Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters (简化字; jiǎnhuàzì) are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with subsets Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
China in mainland China
China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
China (Taiwan). While these characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese, and the Chinese community in Malaysia
Malaysia and Singapore, these groups generally retain their use of Simplified characters. Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially (简体字; jiǎntǐzì). The latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms. On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which (as stated by then-Chairman Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong in 1952) includes not only structural simplification but also substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters. Some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the Traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character, usually the simplest amongst all variants in form. Finally, many characters were left untouched by simplification and are thus identical between the Traditional and Simplified Chinese orthographies. Some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from Traditional characters, especially in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol. This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the 'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is straightforward and internally consistent. Proponents also emphasize particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was later retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons, largely due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never officially dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters. The new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters
Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 (simplified and unchanged) characters was officially implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China
China on June 5, 2013.
Chinese characters Scripts
Clerical Regular Semi-cursive Cursive Flat brush
Imitation Song Ming Sans-serif
Properties Strokes (order)
Kangxi DictionaryXin Zixing
General Standard Characters (PRC)
Other standards Standardized Forms of Words with Variant Forms (PRC)
Commonly-used Characters (PRC)
Frequently-used Characters (PRC)
Chinese Traditional characters Simplified characters (first roundsecond round) Debate
Old (Kyūjitai) New (Shinjitai)
Singaporean Table of Simplified Characters
Homographs Literary and colloquial readings
Use in particular scripts Written Chinese Zetian characters Slavonic transcription
Nü Shu Kanji (Kokuji) Kana (Man'yōgana) Idu Hanja (Gukja) Nom Sawndip
1.1.1 Before 1949 1.1.2 People's Republic of China
2 Method of simplification
2.1 Structural simplification of characters 2.2 Derivation based on simplified character components 2.3 Elimination of variants of the same character 2.4 Adoption of new standardized character forms 2.5 Consistency
3 Distribution and use
3.1 Mainland China
3.2 Hong Kong
4.1 Mainland China
4.2 Hong Kong
4.4.1 Europe 4.4.2 East Asia 4.4.3 Southeast Asia
5 Computer encoding 6 Web pages 7 Criticism 8 See also 9 Notes and references 10 Further reading 11 External links
Although most of the simplified
The first batch of Simplified Characters introduced in 1935
consisted of 324 characters.
One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei
Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in
education. In the years following the
May Fourth Movement
People's Republic of China
The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications
in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964.
Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated
with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the
second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In
part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural
Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was
poorly received. In 1986, the authorities
retracted the second round completely. Later in the same year, the
authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, which is
identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the
restoration of three characters that had been simplified in the first
round: 叠, 覆, 像; note that the form 疊 is used instead of 叠 in
regions using Traditional Chinese).
There had been simplification initiatives aimed at eradicating
characters entirely and establishing the Hanyu
Hong Kong A small group called Dou Zi Sei (T:導字社; S:导字社) or Dou Zi Wui (T:導字會; S:导字会) attempted to introduce a special version of simplified characters using romanizations in the 1930s. Today, however, the Traditional characters remain dominant in Hong Kong.
Main article: Shinjitai
After World War II, Japan also simplified a number of Chinese
characters (kanji) used in the Japanese language. The new forms are
called shinjitai. Compared to Chinese, the Japanese reform was more
limited, simplifying only a few hundred characters, most of which were
already in use in cursive script. Further, the list of simplifications
was exhaustive, unlike Chinese simplification – thus analogous
simplifications of not explicitly simplified characters (extended
shinjitai) are not approved, and instead official practice is to use
the Traditional forms.
The number of characters in circulation was also reduced, and formal
lists of characters to be learned during each grade of school were
established. The overall effect was to standardize teaching and the
Method of simplification
Structural simplification of characters
All characters simplified this way are enumerated in Chart 1 and Chart
2 in Jianhuazi zong biao (简化字总表), "Complete List of
Simplified Characters" announced in 1986.简化字总表
Chart 1 lists all 350 characters that are used by themselves, and can
never serve as 'simplified character components'.
Chart 2 lists 132 characters that are used by themselves as well as
utilized as simplified character components to further derive other
simplified characters. Chart 2 also lists 14 'components' or
'radicals' that cannot be used by themselves, but can be generalized
for derivation of more complex characters.
