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Sinaloa
Sinaloa
(Spanish pronunciation: [sinaˈlo.a] ( listen)), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa
Sinaloa
(Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán
Culiacán
Rosales. It is located in Northwestern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Sonora
Sonora
to the north, Chihuahua and Durango
Durango
to the east (separated from them by the Sierra Madre Occidental) and Nayarit
Nayarit
to the south. To the west, Sinaloa
Sinaloa
borders Baja California Sur
Baja California Sur
across the Gulf of California. The state covers an area of 58,200 square kilometers (22,500 sq mi), and includes the Islands of Palmito Verde, Palmito de la Virgen, Altamura, Santa María, Saliaca, Macapule and San Ignacio. It is known to be a stronghold territory for the Sinaloa Cartel. In addition to the capital city, the state's important cities include Mazatlán
Mazatlán
and Los Mochis.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography and environment 3 Culture 4 Demography 5 Education 6 Municipalities 7 Economy 8 Government and politics 9 Notable and infamous natives or residents 10 Gallery 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] Prior to the coming of the Spaniards, much of Sinaloa
Sinaloa
was inhabited by the Cáhita
Cáhita
peoples. In 1531, Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán
Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán
with a force of over 10,000 men, defeated a force of 30,000 Cáhita
Cáhita
warriors at the site of Culiacán. Beltrán de Guzmán established a Spanish and allied Indian outpost at San Miguel de Culiacán. Over the next decade, the Cahíta suffered severe depopulation from smallpox and other diseases the Spanish brought. The Spanish organized Sinaloa
Sinaloa
as part of the gobierno of Nueva Galicia. In 1564, the area was realigned: the area of Culiacán
Culiacán
and Cosalá
Cosalá
remained in control of Nueva Galicia, while the areas to the north, south and west were made part of the newly formed Nueva Vizcaya province, making the Culiacán
Culiacán
area an exclave of Nueva Galicia. The first capital of Nueva Vizcaya was located in San Sebastián, near Copala, but the capital moved to Durango
Durango
in 1583.[9] Starting in 1599, Jesuit missionaries spread out from a base at what is now Sinaloa de Leyva
Sinaloa de Leyva
and by 1610, the Spanish influence had been extended to the northern edge of Sinaloa. In 1601, the Jesuits' movement into the eastern part of Sinaloa
Sinaloa
led to the Acaxee
Acaxee
going to war. The Spanish eventually managed to reassert authority in the Sierra Madre Occidental
Sierra Madre Occidental
region and executed 48 Acaxee
Acaxee
leaders.[10] After Mexican independence, Sinaloa
Sinaloa
was joined with Sonora
Sonora
as Estado de Occidente, but it became a separate, sovereign state in 1830. Geography and environment[edit] The coastal plain is a narrow strip of land that stretches along the length of the state and lies between the Gulf of California
Gulf of California
and the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental
Sierra Madre Occidental
mountain range, which dominates the eastern part of the state. Sinaloa
Sinaloa
is traversed by many rivers, which carve broad valleys into the foothills. The largest of these rivers are the Culiacán, Fuerte, and Sinaloa. Sinaloa
Sinaloa
has a warm climate on the coast; moderately warm climate in the valleys and foothills; moderately cold in the lower mountains, and cold in the higher elevations. Its weather characteristics vary from subtropical, found on coastal plains, to cold in the nearby mountains. Temperatures range from 22 °C (72 °F) to 43 °C (109 °F) with rain and thunderstorms during the summer months and dry conditions throughout most of the year. Numerous species of plants and animals are found within Sinaloa. Notable among the tree species is the elephant tree, Bursera microphylla.[11] Culture[edit] Culturally, it is known for its popular styles of music banda and norteño.[12] It is the only place in the continent where the ancient Mesoamerican ballgame is played, in a handful of small, rural communities not far from Mazatlán. The ritual ballgame was central in the society, religion and cosmology of all the great Mesoamerican cultures including the Mixtecs, Aztecs, and Maya.[citation needed]

An ulama player in Sinaloa.

