ, d̠ʑʱ/ are laminal post-alveolars with a relatively short release. It is not clear if /ɲ/ is similar, or truly palatal.[34] /ʋ/ is realized as labiovelar [w] or labiodental [ʋ] in free variation occurs, but is not common, except before a stop. Vowels[edit]

The vowel phonemes of Sindhi on a vowel chart

The vowels are modal length /i e æ ɑ ɔ o u/ and short /ɪ̆ ʊ̆ ɐ̆/. (Note /æ ɑ ɐ̆/ are imprecisely transcribed as /ɛ a ə/ in the chart.) Consonants following short vowels are lengthened: [pɐ̆tˑo] 'leaf' vs. [pɑto] 'worn'. Grammar[edit] Ernest Trumpp
Ernest Trumpp
authored the first Sindhi grammar entitled Sindhi Alphabet and Grammar.[35] Vocabulary[edit] Sindhi has borrowed from English and Hindustani. Today, Sindhi in Pakistan
Pakistan
is slightly influenced by Urdu, with more borrowed Perso- Arabic
Arabic
elements, while Sindhi in India
India
is influenced by Hindi, with more borrowed tatsam Sanskrit
Sanskrit
elements.[36][37] Example extract[edit] The following extract is from the Sindhi about the Sindhi language and is written in the 52-letter Sindhi- Arabic
Arabic
script, Devanagari
Devanagari
and transliterated to Latin. Sindhi- Arabic
Arabic
script: سنڌ ي ٻول ي انڊ و
و
يورپي خاندا ن سا ن تعل ق
ق
رکند ڙ
ڙ
آريائ ي ٻول ي آھي، جنھ ن ت ي عرب ي ٻوليءَ ج و
و
بہ تما م وڏ و
و
اثر آهي. ه ن وق ت سنڌ ي ٻول ي سن ڌ
ڌ
ج ي مک ٻول ي ۽ دفتر ي زبا ن آھي.‎ Devanagari
Devanagari
script: सिन्धी ॿोली इण्डो यूरपी ख़ान्दान सां ताल्लुक़ु रखन्दड़ आर्याई ॿोली आहे, जिंहन ते कुझ द्राविड़ी उहुञाण पण मौजूद आहिनि। हिन वक़्तु सिन्धी ॿोली सिन्ध जी मुख ॿोली ऐं दफ़्तरी ज़बान आहे। Transliteration (IAST): sindhī b̤olī iṇḍo yūrapī khāndān sā̃ taʿlluqu rakhandaṛ āryāī b̤olī āhe, janhin te arbi boli-a jo tamaam waddo asar-u aahe. hin-a vaqtu sindhī b̤olī sindh jī mukh b̤olī ãĩ daftarī zabānā āhe. Dialects[edit] The dialects of Sindhi include Vicholi, Lari, Lasi, Kathiawari Katchi, Thareli, Macharia, Dukslinu and Muslim
Muslim
Sindhi.[38] The "Siraiki" dialect in northern Sindh
Sindh
is distinct from the Saraiki language
Saraiki language
of South Punjab[39] and has variously been treated either as a dialect of it, or as a dialect of Sindhi.[40] The Sindhi dialects previously known as "Siraiki" are nowadays more commonly referred to as "Siroli".[41] Writing system[edit] Written Sindhi is mentioned in the 8th century, when references to a Sindhi version of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
appear. However, the earliest attested records in Sindhi are from the 15th century.[27] Before the standardisation of Sindhi orthography, numerous forms of the Devanagari
Devanagari
and Lunda (Laṇḍā) scripts were used for trading. For literary and religious purposes, an Arabic- Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
known as Ab-ul-Hassan Sindhi and Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
(a subset of Laṇḍā) were used. Another two scripts, Khudabadi and Shikarpuri, were reforms of the Landa script.[42][43] During British rule in the late 19th century, a Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
was decreed standard over Devanagari.[44] Medieval Sindhi devotional literature (1500–1843) comprises Sufi poetry and Advaita Vedanta poetry. Sindhi literature
Sindhi literature
flourished during the modern period (since 1843), although the language and literary style of contemporary Sindhi writings in Pakistan
Pakistan
and India
India
were noticeably diverging by the late 20th century; authors from the former country were borrowing extensively from Persian and Arabic
Arabic
vocabulary, while those from the latter were highly influenced by Hindi.[27] Laṇḍā
Laṇḍā
scripts[edit] Laṇḍā-based scripts, such as Gurmukhi, Khojki and the Khudabadi script were used historically to write Sindhi. Khudabadi[edit]

