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Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (/də ˈboʊˌvwɑːr/ or /də ˌboʊˈvwɑːr/;[2] French pronunciation: [simɔn də bovwaʁ] ( listen); 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist. Though she did not consider herself a philosopher, she had a significant influence on both feminist existentialism and feminist theory.[3] De Beauvoir wrote novels, essays, biographies, autobiography and monographs on philosophy, politics and social issues. She was known for her 1949 treatise The Second Sex, a detailed analysis of women's oppression and a foundational tract of contemporary feminism; and for her novels, including She Came to Stay
She Came to Stay
and The Mandarins.

Contents

1 Early years

1.1 Family 1.2 Education

2 Middle years 3 Personal life 4 Notable works

4.1 She Came to Stay 4.2 Existentialist ethics 4.3 Les Temps modernes 4.4 Sexuality, existentialist feminism and The Second Sex 4.5 The Mandarins

5 Later years 6 Prizes 7 Works

7.1 List of publications (non-exhaustive) 7.2 Selected translations

8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early years[edit] Family[edit] Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
was born in Paris
Paris
on 9 January, 1908. Her parents were Georges Bertrand de Beauvoir, a legal secretary who once aspired to be an actor,[4] and Françoise de Beauvoir (née Brasseur), a wealthy banker's daughter and devout Catholic. Simone's sister, Hélène, was born two years later. The family struggled to maintain their bourgeois status after losing much of their fortune shortly after World War
War
I, and Françoise insisted that the two daughters be sent to a prestigious convent school. De Beauvoir herself was deeply religious as a child, at one point intending to become a nun. She lost her faith in her mid teens and remained an atheist for the rest of her life.[5] Education[edit] De Beauvoir was intellectually precocious, fuelled by her father's encouragement; he reportedly would boast, "Simone thinks like a man!"[6] Because of her family's straitened circumstances, de Beauvoir could no longer rely on her dowry, and like other middle-class girls of her age, her marriage opportunities were put at risk. De Beauvoir took this opportunity to do what she always wanted to do while also taking steps to earn a living for herself.[7] After passing baccalaureate exams in mathematics and philosophy in 1925, she studied mathematics at the Institut Catholique de Paris
Paris
and literature/languages at the Institut Sainte-Marie (fr). She then studied philosophy at the Sorbonne and after completing her degree in 1928, she wrote her diplôme d'études supérieures (fr) (roughly equivalent to an MA thesis) on Leibniz for Léon Brunschvicg (the topic was "Le concept chez Leibniz" ["The Concept in Leibniz"]).[8] De Beauvoir was only the ninth woman to have received a degree from the Sorbonne at the time, due to the fact that French women had only recently been allowed to join higher education.[7] De Beauvoir first worked with Maurice Merleau-Ponty
Maurice Merleau-Ponty
and Claude Lévi-Strauss, when all three completed their practice teaching requirements at the same secondary school. Although not officially enrolled, she sat in on courses at the École Normale Supérieure
École Normale Supérieure
in preparation for the agrégation in philosophy, a highly competitive postgraduate examination which serves as a national ranking of students. It was while studying for the agrégation that she met École Normale students Jean-Paul Sartre, Paul Nizan, and René Maheu (who gave her the lasting nickname "Castor", or beaver).[4] The jury for the agrégation narrowly awarded Sartre
Sartre
first place instead of de Beauvoir, who placed second and, at age 21, was the youngest person ever to pass the exam.[9] Writing of her youth in Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter she said: "...my father's individualism and pagan ethical standards were in complete contrast to the rigidly moral conventionalism of my mother's teaching. This disequilibrium, which made my life a kind of endless disputation, is the main reason why I became an intellectual."[10] Middle years[edit]

Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
and Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
at the Balzac Memorial

From 1929 to 1943, de Beauvoir taught at the lycée level until she could support herself solely on the earnings of her writings. She taught at the Lycée
Lycée
Montgrand (fr) (Marseille), the Lycée Jeanne-d'Arc (Rouen) (fr), the Lycée
Lycée
Molière (Paris) (fr) (1936–39).[11] During October 1929, Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
and de Beauvoir became a couple and, after they were confronted by her father, Sartre
Sartre
asked her to marry him.[12] One day while they were sitting on a bench outside the Louvre, he said, "Let's sign a two-year lease".[13] Near the end of her life, de Beauvoir said, "Marriage was impossible. I had no dowry." So they entered a lifelong relationship.[14][1][15] Sartre
Sartre
and de Beauvoir always read each other's work. Debate continues about the extent to which they influenced each other in their existentialist works, such as Sartre's Being and Nothingness
Being and Nothingness
and de Beauvoir's She Came to Stay
She Came to Stay
and "Phenomenology and Intent". However, recent studies of de Beauvoir's work focus on influences other than Sartre, including Hegel and Leibniz.[3] The Neo-Hegelian revival led by Alexandre Kojève
Alexandre Kojève
and Jean Hyppolite
Jean Hyppolite
in the 1930s inspired a whole generation of French thinkers, including Beauvoir and Sartre, to discover Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit.[16][17] Personal life[edit]