The Sinaloa
Sinaloa
version of the game is called ulama and is very similar to the original.[13] There are efforts to preserve this 3500-year-old unique tradition by supporting the communities and children who play it.[14] Its rich cuisine[15] is well-known for its variety[16] particularly in regard to mariscos (seafood) and vegetables.[17] Sushi
Sushi
is a popular dish here.[18] Famous entertainers from Sinaloa
Sinaloa
include actor Pedro Infante
Pedro Infante
and singer Ana Gabriel, born in Guamúchil; Lola Beltrán from Rosario, Cruz Lizárraga, the founder of Banda el Recodo, Jorge Orta, actress/comedian/singer Sheyla Tadeo, born in Culiacan; Sabine Moussier and actress/singer Lorena Herrera, born in Mazatlan. The Sinaloa Cartel
Sinaloa Cartel
(Cártel de Sinaloa
Sinaloa
or CDS) has significantly influenced the culture of Sinaloa.[19] The cartel is reportedly the largest drug trafficking, money laundering and organized crime syndicate in the Western hemisphere; it is based in the city of Culiacán, Sinaloa.[20] Demography[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1895[21] 261,050 —    

1900 296,701 +13.7%

1910 323,642 +9.1%

1921 341,265 +5.4%

1930 395,618 +15.9%

1940 492,821 +24.6%

1950 635,681 +29.0%

1960 838,404 +31.9%

1970 1,266,528 +51.1%

1980 1,849,879 +46.1%

1990 2,204,054 +19.1%

1995 2,425,675 +10.1%

2000 2,536,844 +4.6%

2005 2,608,442 +2.8%

2010 2,767,761 +6.1%

2015[22] 2,966,321 +7.2%

According to the 2015 census, Sinaloa
Sinaloa
is home to 2,966,700[7] inhabitants, 61% of whom reside in the capital city of Culiacán
Culiacán
and the municipalities of Mazatlán
Mazatlán
and Ahome. It is a young state in terms of population, 56% of which is younger than 30 years of age. Other demographic particulars report 87% of the state practices the Catholic faith. Also, 1% of those over five years of age speak an indigenous language alongside Spanish; the main indigenous ethnic group still residing in the state is the Mayo or "Yoreme" (Cáhita language) people. Life expectancy in the state follows the national tendency of higher rates for women than men, a difference of almost five years in the case of Sinaloa, at 72.5 and 77.4 years respectively. In ethnic composition, Sinaloa
Sinaloa
has received large historic waves of immigration from Europe (mainly Spain, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Germany, Austria, Italy and Russia) and Asia (mainly China, Japan and the Philippines). In recent years, retirees from the U.S. and Canada have arrived and made Sinaloa
Sinaloa
their home. There was also a sizable influx of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews in the first decades of the twentieth century. Greeks (ancestry from Greece) form a notable presence in Sinaloa, where one can find local cuisine with kalamari and a few Greek Orthodox churches along the state's coast. There is a sizable Arab Mexican
Arab Mexican
community, mostly Lebanese and Syrian descent. Overall Sinaloa
Sinaloa
has one of the highest European Mexican rates in the whole country. Education[edit] In terms of education, average schooling reaches 8.27 years; 4.2% of those over 15 years of age are illiterate, and 3.18% of children under 14 years of age do not attend school. [23] Institutions of higher education include Universidad Politécnica de Sinaloa, Universidad Politécnica del Mar y la Sierra, Universidad Politécnica del Valle del Evora, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Sinaloa, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Mazatlán
Mazatlán
and Universidad Casa Blanca. Municipalities[edit] Sinaloa
Sinaloa
is divided into 18 municipios (municipalities). See Municipalities of Sinaloa. The state's major cities include the capital and largest city, Culiacán. Also Mazatlán, which is a world-famous tourist resort and destination. Los Mochis, an agricultural hub in the Northwestern region of Mexico. Economy[edit] The main economic activities of Sinaloa
Sinaloa
are agriculture, fishing, livestock breeding, commerce and industry. The products obtained from these activities are used for both local and national consumption. Agriculture
Agriculture
produces tomatoes, cotton, beans, corn, wheat, sorghum, potatoes, soybeans, sugarcane, peanuts and squash. Sinaloa
Sinaloa
is the most prominent state in Mexico
Mexico
in terms of agriculture and is known as "Mexico's breadbasket". Additionally, Sinaloa
Sinaloa
has the second largest fishing fleet in the country[citation needed]. Livestock produces meat, sausages, cheese, milk as well as sour cream. Government and politics[edit] The current governor of Sinaloa
Sinaloa
is Quirino Ordaz Coppel
Quirino Ordaz Coppel
(PRI), elected for the period 2017–2022. The state is represented in Mexico
Mexico
City by three Senators in the upper house of Mexican Congress: Aaron Irizar Lopez (PRI), Daniel Amador Gaxiola (PRI) and Francisco Salvador Lopez Brito (PAN). It also has fourteen federal deputies in the lower house. Notable and infamous natives or residents[edit]

