pronunciation: [sinaˈlo.a] ( listen)), officially the
Free and Sovereign State of
Sinaloa (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano
de Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District,
compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18
municipalities and its capital city is
It is located in Northwestern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of
Sonora to the north, Chihuahua and
Durango to the east (separated from
them by the Sierra Madre Occidental) and
Nayarit to the south. To the
Baja California Sur
Baja California Sur across the Gulf of
The state covers an area of 58,200 square kilometers
(22,500 sq mi), and includes the Islands of Palmito Verde,
Palmito de la Virgen, Altamura, Santa María, Saliaca, Macapule and
San Ignacio. It is known to be a stronghold territory for the Sinaloa
In addition to the capital city, the state's important cities include
Mazatlán and Los Mochis.
2 Geography and environment
8 Government and politics
9 Notable and infamous natives or residents
11 See also
14 External links
Prior to the coming of the Spaniards, much of
Sinaloa was inhabited by
Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán
Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán with a force of over 10,000 men,
defeated a force of 30,000
Cáhita warriors at the site of Culiacán.
Beltrán de Guzmán established a Spanish and allied Indian outpost at
San Miguel de Culiacán. Over the next decade, the Cahíta suffered
severe depopulation from smallpox and other diseases the Spanish
The Spanish organized
Sinaloa as part of the gobierno of Nueva
Galicia. In 1564, the area was realigned: the area of
Cosalá remained in control of Nueva Galicia, while the areas to the
north, south and west were made part of the newly formed Nueva Vizcaya
province, making the
Culiacán area an exclave of Nueva Galicia. The
first capital of Nueva Vizcaya was located in San Sebastián, near
Copala, but the capital moved to
Durango in 1583.
Starting in 1599, Jesuit missionaries spread out from a base at what
Sinaloa de Leyva
Sinaloa de Leyva and by 1610, the Spanish influence had been
extended to the northern edge of Sinaloa. In 1601, the Jesuits'
movement into the eastern part of
Sinaloa led to the
Acaxee going to
war. The Spanish eventually managed to reassert authority in the
Sierra Madre Occidental
Sierra Madre Occidental region and executed 48
After Mexican independence,
Sinaloa was joined with
Sonora as Estado
de Occidente, but it became a separate, sovereign state in 1830.
Geography and environment
The coastal plain is a narrow strip of land that stretches along the
length of the state and lies between the
Gulf of California
Gulf of California and the
foothills of the
Sierra Madre Occidental
Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range, which
dominates the eastern part of the state.
Sinaloa is traversed by many
rivers, which carve broad valleys into the foothills. The largest of
these rivers are the Culiacán, Fuerte, and Sinaloa.
Sinaloa has a warm climate on the coast; moderately warm climate in
the valleys and foothills; moderately cold in the lower mountains, and
cold in the higher elevations. Its weather characteristics vary from
subtropical, found on coastal plains, to cold in the nearby mountains.
Temperatures range from 22 °C (72 °F) to 43 °C
(109 °F) with rain and thunderstorms during the summer months
and dry conditions throughout most of the year.
Numerous species of plants and animals are found within Sinaloa.
Notable among the tree species is the elephant tree, Bursera
Culturally, it is known for its popular styles of music banda and
It is the only place in the continent where the ancient Mesoamerican
ballgame is played, in a handful of small, rural communities not far
from Mazatlán. The ritual ballgame was central in the society,
religion and cosmology of all the great Mesoamerican cultures
including the Mixtecs, Aztecs, and Maya.
An ulama player in Sinaloa.
Sinaloa version of the game is called ulama and is very similar to
the original. There are efforts to preserve this 3500-year-old
unique tradition by supporting the communities and children who play
Its rich cuisine is well-known for its variety particularly in
regard to mariscos (seafood) and vegetables.
Sushi is a popular
Famous entertainers from
Sinaloa include actor
Pedro Infante and
singer Ana Gabriel, born in Guamúchil;
Lola Beltrán from Rosario,
Cruz Lizárraga, the founder of Banda el Recodo, Jorge Orta,
actress/comedian/singer Sheyla Tadeo, born in Culiacan; Sabine
Moussier and actress/singer Lorena Herrera, born in Mazatlan.