Derivation based on simplified character components
Chart 3 lists 1,753 characters which are simplified based on the same
simplification principles used for character components and radicals
in Chart 2. This list is non-exhaustive, so if a character is not
already found in Chart 1, 2 or 3, but can be simplified in accordance
with Chart 2, the character should be simplified.
Elimination of variants of the same character
Series One Organization List of Variant Characters accounts for some
of the orthography difference between
穀 → 谷; 醜 → 丑; 蘋 → 苹; 鬆 → 松; 隻 → 只; 乾、幹 → 干; 髮 → 发; etc. Using printed forms of cursive shapes (草書楷化):
書 → 书; 長 → 长; 當 → 当; 韋 → 韦; 樂 → 乐; 車 → 车; 興 → 兴; 發 → 发; 東 → 东; 專 → 专; 過 → 过; 報 → 报; 爾 → 尔; 盡 → 尽; 學 → 学; etc. Replacing a component of a character with a simple symbol such as 又 and 乂:
對 → 对; 觀 → 观; 歡 → 欢; 難 → 难; 鳳 → 凤; 風 → 风; 這 → 这; 劉 → 刘; etc. Omitting entire components:
廠 → 厂; 廣 → 广; 誇 → 夸; 習 → 习; 寧 → 宁; 滅 → 灭; 親 → 亲; 業 → 业; 鄉 → 乡; 餘 → 余; 氣 → 气; etc. Further morphing a character after omitting some components:
婦 → 妇; 麗 → 丽; 歸 → 归; 顯 → 显; 務 → 务; etc. Preserving the basic outline or shape of the original character
飛 → 飞; 龜→ 龟; 齒 → 齿; 奪 → 夺; 門 → 门; 見 → 见; etc. Replacing the phonetic component of phono-semantic compound characters:
鄰 → 邻; 斃 → 毙; 蠟 → 蜡; 鍾 → 钟; 艦 → 舰; etc. Replacing some arbitrary part of a character with a phonetic component, turning it into a new phono-semantic compound character:
華 → 华; 憲 → 宪; 歷、曆 → 历; 賓 → 宾; etc. Replacing entire character with a newly coined phono-semantic compound character:
護 → 护; 驚 → 惊; 藝 → 艺; 響 → 响; etc. Removing radicals from characters
麼 → 么; 開 → 开; 裡 → 里; 餘 → 余; 關 → 関 → 关; etc. Only retaining radicals from characters
廣 → 广; 個 → 个; 親 → 亲; 產 → 产; 類 → 类; 廠 → 厂; 鄉 → 乡; etc. Adopting obscure ancient forms or variants:
塵 → 尘; 膚 → 肤; 從 → 从; 眾 → 众; 雲 → 云; 網 → 网; 與 → 与; 無 → 无; 電 → 电; etc. Adopting ancient vulgar variants:
體 → 体; 國 → 国; 憑 → 凭; 陽 → 阳; 陰 → 阴; etc. Re-adopting abandoned phonetic-loan characters:
餘 → 余; 後 → 后; 裏, 裡 → 里; etc. Modifying a traditional character to simplify another traditional character:
義 → 义(乂); 發 → 发(友); 龍 → 龙(尤); 無 → 无(天); 頭 → 头(大); 萬 → 万(方); etc. Derivation based on simplified character components Based on 132 characters and 14 components listed in Chart 2 of the Complete List of Simplified Characters, the 1,753 'derived' characters found in the non-exhaustive Chart 3 can be created by systematically simplifying components using Chart 2 as a conversion table. While exercising such derivation, following rules should be observed:
The "Complete List of Simplified Characters" employs character components, not the traditional definition of radicals. A component refers to any conceivable part of a character, regardless of its position within the character, or its relative size compared to other components in the same character. For instance, in the character 摆, not only is 扌 (a traditional radical) considered a component, but so is 罢. Each of the 132 simplified characters in Chart 2, when used as a component in compound characters, systematically