Algren in 1956

Beginning in 1929, de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
were partners for fifty-one years until his death in 1980.[18] De Beauvoir chose never to marry or set up a joint household and she never had children. This gave her the time to advance her education and engage in political causes, to write and teach, and to have lovers.[19] Perhaps her most famous lover was American author Nelson Algren
Nelson Algren
whom she met in Chicago in 1947, and to whom she wrote across the Atlantic as "my beloved husband."[20] Algren won the National Book Award for The Man with the Golden Arm. In 1950, and in 1954, de Beauvoir won France's most prestigious literary prize for The Mandarins
The Mandarins
in which Algren is the character Lewis Brogan. Algren vociferously objected to their intimacy becoming public. Years after they separated, she was buried wearing his gift of a silver ring.[21] However, she lived with Claude Lanzmann
Claude Lanzmann
from 1952 to 1959.[22] De Beauvoir was bisexual and her relationships with young women were controversial.[23] Former student Bianca Lamblin (originally Bianca Bienenfeld) wrote in her book Mémoires d'une jeune fille dérangée (English: Memoirs of a Disturbed Young Lady), that, while she was a student at Lycée
Lycée
Molière, she had been sexually exploited by her teacher de Beauvoir, who was in her 30s at the time.[24] In 1943, de Beauvoir was suspended from her teaching job, due to an accusation that she had seduced her 17-year-old lycée pupil Natalie Sorokine in 1939.[25] Sorokine's parents laid formal charges against de Beauvoir for debauching a minor and as a result she had her license to teach in France permanently revoked.[26] In 1977, de Beauvoir, Sartre, Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and much of the era's intelligensia signed a petition seeking to abrogate the age of consent in France.[27][28] Notable works[edit] She Came to Stay[edit] De Beauvoir published her first novel She Came to Stay
She Came to Stay
in 1943.[29] It is a fictionalised chronicle of her and Sartre's sexual relationship with Olga Kosakiewicz and Wanda Kosakiewicz. Olga was one of her students in the Rouen secondary school where de Beauvoir taught during the early 1930s. She grew fond of Olga. Sartre
Sartre
tried to pursue Olga but she rejected him, so he began a relationship with her sister Wanda. Upon his death, Sartre
Sartre
was still supporting Wanda. He also supported Olga for years, until she met and married Jacques-Laurent Bost, a lover of de Beauvoir. In the novel, set just before the outbreak of World War
War
II, de Beauvoir creates one character from the complex relationships of Olga and Wanda. The fictionalised versions of Beauvoir and Sartre
Sartre
have a ménage à trois with the young woman. The novel also delves into de Beauvoir and Sartre's complex relationship and how it was affected by the ménage à trois. She Came to Stay
She Came to Stay
was followed by many others, including The Blood of Others, which explores the nature of individual responsibility, telling a love story between two young French students participating in the Resistance in World War
War
II.[30] Existentialist ethics[edit]

Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
and Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
in Beijing, 1955