Sinaloa Cartel (Cártel de
Sinaloa or CDS) has significantly
influenced the culture of Sinaloa. The cartel is reportedly the
largest drug trafficking, money laundering and organized crime
syndicate in the Western hemisphere; it is based in the city of
According to the 2015 census,
Sinaloa is home to 2,966,700
inhabitants, 61% of whom reside in the capital city of
the municipalities of
Mazatlán and Ahome. It is a young state in
terms of population, 56% of which is younger than 30 years of age.
Other demographic particulars report 87% of the state practices the
Catholic faith. Also, 1% of those over five years of age speak an
indigenous language alongside Spanish; the main indigenous ethnic
group still residing in the state is the Mayo or "Yoreme" (Cáhita
language) people. Life expectancy in the state follows the national
tendency of higher rates for women than men, a difference of almost
five years in the case of Sinaloa, at 72.5 and 77.4 years
In ethnic composition,
Sinaloa has received large historic waves of
immigration from Europe (mainly Spain, the United Kingdom, Ireland,
France, Germany, Austria, Italy and Russia) and Asia (mainly China,
Japan and the Philippines). In recent years, retirees from the U.S.
and Canada have arrived and made
Sinaloa their home.
There was also a sizable influx of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews in the
first decades of the twentieth century.
Greeks (ancestry from Greece) form a notable presence in Sinaloa,
where one can find local cuisine with kalamari and a few Greek
Orthodox churches along the state's coast.
There is a sizable
Arab Mexican community, mostly Lebanese and Syrian
Sinaloa has one of the highest European Mexican rates
in the whole country.
In terms of education, average schooling reaches 8.27 years; 4.2% of
those over 15 years of age are illiterate, and 3.18% of children under
14 years of age do not attend school. 
Institutions of higher education include Universidad Politécnica de
Sinaloa, Universidad Politécnica del Mar y la Sierra, Universidad
Politécnica del Valle del Evora, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa,
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus
Sinaloa, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey,
Mazatlán and Universidad Casa Blanca.
Sinaloa is divided into 18 municipios (municipalities). See
Municipalities of Sinaloa.
The state's major cities include the capital and largest city,
Culiacán. Also Mazatlán, which is a world-famous tourist resort and
destination. Los Mochis, an agricultural hub in the Northwestern
region of Mexico.
The main economic activities of
Sinaloa are agriculture, fishing,
livestock breeding, commerce and industry. The products obtained from
these activities are used for both local and national consumption.
Agriculture produces tomatoes, cotton, beans, corn, wheat, sorghum,
potatoes, soybeans, sugarcane, peanuts and squash.
Sinaloa is the most
prominent state in
Mexico in terms of agriculture and is known as
"Mexico's breadbasket". Additionally,
Sinaloa has the second largest
fishing fleet in the country. Livestock produces
meat, sausages, cheese, milk as well as sour cream.
Government and politics
The current governor of
Quirino Ordaz Coppel
Quirino Ordaz Coppel (PRI), elected
for the period 2017–2022. The state is represented in
Mexico City by
three Senators in the upper house of Mexican Congress: Aaron Irizar
Daniel Amador Gaxiola (PRI) and Francisco Salvador Lopez
Brito (PAN). It also has fourteen federal deputies in the lower house.