simplify compound characters in exactly the same way the Chart 2 character itself was simplified. For instance, 單 is simplified in Chart 2 to 单. Based on the same principle, these derivations can be made: 彈 → 弹; 嬋 → 婵; 囅 → 冁; etc. The 14 simplified components in Chart 2 are never used alone as individual characters. They only serve as components. Example of derived simplification based on the component 𦥯, simplified to 龸, include: 學 → 学; 覺 → 觉; 黌 → 黉; etc. Chart 1 collects 352 simplified characters that generally cannot be used as components. Even in rare cases where a Chart 1 character is found as a component in a compound character, the compound character cannot be simplified in the same way. For instance, 習 is simplified in Chart 1 to 习, but 褶 cannot be simplified to 「衤习」. A character that is already explicitly listed as simplified character in the "Complete List of Simplified Characters" cannot be alternatively simplified based on derivation. For instance, 戰 and 誇 are simplified in Chart 1 to 战 and 夸 respectively, thus they cannot be simplified alternatively by derivation via 单 and 讠 in Chart 2 to 「𢧐」 and 「讠夸」. 過 is simplified in Chart 2 to 过, thus it cannot be alternatively derived via 呙 in Chart 2 as 「𬨨」. Sample Derivations:
𦥯 → 龸, thus 學 → 学; 覺 → 觉; 黌 → 黉; etc. 單 → 单, thus 彈 → 弹; 嬋 → 婵; 囅 → 冁; etc. 頁 → 页, thus 顏 → 颜; 頷 → 颔; 順 → 顺; 額 → 额; etc. 專 → 专, thus 傳 → 传; 轉 → 转; 磚 → 砖; etc. 食 → 饣, thus 飯 → 饭; 飽 → 饱; 飼 → 饲; 餃 → 饺; etc. 言 → 讠, thus 話 → 话; 語 → 语; 誰 → 谁; etc.
Elimination of variants of the same character The "Series One Organization List of Variant Characters" reduces the number of total standard characters. First, amongst each set of variant characters sharing identical pronunciation and meaning, one character (usually the simplest in form) is elevated to the standard character set, and the rest are obsoleted. Then amongst the chosen variants, those that appear in the "Complete List of Simplified Characters" are also simplified in character structure accordingly. Some examples follow: Sample reduction of equivalent variants:
姪 → 侄; 蹤 → 踪; 恆 → 恒; 佇 → 伫; 虖、嘑、謼 → 呼; 夠 → 够 etc. In choosing standard characters, often ancient variants with simple structures are preferred:
異 → 异; 淚 → 泪; 災、烖、菑 → 灾; etc. Vulgar forms simpler in structure are also chosen:
傑 → 杰; 貓 → 猫; 豬 → 猪; 獃、騃 → 呆; etc. The chosen variant was already simplified in Chart 1:
裏 → 裡 → 里; 歎 → 嘆 → 叹; 唘、啓 → 啟 → 启; 鬦、鬪、鬭 → 鬥 → 斗; 厤、暦 → 曆 → 历; 歴 → 歷 → 历; etc. In some instance, the chosen variant is actually more complex than eliminated ones. This is often taken up by opponents of simplification who are not aware of the dual goals of simplification (i.e. in structure of characters as well as in total number of characters) to decry that simplification does not always simplify characters. An example is the character 搾 which is eliminated in favor of the variant form 榨. Note that the "hand" radical 扌, with three strokes, on the left of the eliminated 搾 is now "seen" as more complex, appearing as the "tree" radical 木, with four strokes, in the chosen variant 榨.