In 1944 de Beauvoir wrote her first philosophical essay, Pyrrhus et Cinéas, a discussion of an existentialist ethics. She continued her exploration of existentialism through her second essay The Ethics
Ethics
of Ambiguity (1947); it is perhaps the most accessible entry into French existentialism. In the essay, de Beauvoir clears up some inconsistencies that many, Sartre
Sartre
included, have found in major existentialist works such as Being and Nothingness. In The Ethics
Ethics
of Ambiguity, de Beauvoir confronts the existentialist dilemma of absolute freedom vs. the constraints of circumstance.[3] Les Temps modernes[edit] Main article: Les Temps modernes At the end of World War
War
II, de Beauvoir and Sartre
Sartre
edited Les Temps modernes, a political journal which Sartre
Sartre
founded along with Maurice Merleau-Ponty
Merleau-Ponty
and others. De Beauvoir used Les Temps Modernes to promote her own work and explore her ideas on a small scale before fashioning essays and books. De Beauvoir remained an editor until her death. Sexuality, existentialist feminism and The Second Sex[edit] The Second Sex, first published in French as Le Deuxième Sexe, turns the existentialist mantra that existence precedes essence into a feminist one: “One is not born but becomes a woman.”[31] With this famous phrase, Beauvoir first articulated what has come to be known as the sex-gender distinction, that is, the distinction between biological sex and the social and historical construction of gender and its attendant stereotypes.[32] The fundamental source of women's oppression, Beauvoir notes, is its historical and social construction as the quintessential Other.[33] De Beauvoir defines women as the “second sex” because women are defined in relation to men. Aristotle
Aristotle
referred that women are “female by virtue of a certain lack of qualities.” De Beauvoir also points out that St. Thomas referred to the woman as the “imperfect man", the "incidental” being.[34] De Beauvoir asserted that women are as capable of choice as men, and thus can choose to elevate themselves, moving beyond the 'immanence' to which they were previously resigned and reaching 'transcendence', a position in which one takes responsibility for oneself and the world, where one chooses one's freedom. Chapters of The Second Sex
The Second Sex
were originally published in Les Temps modernes,[35] in June 1949. The second volume came a few months after the first in France.[36] It was very quickly published in America due to the quick translation by Howard Parshley, as prompted by Blanche Knopf, wife of publisher Alfred A. Knopf. Because Parshley had only a basic familiarity with the French language, and a minimal understanding of philosophy (he was a professor of biology at Smith College), much of de Beauvoir's book was mistranslated or inappropriately cut, distorting her intended message.[37] For years, Knopf prevented the introduction of a more accurate retranslation of de Beauvoir's work, declining all proposals despite the efforts of existentialist scholars.[37] Only in 2009 was there a second translation, to mark the 60th anniversary of the original publication. Constance Borde and Sheila Malovany-Chevallier produced the first integral translation in 2010, reinstating a third of the original work.[38] In the chapter "Woman: Myth and Reality" of The Second Sex,[39] de Beauvoir argued that men had made women the "Other" in society by application of a false aura of "mystery" around them. She argued that men used this as an excuse not to understand women or their problems and not to help them, and that this stereotyping was always done in societies by the group higher in the hierarchy to the group lower in the hierarchy. She wrote that a similar kind of oppression by hierarchy also happened in other categories of identity, such as race, class and religion, but she claimed that it was nowhere more true than with gender in which men stereotyped women and used it as an excuse to organize society into a patriarchy. Women who do not follow the domestic norm are looked down upon in society. Beauvoir is explaining that woman referred as “the other.” She states, “What is a woman?’...The fact that I ask it is in itself significant. A man would never get the notion of writing a book on the peculiar situation of the human male. But if I wish to define myself, I must first of all say: ‘I am a woman’; on this truth must be based all further discussion. A man never begins by presenting himself as an individual of a certain sex; it goes without saying that he is a man. […] It would be out of the question to reply: ‘And you think the contrary because you are a man,’ for it is understood that the fact of being a man is no peculiarity.” (34–35) As for man there is no need to define what is to be a man, there is no reason because they identified themselves as the superior part. Man represents both “the positive and the neutral,” which doesn’t need to be explained or defined, and it is self-explanatory. “Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in relation to herself but as relative to him; she is not regarded as an autonomous being.” (35) Men are the default setting and women are considered a recessive gender. “He is the Subject, he is the Absolute—she is the Other.” (35) It is like an asymmetrical comparison, but masculine and feminine aren’t asymmetrical. “Are there woman, really? Most assuredly the theory of the eternal feminine still has its adherents who will whisper in your ear: ‘Even in Russia women are still women’; and other erudite persons—sometimes the very same—say with a sigh, ‘Woman is losing her way, woman is lost.’” (34) De Beauvoir refers, to the “eternal feminine,” it can be what define some kind of spiritual being that connect all women to each other.[34] De Beauvoir argued that women have historically been considered deviant, abnormal. She said that even Mary Wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft
considered men to be the ideal toward which women should aspire. De Beauvoir said that this attitude limited women's success by maintaining the perception that they were a deviation from the normal, and were always outsiders attempting to emulate "normality". She believed that for feminism to move forward, this assumption must be set aside. Despite her contributions to the feminist movement, especially the French women's liberation movement, and her beliefs in women's economic independence and equal education, de Beauvoir was initially reluctant to call herself a feminist.[7] However, after observing the resurgence of the feminist movement in the late 1960s and early 1970s, de Beauvoir stated she no longer believed a socialist revolution to be enough to bring about women's liberation. She publicly declared herself a feminist in 1972 in an interview with Le Nouvel Observateur.[40] The Mandarins[edit]

Dunes cottage where Algren and de Beauvoir summered in Miller Beach, Indiana

Published in 1954, The Mandarins
The Mandarins
is set after the end of World War
War
II and won her France's highest literary prize, the Prix Goncourt. The book follows the personal lives of philosophers and friends among Sartre's and de Beauvoir's intimate circle, including her relationship with American writer Nelson Algren, to whom the book was dedicated. Algren was outraged by the frank way de Beauvoir described their sexual experiences in both The Mandarins
The Mandarins
and her autobiographies. Algren vented his outrage when reviewing American translations of de Beauvoir's work. Much material bearing on this episode in de Beauvoir's life, including her love letters to Algren, entered the public domain only after her death. Later years[edit]

