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KOCA SINAN PASHA (Turkish : Koca Sinan Paşa, "Sinan the Great"; 1506–3 April 1596) was an Ottoman grand vizier , Ottoman military figure , and statesman. From 1580 till his death he served five times as Grand Vizier.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin * 2 Career * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links

ORIGIN

Born in Topojan in the Luma region of the Sanjak of Prizren
Sanjak of Prizren
, Sinan was most likely of Albanian ethnicity . The villages around Topojan were ethnically mixed, probably with Slavic predominance (leading some Serb historians to claim a Serb origin), although Topojan had an Albanian majority. In a Ragusan document of 1571 listing members of the Ottoman Sultan's governing council, Sinan is described as having been a "Catholic Albanian" by origin. Documents from the late part of his life call his father Ali Bey, suggesting that Sinan was born a Muslim, however, it is more likely he came from a Catholic family, strongly suggested by the fact that the family had ties to the Giubizzas . After Sinan and his brothers rose in Ottoman ranks, they might have persuaded their father to convert. It should also be noted that Mustafa Ali of Gallipoli repeatedly criticized Sinan to have promoted an Albanian clique in the administration. Austrian orientalist Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall called him the ‘‘unbridled Albanian’’.

CAREER

Sinan Pasha
Pasha
commanded the Ottoman Army
Ottoman Army
in the Battle of Călugăreni (1595).

Sinan Pasha
Pasha
was appointed governor of Ottoman Egypt in 1569, and was subsequently involved until 1571 in the conquest of Yemen , becoming known as Fātiḥ-i Yemen ("Victor of Yemen").

In 1580, Sinan commanded the army against the Safavids in the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590) , and was appointed grand vizier by Sultan Murad III
Murad III
. He was, however, disgraced and exiled in the following year, owing to the defeat of his lieutenant Mehmed Pasha, at Gori (during an attempt to provision the Ottoman garrison of Tbilisi ).

He subsequently became governor of Damascus
Damascus
and, in 1589, after the great revolt of the Janissaries , was appointed grand vizier for the second time. He was involved in the competition for the throne in Wallachia
Wallachia
between Mihnea Turcitul and Petru Cercel , and ultimately sided with the former (overseeing Petru's execution in March 1590). Another revolt of Janissaries led to his dismissal in 1591, but in 1593 he was again recalled to become grand vizier for the third time, and in the same year he commanded the Ottoman army in the Long War against the Habsburgs , he was faced with massive casualties on the northern front, which was weakened by the death of Bosnian commander Telli Hasan Pasha
Pasha
during the Battle of Sisak . In 1594 during the Uprising in Banat , he ordered for the relics (remains) of Saint Sava to be brought from Mileševa
Mileševa
to Belgrade
Belgrade
, where he then had them set on fire, in order to discourage the Serbs
Serbs
. In spite of his victories he was again deposed in February 1595, shortly after the accession of Mehmed III
Mehmed III
, and banished to Malkara . In August, Sinan was in power again, called on to lead the expedition against Prince Michael the Brave of Wallachia. His defeat in the Battle of Călugăreni , the Battle of Giurgiu , and the series of unsuccessful confrontations with the Habsburgs (culminating in the devastating siege and fall of Ottoman-held Esztergom
Esztergom
), brought him once more into disfavour, and he was deprived of the seal of office (19 November).

The death of his successor Lala Mehmed Pasha
Pasha
three days later caused Sinan to become grand vizier for the fifth time. He died suddenly in the spring of 1596, leaving behind a large fortune. Sinan Pasha
Pasha
is buried in Istanbul
Istanbul
near the Grand Bazaar .

LEGACY

Sinan Pasha
Pasha
became grand vizier five times between 1580 and his death in 1596. He had many rivals but he was also a very wealthy man. During his lifetime Sinan Pasha
Pasha
was criticized by Ottoman bureaucrats such as Mustafa Âlî who wrote that Sinan promoted Albanians
Albanians
into the Ottoman government and military. Contemporary Turkish historians also note that he remained close to his heritage and would give those of Albanian stock preference for high-level positions within the empire. In 1586, at his request, Sultan Murad III
Murad III
issued a decree exempting five villages in Luma from all taxes. Sinan Pasha
Pasha
constructed the fortress of Kaçanik in the Kosovo Vilayet
Kosovo Vilayet
with an imaret (soup kitchen), two hans (Inn), a hamam (Turkish bath) and a mosque that still bears his name.

In 1590, he had the Pearl Kiosk built above the seaward walls on the sea of Marmara. It served as Murad III
Murad III
's final residence before his death. One of his final projects in Constantinople
Constantinople
was a külliye completed in from 1593 to 1594 by Davut Aga, the chief imperial architect of the time. It is distinguished by the complex masonry and decorations of its türbe and sebil .

He was a major builder of caravanserais, bridges, baths and mosques . These included the town of Kaçanik in Kosovo
Kosovo
, important buildings in Thessalonika and Belgrade
Belgrade
, as well as in Istanbul
Istanbul
and other countries in the Arab world.

SEE ALSO

* Sinan Pasha
Pasha
Mosque (Damascus) * Sinan Pasha
Pasha
Mosque (Kačanik) * List of Ottoman Grand Viziers * List of Ottoman governors of Egypt
List of Ottoman governors of Egypt

REFERENCES

* ^ Andreas Tietze (1975), Mustafa Ali\'s Description of Cairo of 1599: text, transliteration, translation, notes, Forschungen zur islamische