Adoption of new standardized character forms
The new standardized character forms started in the "List of character
forms of General Used
粵 → 粤; 奧 → 奥; etc. The traditional component 囚 becomes 日:
溫 → 温; 媼 → 媪; etc. The traditional "Break" stroke becomes the "Dot" stroke:
虛 → 虚; 噓 → 嘘; etc. The traditional components ⺥ and 爫 become ⺈:
靜 → 静; 睜 → 睁; etc. The traditional component 奐 becomes 奂:
換 → 换; 煥 → 焕; etc. The traditional component 袁 becomes 元:
園 → 园; 遠 → 远; etc. Consistency It is a common misconception that the simplification process is arbitrary and not based on consistent rules. These allegations are often made when people 'discover' their own 'principles of simplification' from anecdotal evidence. Note, however, that simplification by derivation must follow the rules mentioned earlier. An often cited example of the apparent irregularity of simplification involves characters that appear to share the simple symbol 又 used in many simplified characters in Chart 1. Often it is intuited that 又 is a 'character component', after observing 漢 → 汉, 難 → 难, 癱 → 瘫, etc. A student of simplification may infer that the same simplification mechanism also works for 嘆 → 叹 and 灘 → 滩. When observing that 歎 → 叹, 歡 → 欢, 勸 → 劝, 灌 (not simplified) and 罐 (not simplified), one may come to the conclusion that the process of simplification is irregular. However, in the Complete List of Simplified Characters, 漢 → 汉 appears in Chart 1. 難 → 难 is listed in Chart 2. And 癱 → 瘫 is a derived character found in the non-exhaustive list in Chart 3. Therefore, 难 is defined as a 'simplified character component' according to the standard, while 又 is not. Based on 难, 癱 is simplified to 瘫, and 灘 to 滩. In the "Series One Organization List of Variant Characters", the variant character 歎 is replaced by 嘆. The character 嘆 is simplified in Chart 1 to 叹. Therefore, 歎 → 叹. Both 歡 → 欢 and 勸 → 劝 appear in Chart 1. Thus they are not defined as derived characters. There are no characters or components found in Chart 2 usable for derivation of 灌 and 罐. Further investigation reveals that these two characters do not appear in Chart 1 nor in "Series One Organization List of Variant Characters". Thus they are not defined as simplified characters; they remain unchanged from traditional forms in the "List of Commonly Used Characters in Modern Chinese". Not all new character forms result in simpler characters (i.e. fewer strokes). For instance, the old form 強, with 11 strokes, now appears as 强, with 12 strokes, in the new form. However, technically, these new character forms do not constitute simplified characters. Strangely, some characters with the water radical with three dots 氵 in the traditional form were simplified into the ice radical with two dots 冫 in the simplified form. Some examples are 決 → 决, 況 → 况, and 湊 → 凑.
Distribution and use
The slogan 战无不胜的毛泽东思想万岁! (Zhàn wúbù
shèng de Máo Zédōng sīxiǎng wànsuì!; Long live the invincible
The Law of the People's Republic of
Textbooks, official statements, newspapers, including the PRC-funded
media, show no signs of moving to simplified Chinese characters.
However, some students may opt to use the simplified form when taking
notes or doing test papers to write faster.
It is common for
In general, schools in Mainland China,
In December 2004, Ministry of education authorities rejected a
proposal from a Beijing CPPCC political conference member that called
for elementary schools to teach traditional
Most, if not all,
Chinese as a foreign language
Further information: Chinese as a foreign language
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As the source of many
In the United Kingdom, universities mainly teach
In South Korea, universities have used predominantly simplified
characters since 1990s. In high school, Chinese is one of the
selective subjects. By the regulation of the national curricula
standards, MPS I and traditional characters had been originally used
before (since the 1940s), but by the change of regulation, pinyin and
simplified characters have been used to pupils who enter the school in
1996 or later. Therefore, MPS I and traditional characters disappeared
after 1998 in South Korean high school Chinese curriculum.
In Japan there are two types of schools. Simplified Chinese is taught
instead of traditional Chinese in pro-mainland
In the Philippines, the use of simplified characters is getting more
and more popular. Before the 1970s, Chinese schools in the Philippines
were under the supervision of the Ministry of Education of the
Republic of China. Hence, most books were using the Traditional
Characters. Traditional Characters remained prevalent until the early
2000s. However, institutions like the Confucius Institute, being the
cultural arm of the People's Republic of China, are strong proponents
of the use of Simplified Characters. Also, many new schools are now
importing their Mandarin textbooks from
In computer text applications, the GB encoding scheme most often
renders simplified Chinese characters, while
Big5 most often renders
traditional characters. Although neither encoding has an explicit
connection with a specific character set, the lack of a one-to-one
mapping between the simplified and traditional sets established a de
Since simplified Chinese conflated many characters into one and since
the initial version of the GB encoding scheme, known as GB2312-80,
contained only one code point for each character, it is impossible to
GB2312 to map to the bigger set of traditional characters. It is
theoretically possible to use
Big5 code to map to the smaller set of
simplified character glyphs, although there is little market for such
a product. Newer and alternative forms of GB have support for
traditional characters. In particular, mainland authorities have now
Web pages The World Wide Web Consortium's Internationalization working group recommends the use of the language tag zh-Hans as a language attribute value and Content-Language value to specify web-page content in simplified Chinese characters.
Further information: Debate on traditional and simplified Chinese
There are ongoing disputes among users of
^ Refer to official publications: zh:汉字简化方案, zh:简化字总表, etc.