Antonio Núñez Jiménez, de Beauvoir, Sartre
Sartre
and Che Guevara
Che Guevara
in Cuba, 1960

De Beauvoir wrote popular travel diaries about time spent in the United States [41] and China and published essays and fiction rigorously, especially throughout the 1950s and 1960s. She published several volumes of short stories, including The Woman Destroyed, which, like some of her other later work, deals with aging. 1980 saw the publication of When Things of the Spirit Come First, a set of short stories centred around and based upon women important to her earlier years.[30] Though written long before the novel She Came to Stay, de Beauvoir did not at the time consider the stories worth publishing, allowing some forty years to pass before doing so. Sartre
Sartre
and Merleau-Ponty
Merleau-Ponty
had a longstanding feud, which led Merleau-Ponty
Merleau-Ponty
to leave Les Temps Modernes. De Beauvoir sided with Sartre
Sartre
and ceased to associate with Merleau-Ponty. In de Beauvoir's later years, she hosted the journal's editorial meetings in her flat and contributed more than Sartre, whom she often had to force to offer his opinions. De Beauvoir also notably wrote a four-volume autobiography, consisting of: Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter; The Prime of Life; Force of Circumstance (sometimes published in two volumes in English translation: After the War
War
and Hard Times); and All Said and Done.[30] In the 1970s de Beauvoir became active in France's women's liberation movement. She wrote and signed the Manifesto of the 343 in 1971, a manifesto that included a list of famous women who claimed to have had an abortion, then illegal in France. Some argue most of the women had not had abortions, including Beauvoir. Signatories were diverse as Catherine Deneuve, Delphine Seyrig
Delphine Seyrig
and de Beauvoir's sister Poupette. In 1974, abortion was legalised in France. Her 1970 long essay La Vieillesse (The Coming of Age) is a rare instance of an intellectual meditation on the decline and solitude all humans experience if they do not die before about the age of 60. In an interview with Betty Friedan, de Beauvoir said: "No, we don’t believe that any woman should have this choice. No woman should be authorised to stay at home to bring up her children. Society
Society
should be totally different. Women should not have that choice, precisely because if there is such a choice, too many women will make that one. It is a way of forcing women in a certain direction."[42] In about 1976 de Beauvoir and Sylvie Le Bon made a trip to New York City in the United States to visit Kate Millett
Kate Millett
on her farm.[43]

De Beauvoir's and Sartre's grave at the Cimetière du Montparnasse

In 1981 she wrote La Cérémonie Des Adieux (A Farewell to Sartre), a painful account of Sartre's last years. In the opening of Adieux, de Beauvoir notes that it is the only major published work of hers which Sartre
Sartre
did not read before its publication. She contributed the piece " Feminism
Feminism
– alive, well, and in constant danger" to the 1984 anthology Sisterhood Is Global: The International Women's Movement Anthology, edited by Robin Morgan.[44] After Sartre
Sartre
died in 1980, de Beauvoir published his letters to her with edits to spare the feelings of people in their circle who were still living. After de Beauvoir's death, Sartre's adopted daughter and literary heir Arlette Elkaïm would not let many of Sartre's letters be published in unedited form. Most of Sartre's letters available today have de Beauvoir's edits, which include a few omissions but mostly the use of pseudonyms. De Beauvoir's adopted daughter and literary heir Sylvie Le Bon, unlike Elkaïm, published de Beauvoir's unedited letters to both Sartre
Sartre
and Algren. De Beauvoir died of pneumonia on 14 April, 1986 in Paris, aged 78.[45] She is buried next to Sartre
Sartre
at the Montparnasse Cemetery in Paris. Prizes[edit]

Prix Goncourt, 1954 Jerusalem Prize, 1975 Austrian State Prize for European Literature, 1978

Works[edit] List of publications (non-exhaustive)[edit]

L'Invitée (1943) (English – She Came to Stay) [novel] Pyrrhus et Cinéas (1944) [nonfiction] Le Sang des autres (1945) (English – The Blood of Others) [novel] Who Shall Die? (1945) Tous les hommes sont mortels (1946) (English – All Men Are Mortal) [novel] Pour une morale de l'ambiguïté (1947) (English – The Ethics
Ethics
of Ambiguity) [nonfiction] "America Day by Day" (1948) (English – 1999 – Carol Cosman (Translator and Douglas Brinkley (Foreword) [nonfiction] Le Deuxième Sexe (1949) (English – The Second Sex) [nonfiction] L'Amérique au jour le jour (1954) (English – America Day by Day) Les Mandarins (1954) (English – The Mandarins) [novel] Must We Burn Sade? (1955) The Long March (1957) [nonfiction] Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter (1958) The Prime of Life (1960) Force of Circumstance (1963) A Very Easy Death (1964) Les Belles Images (1966) [novel] The Woman Destroyed (1967) [novel] The Coming of Age (1970) [nonfiction] All Said and Done (1972) When Things of the Spirit Come First (1979) [novel] Adieux: A Farewell to Sartre
Sartre
(1981) Letters to Sartre
Sartre
(1990) Journal de guerre, Sept 1939–Jan 1941 (1990); English – Wartime Diary (2009) A Transatlantic Love Affair: Letters to Nelson Algren
Nelson Algren
(1998) Diary of a Philosophy Student, 1926–27 (2006) Cahiers de jeunesse, 1926–1930 (2008)