Julio Cesar Chavez
Julio Cesar Chavez
- Six time World Boxing Champion Jorge Orta – Major League Baseball player Jorge Arce
Jorge Arce
– Boxer and flyweight champion Cristobal Arreola
Cristobal Arreola
– Boxer Ramiro Ochoa - Carpet Cleaner Luis Ayala
Luis Ayala
– Major League Baseball player Lola Beltrán – Actress and Ranchera
Ranchera
singer Perla Beltrán Acosta
Perla Beltrán Acosta
– Beauty queen, model and entrepreneur Heraclio Bernal
Heraclio Bernal
– Social Agitator/Folk Hero Jared Borgetti
Jared Borgetti
– Football player Omar Bravo – Football player Javier Valdez Cárdenas
Javier Valdez Cárdenas
– Journalist Oscar Dautt
Oscar Dautt
– Football player Ivan Estrada
Ivan Estrada
– Football player Carlos Fierro
Carlos Fierro
– Football player Ana Gabriel
Ana Gabriel
– Singer Pedro Avilés Pérez – Drug lord Joaquín Guzmán Loera
Joaquín Guzmán Loera
– Drug lord Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo – Drug lord Rafael Caro Quintero – Drug lord Amado Carrillo Fuentes – Drug lord Alfredo Beltran Leyva – Drug lord Héctor Luis Palma Salazar
Héctor Luis Palma Salazar
– Drug lord Ismael Zambada García – Drug lord Benjamin Arellano Felix
Benjamin Arellano Felix
– Drug Lord Ramon Arellano Felix – Drug lord Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo - Drug lord Lorena Herrera – Actress Pedro Infante
Pedro Infante
– Singer and actor Francisco Labastida
Francisco Labastida
– Economist and politician affiliated to the PRI Horacio Llamas
Horacio Llamas
– basketball player Los Tigres Del Norte
Los Tigres Del Norte
Norteño music
Norteño music
group Banda el Recodo
Banda el Recodo
– Banda Sinaloense group Jesús Malverde
Jesús Malverde
– Folklore hero Alberto Medina
Alberto Medina
– Football player Cesar Millan
Cesar Millan
– TV personality and professional dog trainer Fernando Montiel – Boxer Héctor Moreno – Football player Sabine Moussier – Actress Patricia Navidad – Actress and singer Antonio Osuna – Major League Baseball player Roberto Osuna
Roberto Osuna
– Major League Baseball player Óliver Pérez
Óliver Pérez
– Major League Baseball player Fausto Pinto
Fausto Pinto
– Football player Julio Preciado – Singer José Luis Ramírez – Boxer Sara Ramirez
Sara Ramirez
– Actress Paul Rodriguez – Comedian Aurelio Rodríguez
Aurelio Rodríguez
– Major League Baseball player Dennys Reyes
Dennys Reyes
– Major League Baseball player Sheyla Tadeo – Actress and comedian María del Rosario Espinoza
María del Rosario Espinoza
– Taekwondo Olympic medalist Chalino Sánchez
Chalino Sánchez
– Singer Roberto Tapia – Singer Julio Urías
Julio Urías
- Major League Baseball player Chayito Valdez
Chayito Valdez
– Folk singer