Notable and infamous natives or residents
Julio Cesar Chavez
Julio Cesar Chavez - Six time World Boxing Champion
Jorge Orta – Major League Baseball player
Jorge Arce – Boxer and flyweight champion
Cristobal Arreola – Boxer
Ramiro Ochoa - Carpet Cleaner
Luis Ayala – Major League Baseball player
Lola Beltrán – Actress and
Perla Beltrán Acosta
Perla Beltrán Acosta – Beauty queen, model and entrepreneur
Heraclio Bernal – Social Agitator/Folk Hero
Jared Borgetti – Football player
Omar Bravo – Football player
Javier Valdez Cárdenas
Javier Valdez Cárdenas – Journalist
Oscar Dautt – Football player
Ivan Estrada – Football player
Carlos Fierro – Football player
Ana Gabriel – Singer
Pedro Avilés Pérez – Drug lord
Joaquín Guzmán Loera
Joaquín Guzmán Loera – Drug lord
Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo – Drug lord
Rafael Caro Quintero – Drug lord
Amado Carrillo Fuentes – Drug lord
Alfredo Beltran Leyva – Drug lord
Héctor Luis Palma Salazar
Héctor Luis Palma Salazar – Drug lord
Ismael Zambada García – Drug lord
Benjamin Arellano Felix
Benjamin Arellano Felix – Drug Lord
Ramon Arellano Felix – Drug lord
Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo - Drug lord
Lorena Herrera – Actress
Pedro Infante – Singer and actor
Francisco Labastida – Economist and politician affiliated to the PRI
Horacio Llamas – basketball player
Los Tigres Del Norte
Los Tigres Del Norte –
Norteño music group
Banda el Recodo
Banda el Recodo – Banda Sinaloense group
Jesús Malverde – Folklore hero
Alberto Medina – Football player
Cesar Millan – TV personality and professional dog trainer
Fernando Montiel – Boxer
Héctor Moreno – Football player
Sabine Moussier – Actress
Patricia Navidad – Actress and singer
Antonio Osuna – Major League Baseball player
Roberto Osuna – Major League Baseball player
Óliver Pérez – Major League Baseball player
Fausto Pinto – Football player
Julio Preciado – Singer
José Luis Ramírez – Boxer
Sara Ramirez – Actress
Paul Rodriguez – Comedian
Aurelio Rodríguez – Major League Baseball player
Dennys Reyes – Major League Baseball player
Sheyla Tadeo – Actress and comedian
María del Rosario Espinoza
María del Rosario Espinoza – Taekwondo Olympic medalist
Chalino Sánchez – Singer
Roberto Tapia – Singer
Julio Urías - Major League Baseball player
Chayito Valdez – Folk singer
Botanic garden "Benjamín F. Johnston" of Parque Sinaloa
North America portal
Latin America portal
^ "Ley. Reglas para la división del Estado de
Sonora y Sinaloa" (in
^ "Senadores por
Sinaloa LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica.
Retrieved April 6, 2011.
^ "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de
Sinaloa". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
^ "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
^ "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). Retrieved December 9, 2015.
^ a b "
Mexico en Cifras". INEGI. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
^ "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano".
www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
^ Peter Gerhard, The Northern Frontier of New Spain (Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1982) p. 245
^ John Schmal, "The History of Indigenous Sinaloa"
^ C.Michael Hogan. 2009
^ Lawrence Downes. "In Los Angeles, Songs Without Borders". New York
^ "The Game". Mesoamerican Heritage Chapter of the Asociacion de
Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlan. Retrieved 31
^ Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de
^ "Festivities and cuisine in Sinaloa".
^ "Culinary Arts of Sinaloa".
^ "Oh No, There Goes Tokyo Roll—
Sushi Invades Los
Sinaloa Cartel Influence is Steadily Growing In Tijuana".
Borderland Beat. 23 February 2011.
Sinaloa gang grows empire, defies crackdown". Reuters. 19
January 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
^ "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Retrieved
^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF). INEGI. Retrieved
^ INEGI (2005). "Principales resultados de la Encuesta Intercensal
2015 Sinaloa" (PDF): 27, 29, 33. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
C. Michael Hogan. 2009. Elephant Tree: Bursera microphylla,
GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de
Mazatlán. 2009. The Mesoamerican Ballgame-Ulama
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Geographic data related to
Sinaloa at OpenStreetMap
Official website (in Spanish)
The History of Indigenous Sinaloa
PBS Frontline: The place Mexico's drug kingpins call home
Places adjacent to Sinaloa
Gulf of California
State of Sinaloa
Ahome (Los Mochis)
El Fuerte (El Fuerte)
Elota (La Cruz)
Escuinapa (Escuinapa de Hidalgo)
Rosario (El Rosario)
Salvador Alvarado (Guamúchil)
San Ignacio (San Ignacio)
Sinaloa de Leyva)
States of Mexico
Baja California Sur
San Luis Potosí