^ 教育部就《汉字简化方案》等发布 50 周年答记者提问 Semi-centennial celebration of the publication of Chinese Character Simplification Plan and official press conference.
^ 書同文 :《漢字簡化方案》制訂始末，黄加佳，新华网. Detailed account of the Chinese simplification effort.
^ Examples of characters where a component is replaced by a simple symbol include: 对(對), 邓 (鄧), 观 (觀), 欢 (歡).
^ a b In his book, 彭小明 fails to understand that 又 is not used as a simplified component (簡化偏旁 or 简化偏方), thus deriding the 'supposedly inconsistent application' of 又 in 欢, 汉, 仅, etc. The author also misrepresents the rationale behind the simplification of 團, as well as cursive-based simplifications. See Chinese's discussion on simplification and explanations in original, official papers such as 简化字总表. 彭小明 (January 2008). 漢字簡化得不償失. Hong Kong: 夏菲爾國際出版公司. ISBN 9789629380687..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em
^ In '17个角度看到繁简体汉字 (经济观察网)' (part1 and part2), for instance, the scholar 裴钰 praises the simplified character 体 as an ingenious new invention, when in fact it has existed for hundreds of years (see 康熙字典「体」).
^ "Simplified Chinese characters". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved 2016-03-16.
^ 关于《通用规范汉字表》公开征求意见的公告 Archived 2009-08-15 at the Wayback Machine. Page about the list at the State Language Commission's website, including a link to a pdf of the list. Accessed 2009.08.18.
^ 汉字，该繁还是简？ Archived 2009-04-28 at the Wayback Machine. Syndicated from 人民日报 (People's Daily), 2009-04-09. Accessed 2009.04.10.
^ "Archived copy" 专家称恢复繁体字代价太大 新规范汉字表将公布. Xinhua News. 2009-04-09. Archived from the original on 2009-04-12. Retrieved 2009-04-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Syndicated from 新京报, 2009-04-09. Accessed 2009.04.10.
^ 国务院关于公布《通用规范汉字表》的通知. Government of the People's Republic of China. 2013-08-19.
^ Yen, Yuehping.  (2005). Calligraphy and Power in Contemporary Chinese Society. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-31753-3.
^ 简化字的昨天、今天和明天. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
^ Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. "Archived copy" 《通用规范汉字表》44个汉字"整形"引发争论. Archived from the original on 2017-01-09. Retrieved 2017-01-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
^ 新加坡与中国调整简体字的评骘]，谢世涯，華語橋. huayuqiao.org.
^ All examples listed here are sourced from 简化字#字型結構簡化#簡化方法 where all entries are associated with proper references.
^ a b This is very similar to the 'elimination of variants of the same character' in "Series One Organization List of Variant Characters", except that these eliminations happen in Chart 1 and Chart 2 of "Complete List of Simplified Characters". Characters simplified in Chart 2 can be further used for derivation of Chart 3, but those chosen in "Series One Organization List of Variant Characters" cannot.
^ 基測作文 俗體字不扣分]，蘋果日報. Apple News. April 12, 2006.
^ Shih, Hsiu-chuan (14 December 2010). "Premier respects 'choice' on spelling". Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
^ Xing, Janet Zhiqun (2006). Teaching and Learning Chinese as a
Foreign Language: A Pedagogical Grammar.
^ Norden, Bryan W. Van (2011). Introduction to Classical Chinese
Philosophy. Hackett Publishing. p. 242. ISBN 9781603846158.
[Beijing – City Education Committee rejects commissar of
Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
^ "Debate: A need to introduce traditional characters to schools?". Archived from the original on 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
^ "School bridges China-Japan gap". Archived from the original on 2008-12-26. Retrieved 2008-12-23.
^ Richard Ishida (editor): Best Practice 13: Using Hans and Hant codes in Internationalization Best Practices: Specifying Language in XHTML & HTML Content – W3C Working Group Note 12 April 2007.
^ Liu Shahe. 简化字不讲理.
Bergman, P. M. (1980). The basic English-Chinese, Chinese-English
dictionary: using simplified characters (with an appendix containing
the original complex characters) transliterated in accordance with the
new, official Chinese phonetic alphabet. New York: New American
Library. ISBN 0-451-09262-7.
Bökset, R. (2006). Long story of short forms: the evolution of
simplified Chinese characters. Stockholm
See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary) SMS language
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