Khudabadi or Sindhi

Direction Left-to-right

ISO 15924 Sind, 318

Unicode
Unicode
alias

Khudawadi

Unicode
Unicode
range

U+112B0–U+112FF

The Khudabadi alphabet
Khudabadi alphabet
was invented in 1550 CE, and was used alongside the Arabic script
Arabic script
by the Hindu community until the colonial era, where the sole usage of the Arabic script
Arabic script
for official purposes was legislated. The script continued to be used in a smaller scale by the trader community until the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947.[45]

ə a ɪ i ʊ uː e ɛ o ɔ

k kʰ

ɡ ɠ

ɡʱ

ŋ

c cʰ

ɟ ʄ

ɟʱ

ɲ

ʈ ʈʰ

ɖ ɗ

ɽ ṛ ɳ

t tʰ

d

n

p pʰ f b ɓ

m

j r l ʋ

ʃ

s h

Khojki[edit] Khojki was employed primarily to record Muslim
Muslim
Shia Ismaili religious literature, as well as literature for a few secret Shia Muslim sects.[46] Gurmukhi[edit] The Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi
script was also used to write Sindhi, mainly in the North of Sindh, and also by Hindu women.[45][47] Arabic
Arabic
script[edit]

Sindhi alphabet

ا
ا
ب
ب
ٻ ڀ
ڀ
پ ت ٿ
ٿ
ٽ
ٽ
ٺ ث
ث
ج
ج
ڄ ج ھ
ھ
ڃ چ
چ
ڇ
ڇ
ح خ د
د
ڌ
ڌ
ڏ
ڏ
ڊ ڍ ذ
ذ
ر ڙ
ڙ
ز س
س
ش
ش
ص ض
ض
ط ظ
ظ
ع غ ف ڦ
ڦ
ق
ق
ڪ ک گ
گ
ڳ گ ھ
ھ
ڱ
ڱ
ل م ن ڻ
ڻ
و
و
ھ
ھ
ء
ء
ي

Extended Perso- Arabic
Arabic
script

History Transliteration Diacritics Hamza Numerals Numeration

v t e

Historically, different versions of the Arabic script
Arabic script
were used by the Hindu and Muslim
Muslim
communities.[48] During British rule in India, a variant of the Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
was adopted for Sindhi in the 19th century. The script is used in Pakistan
Pakistan
today. It has a total of 64 letters, augmenting the Persian with digraphs and eighteen new letters ( ڄ ٺ ٽ
ٽ
ٿ
ٿ
ڀ
ڀ
ٻ ڙ
ڙ
ڍ
ڍ
ڊ ڏ
ڏ
ڌ
ڌ
ڇ
ڇ
ڃ ڦ
ڦ
ڻ
ڻ
ڱ
ڱ
ڳ ڪ) for sounds particular to Sindhi and other Indo-Aryan languages. Some letters that are distinguished in Arabic
Arabic
or Persian are homophones in Sindhi.