Selected translations[edit]

Patrick O'Brian
Patrick O'Brian
was de Beauvoir's principal English translator, until he attained commercial success as a novelist. Beauvoir, Simone (1997), ""Introduction" to The Second Sex", in Nicholson, Linda, The second wave: a reader in feminist theory, New York: Routledge, pp. 11–18, ISBN 9780415917612.  Philosophical Writings (Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 2004, edited by Margaret A. Simons et al.) contains a selection of essays by de Beauvoir translated for the first time into English. Among those are: Pyrrhus and Cineas, discussing the futility or utility of action, two previously unpublished chapters from her novel She Came to Stay
She Came to Stay
and an introduction to Ethics
Ethics
of Ambiguity.

See also[edit]

Art Shay Simone Weil List of women's rights activists

France portal Biography portal LGBT portal

References[edit]

^ Wendy O'Brien, Lester Embree (eds.), The Existential Phenomenology of Simone de Beauvoir, Springer, 2013, p. 40. ^ "de Beauvoir, Simone". Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved 9 February 2017.  ^ a b c Bergoffen, Debra, "Simone de Beauvoir", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta
Edward N. Zalta
(ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/beauvoir/>. ^ a b Mussett, Shannon. Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
Biography on the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 11 April 2010. ^ Thurman, Judith. Introduction to Simone de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex. Excerpt published in The New York Times 27 May 2010. Retrieved 11 April 2010. ^ Bair, p. 60 ^ a b c Roberts, Mary Louise. "Beauvoir, Simone de." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Oxford University Press, 2008. Source. Retrieved 3 February 2014. ^ Margaret A. Simons (ed.), Feminist
Feminist
Interpretations of Simone de Beauvoir, Penn State Press, Nov 1, 2010, p. 3. ^ Menand, Louis. "Stand By Your Man". The New Yorker, 26 September 2005. Retrieved 11 May 2010. ^ Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter, Book One ^ Kelly Oliver (ed.), French Feminism
Feminism
Reader, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000, p. 1; Bulletin 2006 de l'Association amicale des anciens et anciennes élèves du lycée Molière, 2006, p. 22. ^ Bair, pp. 155–56 ^ Bair, p. 157 ^ Bair, p. 156 ^ Appignanesi, Lisa (10 June 2005). "Our relationship was the greatest achievement of my life". The Guardian. London.  ^ Ursula Tidd, Simone de Beauvoir, Psychology Press, p. 19. ^ Nancy Bauer, Simone de Beauvoir: Philosophy, and Feminism, Columbia University Press, 2012, p. 86. ^ Seymour-Jones 2008, p. Back cover ^ Schneir, Miriam (1994). Feminism
Feminism
in Our Time. Vintage Books. p. 5. ISBN 0-679-74508-4.  ^ "Simone de Beauvoir's Love Letters to Nelson Algren". Chicago Tribune.  ^ Le Bon-de Beauvoir, Sylvie (1997). "Preface: A Transatlantic Love Affair". The New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 2017.  ^ Menand, Louis (September 26, 2005). "Stand By Your Man". The New Yorker: Condé Nast. Retrieved December 28, 2017.  ^ Rodgers, Nigel; Thompson, Mel (2004). Philosophers Behaving Badly. London: Peter Owen Publishers. p. ~186. ISBN 072061368X.  ^ Mémoires d'une jeune fille dérangée (1994, LGF – Livre de Poche; ISBN 978-2-253-13593-7/2006, Balland; ISBN 978-2-7158-0994-9) ^ Tête-à-tête: Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
and Jean-Paul Sartre, Hazel Rowley, HarperCollins, 2005, pp. 130–35, ISBN 0-06-052059-0;ISBN 978-0-06-052059-5 ^ Intellectuals: From Marx and Tolstoy to Sartre
Sartre
and Chomsky, Paul Johnson, Harper Perennial, 1988, pp. 238–38, ISBN 978-0-06-125317-1 ^ "Sexual Morality and the Law", Chapter 16 of Politics, Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and Other Writings 1977-1984. Edited by Lawrence D. Krizman. New York/London: 1990, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-90149-9, p. 275. ^ Henley, Jon (February 23, 2001). "Calls for legal child sex rebound on luminaries of May 68". The Guardian. Retrieved December 28, 2017.  ^ "Beauvoir, Simone de Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". www.iep.utm.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-03.  ^ a b c http://www.iep.utm.edu/beauvoir/ Simone de Beauvoir ^ Beauvoir, The Second Sex, 267 ^ Mikkola, Mari (3 January 2018). Zalta, Edward N., ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ Bergoffen, Debra (2015). Zalta, Edward N., ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2015 ed.). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.  ^ a b Beauvoir, Simone de. " Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
The Second Sex, Woman as Other 1949". www.marxists.org.  ^ Appignanesi 2005, p. 82 ^ Appignanesi 2005, p. 89 ^ a b Moi, Toril 'While We Wait: The English Translation of "The Second Sex" in Signs 27(4) (summer, 2002), pp. 1005–35. ^ "Review: The Second Sex, by Simone de Beauvoir" – via The Globe and Mail.  ^ Beauvoir, Simone de. "Woman: Myth and Reality". ** in Jacobus, Lee A. (ed.). A World of Ideas. Bedford/St. Martins, Boston 2006. 780–95. ** in Prince, Althea, and Susan Silva Wayne. Feminisms and Womanisms: A Women's Studies Reader. Women's Press, Toronto 2004 p. 59–65. ^ Fallaize, Elizabeth (1998). Simone de Beauvoir : a critical reader (Digital print ed.). London: Routledge. p. 6. ISBN 978-0415147033.  ^ de Beauvoir, "America Day by Day", Carol Cosman (Translator) and Douglas Brinkley (Foreword), Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. ISBN 9780520210677 ^ “A Dialogue with Simone de Beauvoir,” in Betty Friedan, It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women’s Movement (New York: Random House, 1976), pp. 311–12 ^ Appignanesi 2005, p. 160 ^ "Table of Contents: Sisterhood is global :". Catalog.vsc.edu. Retrieved 2015-10-15.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 December 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 

