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The Info List - Simulium


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SYNONYMS

* Simulia Olfers , 1816 * Melusina Hendel 1908 * Atractocera Meigen , 1803

SIMULIUM is a genus of black flies , which may transmit diseases such as onchocerciasis (river blindness). It is a large genus with several hundred species, and 41 subgenera .

The flies are pool feeders. Their saliva, which contains anticoagulants, a number of enzymes and histamine , is mixed with the blood, preventing clotting until it is ingested by the fly. These bites cause localized tissue damage, and if the number of feeding flies is sufficient, their feeding may produce a blood-loss anaemia .

The host’s reaction to fly attacks may include systemic illness, allergic reactions or even death, presumably mediated by histamine. In humans, this systemic reaction is known as “black fly fever” and is characterized by headaches, fever, nausea, adenitis, generalized dermatitis, and allergic asthma.

SYSTEMATICS

Subgenera:

* Afrosimulium Crosskey, 1969 * Anasolen Enderlein , 1930 * Asiosimulium Takaoka & Choochote, 2005 * Aspathia Enderlein , 1935 * Boophthora Enderlein , 1921 * Boreosimulium Rubtsov & Yankovsky, 1982 * Byssodon Enderlein , 1925 * Chirostilbia Enderlein , 1921 * Crosskeyellum Grenier & Bailly-Choumara, 1970 * Daviesellum Takaoka & Adler, 1997 * Ectemnaspis Enderlein , 1934 * Edwardsellum Enderlein , 1921 * Eusimulium Roubaud, 1906 * Freemanellum Crosskey, 1969 * Gomphostilbia Enderlein , 1921 * Hebridosimulium Grenier & Rageau, 1961 * Hellichiella Rivosecchi & Cardinali, 1975 * Hemicnetha Enderlein , 1934 * Inaequalium Coscarón ">

* ^ Peter H. Adler & Roger W. Crosskey (2009). "World Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae): A Comprehensive Revision of the Taxonomic and Geographical Inventory". Natural History Museum . p. 109. * ^ Hernandez Triana, Luis M. (2011). Systematics of the Blackfly Subgenus Trichodagmia Enderlein (Diptera: Simuliidae: Simulium) in the New World. Wageningen University. pp. ix, 1–536. ISBN 9789085858652 . * ^ Ramel, Gordon John Larkman (4 March 2007). "The Nematocera". Earth-Life Web Productions. Archived from the original on 6 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-21. (Beside biological data, the page mentions a legend on black flies from the Carpathians.) * ^ Karadžić, Vuk Stefanović (2005). Живот и обичаји народа српскога (in Serbian). Belgrade: Politika : Narodna knjiga. p. 276. ISBN 86-331-1946-3 . * ^ Thompson, F. Christian (March 2001). "The Name of the Type Species of Simulium
Simulium
(Diptera: Simuliidae): an historical footnote". Entomological News 112 (2): 125. Retrieved 2011-04-08.

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