جھ ڄ ج پ ث ٺ ٽ ٿ ت ڀ ٻ ب ا

ɟʱ ʄ ɟ p s ʈʰ ʈ tʰ t bʱ ɓ b ɑː ʔ ∅

ڙ ر ذ ڍ ڊ ڏ ڌ د خ ح ڇ چ ڃ

ɽ r z ɖʱ ɖ ɗ dʱ d x h cʰ c ɲ

ڪ ق ڦ ف غ ع ظ ط ض ص ش س ز

k q pʰ f ɣ ɑː oː eː ʔ ʕ ∅ z t z s ʃ s z

ي ء ھ و ڻ ن م ل ڱ گھ ڳ گ ک

j iː

h ʋ ʊ oː ɔː uː ɳ n m l ŋ ɡʱ ɠ ɡ kʰ

Sindhi alphabet
Sindhi alphabet
with equivalent characters in English, Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi.

Devanagari
Devanagari
script[edit] In India, the Devanagari
Devanagari
script is also used to write Sindhi. A modern version was introduced by the government of India
India
in 1948; however, it did not gain full acceptance, so both the Sindhi- Arabic
Arabic
and Devanagari scripts are used. In India
India
a person may write a Sindhi language
Sindhi language
paper for a Civil Services Examination in either script [1]. Diacritical bars below the letter are used to mark implosive consonants, and dots called nukta are used to form other additional consonants.

अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ औ

ə a ɪ i ʊ uː e ɛ o ɔ

क ख ख़ ग ॻ ग़

k kʰ x ɡ ɠ ɣ

ɡʱ

ŋ

च छ

ज ॼ ज़

c cʰ

ɟ ʄ z

ɟʱ

ɲ

ट ठ

ड ॾ ड़

ढ ढ़ ण

ʈ ʈʰ

ɖ ɗ ɽ

ɖʱ ɽʱ ɳ

त थ

t tʰ

d

n

प फ फ़ ब ॿ

p pʰ f b ɓ

m

य र ल व

j r l ʋ

श ष स ह

ʃ ʂ s h

Gujarati script[edit] The Gujarati script
Gujarati script
is used to write the Kutchi dialect in India.[49] Roman Sindhi Script[edit] See also: Romanisation of Sindhi The Sindhi-Roman script or Roman-Sindhi script is the contemporary Sindhi script usually used by the Sindhis
Sindhis
during texting messages on their mobile phones. A Sindhi writer Haleem Brohi was the staunch advocate of the Roman-Sindhi script and he also wrote book for that script.[50][51] Education[edit] Indian Government has legislated Sindhi as a language of option and as medium of study in India, so that students can choose to learn Sindhi. Sindhi is an optional third language in the Indian states of Rajasthan, Gujarat
Gujarat
and Madhya Pradesh.[52] Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Sindhi Academy has been set up for the promotion of Sindhi Language in Rajasthan. See also[edit]

Sindh
Sindh
portal Languages portal

Sindhi literature Sindhi poetry List of Sindhi-language films Institute of Sindhology Languages of Pakistan Provincial languages of Pakistan Languages of India Languages with official status in India 1972 Sindhi Language Bill

References[edit]