Sources[edit]

Appignanesi, Lisa, 2005, Simone de Beauvoir, London: Haus, ISBN 1-904950-09-4 Bair, Deirdre, 1990. Simone de Beauvoir: A Biography. New York: Summit Books, ISBN 0-671-60681-6 Rowley, Hazel, 2005. Tête-a-Tête: Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
and Jean-Paul Sartre. New York: HarperCollins. Suzanne Lilar, 1969. Le Malentendu du Deuxième Sexe (with collaboration of Prof. Dreyfus). Paris, University Presses of France (Presses Universitaires de France). Fraser, M., 1999. Identity Without Selfhood: Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
and Bisexuality, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Axel Madsen, Hearts and Minds: The Common Journey of Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre, William Morrow & Co, 1977. Hélène Rouch, 2001–2002, Trois conceptions du sexe: Simone de Beauvoir entre Adrienne Sahuqué et Suzanne Lilar, Simone de Beauvoir Studies, n° 18, pp. 49–60. Seymour-Jones, Carole (2008). A Dangerous Liaison. Arrow Books. ISBN 978-0-09-948169-0.  Simone de Beauvoir, Marguerite Yourcenar, Nathalie Sarraute, 2002. Conférence Élisabeth Badinter, Jacques Lassalle & Lucette Finas, ISBN 2717722203.

Further reading[edit]

Le Malentendu du Deuxième Sexe, by Suzanne Lilar, 1969 Feminist
Feminist
theory & Simone de Beauvoir, by Toril Moi, 1990 de Beauvoir, Simone (2005), "Introduction from The Second Sex", in Cudd, Ann E.; Andreasen, Robin O., Feminist
Feminist
theory: a philosophical anthology, Oxford, UK Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 27–36, ISBN 9781405116619.  Appignanesi, Lisa. Simone de Beauvoir, London: Penguin, 1988, ISBN 0140087370 Bair, Deirdre. Simone de Beauvoir, a biography, New York: Summit Books, 1990. ISBN 0671606816 Francis, Claude. Simone de Beauvoir: A Life, A Love Story. Lisa Nesselson (Translator). New York: St. Martin's, 1987. ISBN 0312001894 Okely, Judith. Simone de Beauvoir, New York: Pantheon, 1986. ISBN 0394747658

External links[edit]