Gallery[edit]

Botanic garden "Benjamín F. Johnston" of Parque Sinaloa

See also[edit]

Geography portal North America portal Latin America portal Mexico
Mexico
portal

Sinaloa
Sinaloa
Cartel

Notes[edit]

^ "Ley. Reglas para la división del Estado de Sonora
Sonora
y Sinaloa" (in Spanish).  ^ "Senadores por Sinaloa
Sinaloa
LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  ^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Sinaloa". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  ^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013.  ^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 9, 2015.  ^ a b " Mexico
Mexico
en Cifras". INEGI. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  ^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.  ^ Peter Gerhard, The Northern Frontier of New Spain (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982) p. 245 ^ John Schmal, "The History of Indigenous Sinaloa" ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2009 ^ Lawrence Downes. "In Los Angeles, Songs Without Borders". New York Times.  ^ "The Game". Mesoamerican Heritage Chapter of the Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlan. Retrieved 31 March 2012.  ^ Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlan. 2009 ^ "Festivities and cuisine in Sinaloa".  ^ "Sinaloa".  ^ "Culinary Arts of Sinaloa".  ^ "Oh No, There Goes Tokyo Roll— Sinaloa
Sinaloa
Style Sushi
Sushi
Invades Los Angeles".  ^ " Sinaloa Cartel
Sinaloa Cartel
Influence is Steadily Growing In Tijuana". Borderland Beat. 23 February 2011.  ^ "Mexico's Sinaloa
Sinaloa
gang grows empire, defies crackdown". Reuters. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Retrieved 2011-07-29.  ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved 2015-12-09.  ^ INEGI (2005). "Principales resultados de la Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Sinaloa" (PDF): 27, 29, 33. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 

References[edit]

C. Michael Hogan. 2009. Elephant Tree: Bursera microphylla, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlán. 2009. The Mesoamerican Ballgame-Ulama

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Sinaloa
Sinaloa
(category)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Sinaloa.

Geographic data related to Sinaloa
Sinaloa
at OpenStreetMap Official website (in Spanish) The History of Indigenous Sinaloa PBS Frontline: The place Mexico's drug kingpins call home

Places adjacent to Sinaloa

 Sonora  Chihuahua  Chihuahua

Gulf of California

Sinaloa

 Durango

Pacific Ocean  Nayarit

v t e

State of Sinaloa

Culiacán
Culiacán
(capital)

Municipalities and (municipal seats)

Ahome
Ahome
(Los Mochis) Angostura (Angostura) Badiraguato
Badiraguato
(Badiraguato) Choix (Choix) Concordia (Concordia) Cosalá
Cosalá
(Cosalá) Culiacán
Culiacán
(Culiacán) El Fuerte (El Fuerte) Elota
Elota
(La Cruz) Escuinapa (Escuinapa de Hidalgo) Guasave (Guasave) Mazatlán
Mazatlán
(Mazatlán) Mocorito (Mocorito) Navolato (Navolato) Rosario (El Rosario) Salvador Alvarado (Guamúchil) San Ignacio (San Ignacio) Sinaloa
Sinaloa
( Sinaloa
Sinaloa
de Leyva)

v t e

States of Mexico

Aguascalientes Baja California Baja California
Baja California
Sur Campeche Chiapas Chihuahua Coahuila Colima Durango Guanajuato Guerrero Hidalgo Jalisco México Mexico
Mexico
City Michoacán Morelos Nayarit Nuevo León Oaxaca Puebla Querétaro San Luis Potosí Sinaloa Sonora Tamaulipas Tlaxcala Veracruz Zacatecas Quintana Ro

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