^ Nationalencyklopedin
Nationalencyklopedin
"Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007 ^ "Script". Sindhilanguage.com.  ^ Gulshan Majeed. "Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict in Pakistan" (PDF). Journal of Political Studies. Retrieved December 27, 2013.  ^ "Sindhi". The Languages Gulper. Retrieved December 27, 2013.  ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica". Sindhi Language. Retrieved December 29, 2013.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sindhi". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sindhi Bhil". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lasi". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh ^ Gulshan Majeed. "Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict in Pakistan" (PDF). Journal of Political Studies. Retrieved December 27, 2013.  ^ "Sindhi". The Languages Gulper. Retrieved December 27, 2013.  ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica". Sindhi Language. Retrieved December 29, 2013.  ^ "English to Sindhi Dictionary & Sindhi to English Dictionary". KhandBhale.org. Retrieved 24 August 2015.  ^ Language and Politics in Pakistan. "THE SINDHI LANGUAGE MOVEMENT 103 103 7The Sindhi Language Movement". academia.edu. Retrieved 12 September 2015.  ^ "The Imposition Of Urdu". NAWAIWAQT GROUP OF NEWSPAPERS. September 10, 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015.  ^ http://www.apnaorg.com/research-papers-pdf/rahman-3.pdf ^ http://www.tariqrahman.net/content/scholorly_articles/sindhi_lang_mov.pdf ^ "24hr news channel for Sindhis: HC seeks Centre's response". Business Standard Private Ltd. Press Trust of India. September 4, 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015.  ^ "Sindhi". Accredited Language Services. Retrieved 7 May 2016.  ^ "HYDERABAD: Breakthrough in Sindhi computing achieved". The Dawn. Dawn. July 1, 2003. Retrieved 7 May 2016.  ^ "Sindhi - Keyboards - Tavultesoft".  ^ "KeymanWeb.com - Type to the world in your language".  ^ Z .Ali (September 19, 2014). "Transcending barriers: Software to break down the wall within the Sindhi language". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 7 May 2016.  ^ Amaninder Sharma (September 3, 2014). "Software to melt India, Pakistan's Sindhi script barrier". Times of India. Retrieved 7 May 2016.  ^ "Sindhi". The Languages Gulper. Retrieved January 29, 2013.  ^ Naseer Memon (April 13, 2014). "The language link". The News on Sunday. Retrieved April 13, 2014.  ^ a b c "Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved May 11, 2013.  ^ "Sindhi - About World Languages".  ^ "Sindhi alphabets, pronunciation and language". Omniglot.com.  ^ "The Holy Qur'an and its Translators -- Imam Reza (A.S.) Network". imamreza.net. Retrieved 29 March 2015.  ^ Nihalani, Paroo. (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association (Sindhi). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ^ Paroo Nihalani (December 1, 1995). "Illustration of the IPA - Sindhi". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. Retrieved April 19, 2014.  ^ Nihalani 1974, p. 207. ^ The IPA Handbook uses the symbols c, cʰ, ɟ, ɟʱ, but makes it clear this is simply tradition and that these are neither palatal nor stops, but "laminal post-alveolars with a relatively short release". Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:83) confirm a transcription of [t̠ɕ, t̠ɕʰ, d̠ʑ, d̠ʑʱ] and further remarks that "/ʄ/ is often a slightly creaky voiced palatal approximant" (caption of table 3.19). ^ Ernest Trumpp
Ernest Trumpp
(1872). "Grammar of the Sindhi Language". Google Books. Retrieved April 13, 2014.  ^ Cole (2001:652–653) ^ Khubchandani (2003:624–625) ^ Sindhi language
Sindhi language
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(19th ed., 2016) ^ Masica, Colin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-521-23420-7.  ^ Rahman, Tariq (1995). "The Siraiki Movement in Pakistan". Language Problems & Language Planning. 19 (1): 3. doi:10.1075/lplp.19.1.01rah.  ^ Shackle 2007, p. 114. ^ Khubchandani (2003:633) ^ "Ancient Scripts: Landa".  ^ Cole (2001:648) ^ a b "Sindhi Language: Script". Retrieved 15 May 2012.  ^ http://std.dkuug.dk/jtc1/sc2/wg2/docs/n3978.pdf ^ http://std.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC2/WG2/docs/n3871.pdf ^ p.14 Proposal to Encode the Sindhi Script in ISO/IEC 10646 ^ "Gujarati alphabet, pronunciation and language". omniglot.com. Retrieved 29 March 2015.  ^ "Romanized Sindhi". Romanized Sindhi.org. Retrieved 7 May 2016.  ^ "CHOICE OF SCRIPT FOR OUR SINDHI LANGUAGE". Chandi Ramani. Retrieved 7 May 2016.  ^ [nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/NCLM47thReport.pdf National Committee for Linguistic Minorities]

Sources[edit]

