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Synonyms

Simulia Olfers, 1816 Melusina Hendel 1908 Atractocera Meigen, 1803

Simulium
Simulium
is a genus of black flies, which may transmit diseases such as onchocerciasis (river blindness). It is a large genus with several hundred species, and 41 subgenera.[1] The flies are pool feeders. Their saliva, which contains anticoagulants, a number of enzymes and histamine, is mixed with the blood, preventing clotting until it is ingested by the fly. These bites cause localized tissue damage, and if the number of feeding flies is sufficient, their feeding may produce a blood-loss anaemia. The host’s reaction to fly attacks may include systemic illness, allergic reactions or even death, presumably mediated by histamine. In humans, this systemic reaction is known as “black fly fever” and is characterized by headaches, fever, nausea, adenitis, generalized dermatitis, and allergic asthma. Systematics[edit] Subgenera:

Afrosimulium Crosskey, 1969 Anasolen Enderlein, 1930 Asiosimulium Takaoka & Choochote, 2005 Aspathia Enderlein, 1935 Boophthora Enderlein, 1921 Boreosimulium Rubtsov & Yankovsky, 1982 Byssodon Enderlein, 1925 Chirostilbia Enderlein, 1921 Crosskeyellum Grenier & Bailly-Choumara, 1970 Daviesellum Takaoka & Adler, 1997 Ectemnaspis Enderlein, 1934 Edwardsellum Enderlein, 1921 Eusimulium Roubaud, 1906 Freemanellum Crosskey, 1969 Gomphostilbia Enderlein, 1921 Hebridosimulium Grenier & Rageau, 1961 Hellichiella Rivosecchi & Cardinali, 1975 Hemicnetha Enderlein, 1934 Inaequalium Coscarón & Wygodzinsky, 1984 Inseliellum Rubtsov, 1974 Lewisellum Crosskey, 1969 Meilloniellum Rubtsov, 1962 Metomphalus Enderlein, 1935 Montisimulium Rubtsov, 1974 Morops Enderlein, 1930 Nevermannia Enderlein, 1921 Notolepria Enderlein, 1930 Obuchovia Rubtsov, 1947 Phoretomyia Crosskey, 1969 Pomeroyellum Rubtsov, 1962 Psaroniocompsa Enderlein, 1934 Psilopelmia Enderlein, 1934 Psilozia Enderlein, 1936 Pternaspatha Enderlein, 1930 Rubzovia Petrova, 1983 Schoenbaueria Enderlein, 1921 Simulium
Simulium
Latreille, 1802 Trichodagmia Enderlein, 1934[2] Wallacellum Takaoka, 1983 Wilhelmia Enderlein, 1921 Xenosimulium Crosskey, 1969

In Balkan Folklore[edit] In Serbian mythology
Serbian mythology
there is a legend concerning an ala (demon) (a female entity associated with hailstorms,madness and disease ) fabled to have died in a cave near the town of Golubac
Golubac
in the Pozarevac District in Eastern Serbia.The rotting corpse of this being is said to send forth each Spring a swarm of Golubatz flies - individuals of the species Simulium
Simulium
colombaschense. The fact that the Golubatz fly is a voracious bloodsucker and disease vector (epidemiology) accords well with the functions attributed to the ala, emphasising her malign potency - even in death - while the legend provides, reciprocally, a folkloric explanation for the genesis of so unpleasant an insect.[3][4] The specific name colombaschense signifies 'of Golubac' (Serbian pronunciation: 'Golubatz' ) - the name of the village (signifying dovecote from Slavic golub a dove/pigeon (see Columbidae), cognate with Latin (language)
Latin (language)
columba,having the same meaning).S.colombaschense was a notorious insect pest of the Banat (part of the Pannonian Basin,bordered to the south by the Danube),during the 18th century.[5] References[edit]

^ Peter H. Adler & Roger W. Crosskey (2009). "World Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae): A Comprehensive Revision of the Taxonomic and Geographical Inventory". Natural History Museum. p. 109.  ^ Hernandez Triana, Luis M. (2011). Systematics of the Blackfly Subgenus Trichodagmia Enderlein (Diptera: Simuliidae: Simulium) in the New World. Wageningen University. pp. ix, 1–536. ISBN 9789085858652.  ^ Ramel, Gordon John Larkman (4 March 2007). "The Nematocera". Earth-Life Web Productions. Archived from the original on 6 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-21. (Beside biological data, the page mentions a legend on black flies from the Carpathians.) ^ Karadžić, Vuk Stefanović (2005). Живот и обичаји народа српскога (in Serbian). Belgrade: Politika : Narodna knjiga. p. 276. ISBN 86-331-1946-3. ^ Thompson, F. Christian (March 2001). "The Name of the Type Species of Simulium
Simulium
(Diptera: Simuliidae): an historical footnote". Entomological News 112 (2): 125. Retrieved 2011-04-08.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q3280744 ADW: Simulium BugGuide: 108878 EoL: 54681 EPPO: 1SIMUG Fauna Europaea: 219356 GBIF: 5734043 ITIS: 126774 WoRMS: 593215

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