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Bergoffen, Debra. "Simone de Beauvoir". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  "Simone de Beauvoir". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  Works by or about Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
at Internet Archive Madeleine Gobeil (Spring–Summer 1965). "Simone de Beauvoir, The Art of Fiction No. 35". Paris
Paris
Review.  Guardian Books "Author Page", with profile and links to further articles. Petri Liukkonen. "Simone de Beauvoir". Books and Writers Victoria Brittain et al discuss Simone de Beauvoir's lasting influence, ICA 1989 Mim Udovitch – a contributing editor for Esquire (6 December 1988). "Hot and Epistolary: 'Letters to Nelson Algren', by Simone de Beauvoir". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 June 2012.  Louis Menand (26 September 2005). "Stand By Your Man: The strange liaison of Sartre
Sartre
and Beauvoir (Book review of the republished The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir)". newyorker.com. Retrieved 9 June 2012.  Murray, Jenni (22 January 2008). "Simone de Beauvoir". Woman's Hour. BBC Radio 4.  "Simone De Beauvoir", Great Lives, BBC Radio 4, 22 April 2011

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Continental philosophy

Philosophers

Theodor W. Adorno Giorgio Agamben Louis Althusser Hannah Arendt Gaston Bachelard Alain Badiou Roland Barthes Georges Bataille Jean Baudrillard Zygmunt Bauman Walter Benjamin Simone de Beauvoir Henri Bergson Maurice Blanchot Pierre Bourdieu Wendy Brown Martin Buber Judith Butler Albert Camus Ernst Cassirer Cornelius Castoriadis Emil Cioran Guy Debord Gilles Deleuze Jacques Derrida Wilhelm Dilthey Hubert L. Dreyfus Umberto Eco Terry Eagleton Friedrich Engels Frantz Fanon Johann Gottlieb Fichte Michel Foucault Hans-Georg Gadamer Félix Guattari Antonio Gramsci Jürgen Habermas Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Martin Heidegger Edmund Husserl Roman Ingarden Luce Irigaray Fredric Jameson Karl Jaspers Walter Kaufmann Søren Kierkegaard Pierre Klossowski Alexandre Kojève Alexandre Koyré Leszek Kołakowski Julia Kristeva Jacques Lacan François Laruelle Henri Lefebvre Claude Lévi-Strauss Emmanuel Levinas Niklas Luhmann György Lukács Jean-François Lyotard Gabriel Marcel Herbert Marcuse Karl Marx Quentin Meillassoux Maurice Merleau-Ponty Antonio Negri Friedrich Nietzsche José Ortega y Gasset Paul Ricœur Edward Said Jean-Paul Sartre Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling Carl Schmitt Arthur Schopenhauer Michel Serres Gilbert Simondon Peter Sloterdijk Leo Strauss Raymond Williams Slavoj Žižek

Theories

Critical theory Deconstruction Existentialism Frankfurt School German idealism Hermeneutics Neo-Kantianism Non-philosophy Phenomenology Postmodernism Post-structuralism Psychoanalytic theory Romanticism Social constructionism Speculative realism Structuralism Western Marxism

Concepts

Angst Authenticity Being in itself Boredom Dasein Différance Difference Existential crisis Facticity Intersubjectivity Ontic Other Self-deception Trace

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Related subjects

Ecofeminism Feminist
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method Hegemonic masculinity Women's history Women's studies

Feminist
Feminist
theorists

Elizabeth Anderson Simone de Beauvoir Wendy Brown Nancy Bauer Judith Butler Hélène Cixous Alice Crary Andrea Dworkin Cynthia Enloe Martha Fineman Nancy Fraser Germaine Greer Donna Haraway Sandra Harding Luce Irigaray Julia Kristeva Catharine MacKinnon Martha Nussbaum Val Plumwood Avital Ronell Diana E. H. Russell Dorothy E. Smith Marilyn Waring

Lists

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Existentialism

Concepts

Abandonment Absurdism Angst Authenticity Bad faith Being in itself Existence precedes essence Existential crisis Facticity Meaning Nihilism Other

Thinkers

Nicola Abbagnano Hannah Arendt Abdel Rahman Badawi Hazel Barnes Karl Barth Nikolai Berdyaev Steve Biko Martin Buber Rudolf Bultmann Dino Buzzati Albert Camus Jane Welsh Carlyle Thomas Carlyle Emil Cioran Walter A. Davis Simone de Beauvoir Fyodor Dostoevsky William A. Earle Ralph Ellison Frantz Fanon Vilém Flusser Benjamin Fondane James Anthony Froude Alberto Giacometti Juozas Girnius Lewis Gordon Martin Heidegger Edmund Husserl Eugène Ionesco Nae Ionescu William James Karl Jaspers Franz Kafka Walter Kaufmann Søren Kierkegaard Ladislav Klíma Emmanuel Levinas Ash Lieb John Macquarrie Naguib Mahfouz Gabriel Marcel Vytautas Mačernis Maurice Merleau-Ponty Friedrich Nietzsche José Ortega y Gasset Viktor Petrov Franz Rosenzweig Jean-Paul Sartre Aous Shakra Lev Shestov Joseph B. Soloveitchik Paul Tillich Rick Turner Miguel de Unamuno John Daniel Wild Colin Wilson Richard Wright Peter Wessel Zapffe