Nihalani, Paroo (1974). "Lingual Articulation of Stops in Sindhi". Phonetica. 30 (4): 197–212. doi:10.1159/000259489. ISSN 1423-0321.  Addleton and Brown (2010). Sindhi: An Introductory Course for English Speakers. South Hadley: Doorlight Publications.  Bughio, M. Qasim (January–June 2006). Maniscalco, Fabio Maniscalco, ed. "The Diachronic Sociolinguistic Situation in Sindh". Web Journal on Cultural Patrimony. 1.  Cole, Jennifer S (2001). "Sindhi". In Garry, Jane; Rubino, Carl. Facts About the World's Languages. H W Wilson. pp. 647–653. ISBN 0-8242-0970-2.  International Phonetic Association. 1999. ISBN 0-521-63751-1.  Khubchandani, Lachman M (2003). "Sindhi". In Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 622–658. ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.  Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.  Shackle, Christopher (2007). "Pakistan". In Simpson, Andrew. Language and national identity in Asia. Oxford linguistics Y. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-922648-1.  Trumpp, P (1872). Grammar of the Sindhi Language. London: Trübner and Co. ISBN 81-206-0100-9. 

For further reading:

Chopra, R. M., The Rise, Growth And Decline of Indo-Persian Literature, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi, Chapter on"Persian in Sindh".

External links[edit]

Sindhi edition of, the free encyclopedia

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sindhi phrasebook.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sindhi language.

Sindhi Language Authority Sindhi Dictionary Type in Sindhi online All about Sindhi language
Sindhi language
and culture at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived August 31, 2015) Wals.info Sindhi computing resources at world's first Sindhi website by Majid Bhurgri ( Arabic
Arabic
script) Sindhi computing resources at TDIL ( Arabic
Arabic
script) Sindhi computing resources at TDIL ( Devanagari
Devanagari
script) First and only 24-hour international Sindhi radio station online Sindhi newspapers gasping for breath in India

v t e

Sindhi language

Language

Language Names Sindhi Language Authority States of India
India
by Sindhi speakers Khojki script Khudabadi script

Arts

Literature Poetry (List of poets) Sindhi Adabi Board Media Cinema (List of films) Folklore Music (List of singers) List of television channels

Related topics

Sindhology, Sindhi

Links to related articles

v t e

Modern Indo-Aryan languages

Dardic

Dameli Domaaki Gawar-Bati Indus Kohistani Kalami Kalash Kashmiri Khowar Kundal Shahi Mankiyali Nangalami Palula Pashayi Sawi Shina Shumashti Torwali Ushoji

Northern

Eastern

Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa

Central

Garhwali Kumaoni

Western

Dogri Kangri Mandeali

North- western

Punjabi

Punjabi

dialects

Lahnda

Hindko Khetrani Pahari-Pothwari Saraiki

Sindhi

Jadgali Kutchi Luwati Memoni Sindhi

Western

Gujarati

Aer Gujarati Jandavra Koli Lisan ud-Dawat Parkari Koli Saurashtra Vaghri

Bhil

Bhili Gamit Kalto Vasavi

Rajasthani

Bagri Goaria Gujari Jaipuri Malvi Marwari Mewari Dhatki

Others

Domari Khandeshi Romani

list of languages

Central

Western

Braj Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Hindustani

Hindi

Bombay Hindi

Urdu

Dakhini Hyderabadi Urdu Rekhta

Khariboli Kannauji Sansi Sadhukadi

Eastern

Awadhi Bagheli Chhattisgarhi Fiji Hindi

Others

Danwar Parya

Eastern

Bihari

Angika Bhojpuri Caribbean Hindustani Vajjika Magahi Maithili Majhi Sadri

Bengali– Assamese

Assamese Bengali

dialects

Bishnupriya Manipuri Chakma Chittagonian Goalpariya Hajong Kamrupi Kharia Thar Kurmukar Rangpuri Rohingya Sylheti Tanchangya

Odia

Odia Kosli Bodo Parja Kupia Reli

Halbic

Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari

Others

Mal Paharia

Southern

Marathi–Konkani

Konkani Kukna Marathi others..

Insular

Maldivian Sinhalese

Unclassified

Chinali Sheikhgal

Pidgins/ creoles

Andaman Creole Hindi Haflong Hindi Nagamese Nefamese Vedda

See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani languages; Iranian languages

v t e

Languages of Pakistan

Official languages

Urdu English

Provincial languages

Punjabi Pashto Sindhi Balochi

Minority languages (by administrative unit)

Azad Kashmir

Dogri Gujari Kashmiri Kundal Shahi Pahari-Pothwari

Balochistan

Brahui Dehwari Hazaragi Jadgali Khetrani Wanetsi

FATA

Ormuri Wazir

Gilgit-Baltistan‎

Balti Purgi Burushaski Domaaki Khowar Munji Shina Wakhi

‎Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Burushaski Badeshi Bateri Chilisso Dameli Gawar-Bati Gowro Hindko Kalami Kalasha Kalkoti Kamviri Khowar Indus Kohistani Mankiyali Palula Torwali Ushoji Yidgha

Punjab

Bagri Dogri Pahari-Pothwari Punjabi dialects Saraiki Rajasthani

Sindh

Aer Bagri Bhaya Dhatki Goaria Gujarati Jandavra Jogi Koli

Parkari

Kutchi Loarki Marwari Memoni Mewari Od Rajasthani Vaghri

Related topics

Indo-Aryan languages Dardic languages Iranic languages Pakistani Sign Language Arabic Persian Persian and Urdu Chagatai

v t e

Languages of India

Official languages

Union-level

Hindi English

8th schedule to the Constitution of India

Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Meitei (Manipuri) Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Santali Tamil Telugu Urdu

State-level only

Garo Gurung Khasi Kokborok Lepcha Limbu Mangar Mizo Newari Rai Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar Tamang

Major unofficial languages

Over 1 million speakers

Angika Awadhi Bagheli Bagri Bajjika Bhili Bhojpuri Bundeli Chhattisgarhi Dhundhari Garhwali Gondi Harauti Haryanvi Ho Kangri Khandeshi Khortha Kumaoni Kurukh Lambadi Magahi Malvi Marwari Mewari Mundari Nimadi Rajasthani Sadri Surjapuri Tulu Wagdi Varhadi

100,000 – 1 million speakers

Adi Angami Ao Dimasa Halbi Karbi Kharia Kodava Kolami Konyak Korku Koya Kui Kuvi Ladakhi Lotha Malto Mishing Nishi Phom Rabha Sema Sora Tangkhul Thadou

v t e

Province of Sindh
Sindh
topics

History

Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
(Mohenjo-daro) Sindhu Kingdom Ror dynasty Rai dynasty Brahman dynasty Muslim
Muslim
caliphate Soomra dynasty Samma dynasty Kalhora dynasty Talpur British period Cultural heritage sites

Government and politics

Provincial Assembly Chief Minister Governor Sindh
Sindh
Archives Commissioners of Sind Bhutto family Sindh
Sindh
Police Sindh
Sindh
High Court Sindh
Sindh
Information Department Sindh
Sindh
Coastal Development Authority Economy

Culture

Ajrak Sindhi cap Sindhi Cultural Day Sindhis
Sindhis
(List) Sindhi music Sindhi cuisine Sindhi diaspora Sindhi language Sindhi literature Sindhi poetry
Sindhi poetry
(Sindhi poets) Sindhi folklore Sindhi folk tales Sindhi nationalism Sindhi Adabi Board Sindhi cinema List of Sindhi-language films Sindhi media Sindhi tribes Sindhology List of Sindhi festivals Cheti Chand Sindhi bhagat Sassui Punnhun

Geography

List of cities Districts List of talukas Climate (Karachi Hyderabad Nawabshah) Fauna Historical places Indus River Makran

Education

Education in Karachi Institute of Sindhology Sindh
Sindh
Madressatul Islam University Sindh
Sindh
Museum University of Sindh

Sports

Sindh
Sindh
cricket team Malakhra

Sindhi Media

Sindhi-language media

Authority control

.