Related

Phenomenology (philosophy) Continental philosophy Transcendentalism German idealism Western Marxism Existentialist anarchism

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Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist
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Recipients of the Austrian State Prize for European Literature

Zbigniew Herbert
Zbigniew Herbert
(1965) W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden
(1966) Vasko Popa
Vasko Popa
(1967) Václav Havel
Václav Havel
(1968) Not given (1969) Eugène Ionesco
Eugène Ionesco
(1970) Peter Huchel
Peter Huchel
(1971) Sławomir Mrożek
Sławomir Mrożek
(1972) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1973) Sándor Weöres
Sándor Weöres
(1974) Miroslav Krleža
Miroslav Krleža
(1975) Italo Calvino
Italo Calvino
(1976) Pavel Kohout
Pavel Kohout
(1977) Fulvio Tomizza
Fulvio Tomizza
(1977) Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
(1978) Fulvio Tomizza
Fulvio Tomizza
(1979) Sarah Kirsch
Sarah Kirsch
(1980) Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
(1981) Tadeusz Różewicz
Tadeusz Różewicz
(1982) Friedrich Dürrenmatt
Friedrich Dürrenmatt
(1983) Christa Wolf
Christa Wolf
(1984) Stanisław Lem
Stanisław Lem
(1985) Giorgio Manganelli (1986) Milan Kundera
Milan Kundera
(1987) Andrzej Szczypiorski
Andrzej Szczypiorski
(1988) Marguerite Duras (1989) Helmut Heissenbüttel (1990) Péter Nádas
Péter Nádas
(1991) Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
(1992) Chinghiz Aitmatov
Chinghiz Aitmatov
(1993) Inger Christensen
Inger Christensen
(1994) Aleksandar Tišma (1995) Jürg Laederach (1996) Antonio Tabucchi
Antonio Tabucchi
(1997) Dubravka Ugrešić
Dubravka Ugrešić
(1998) Péter Esterházy
Péter Esterházy
(1999) António Lobo Antunes
António Lobo Antunes
(2000) Umberto Eco
Umberto Eco
(2001) Christoph Hein
Christoph Hein
(2002) Cees Nooteboom
Cees Nooteboom
(2003) Julian Barnes (2004) Claudio Magris
Claudio Magris
(2005) Jorge Semprún
Jorge Semprún
(2006) A. L. Kennedy
A. L. Kennedy
(2007) Agota Kristof (2008) Per Olov Enquist
Per Olov Enquist
(2009) Paul Nizon (2010) Javier Marías
Javier Marías
(2011) Patrick Modiano
Patrick Modiano
(2012) John Banville
John Banville
(2013) Lyudmila Ulitskaya
Lyudmila Ulitskaya
(2014) Mircea Cărtărescu
Mircea Cărtărescu
(2015) Andrzej Stasiuk
Andrzej Stasiuk
(2016) Karl Ove Knausgård
Karl Ove Knausgård
(2017)

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Recipients of the Sonning Prize

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1950) Albert Schweitzer
Albert Schweitzer
(1959) Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1960) Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
(1961) Alvar Aalto
Alvar Aalto
(1962) Karl Barth
Karl Barth
(1963) Dominique Pire
Dominique Pire
(1964) Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
(1965) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1966) Willem Visser 't Hooft
Willem Visser 't Hooft
(1967) Arthur Koestler
Arthur Koestler
(1968) Halldór Laxness
Halldór Laxness
(1969) Max Tau
Max Tau
(1970) Danilo Dolci
Danilo Dolci
(1971) Karl Popper
Karl Popper
(1973) Hannah Arendt
Hannah Arendt
(1975) Arne Næss
Arne Næss
(1977) Hermann Gmeiner
Hermann Gmeiner
(1979) Dario Fo
Dario Fo
(1981) Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
(1983) William Heinesen
William Heinesen
(1985) Jürgen Habermas
Jürgen Habermas
(1987) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1989) Václav Havel
Václav Havel
(1991) Krzysztof Kieślowski
Krzysztof Kieślowski
(1994) Günter Grass
Günter Grass
(1996) Jørn Utzon
Jørn Utzon
(1998) Eugenio Barba
Eugenio Barba
(2000) Mary Robinson
Mary Robinson
(2002) Mona Hatoum (2004) Ágnes Heller
Ágnes Heller
(2006) Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano
(2008) Hans Magnus Enzensberger
Hans Magnus Enzensberger
(2010) Orhan Pamuk
Orhan Pamuk
(2012) Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
(2014)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 2466221 LCCN: n80005123 ISNI: 0000 0003 6866 165X GND: 118507877 SELIBR: 218306 SUDOC: 026713144 BNF: cb11890854p (data) BIBSYS: 90067665 ULAN: 500341255 NDL: 00432648 NKC: jn19990000561 BNE: XX883

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