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Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
(March 8, 1799 – June 26, 1889) was an influential American businessman and politician who served as United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
at the start of the American Civil War. Cameron made his fortune in railways, canals and banking, and founded the Bank of Middletown.[1] He then turned to a life of politics. He became a U.S. senator in 1845 for the state of Pennsylvania, succeeding James Buchanan. Originally a Democrat, he failed to secure a nomination for senator from the Know-Nothing
Know-Nothing
party, and joined the People's Party, the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
branch of what became the Republican Party. He won the Senate seat in 1857, and became one of the candidates for the Republican nomination in the presidential election of 1860. Cameron gave his support to Abraham Lincoln, and became his Secretary of War. He served only a year before resigning amidst allegations of disorganization and corruption during the early phases of the American Civil War. Cameron then became the minister to Russia, but was overseas for less than a year. Beginning in 1867, he again served in the Senate; he was succeeded by his son, J. Donald Cameron
J. Donald Cameron
in 1877, and only resigned upon confirmation that his son would succeed him. After leaving the Senate, Cameron lived in retirement, but still participated in politics and tended to his many business interests. He died in 1889 and was buried in Harrisburg. Cameron's chief legacy was a powerful Republican party machine that continued to dominate Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
politics long after his death.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Politics 3 Later life 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Early life[edit] Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
was born in Maytown, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1799,[1] to Charles Cameron (d. 16 January 1814), son of Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
and Martha Pfoutz (1771-1830)[2] (daughter of Conrad Pfoutz / Foutz (1734 - 20 November 1808)[3], a ranger during the American Revolution,[4][5] and Elizabeth Cameron (1733-1827)), and his wife Martha McLaughlin (d. abt. 10 Nov 1830), daughter of Hugh McLaughlin.[6] But the above personal information does not match the story that he was orphaned at nine and later apprenticed to a printer, Andrew Kennedy, editor of the Northumberland Gazette before entering the field of journalism. It may be that he was apprenticed to Kennedy at age nine (~1808) for a then standard period of seven years, and continued as a journeyman printer at age 16 (~1815). He was the third of five sons; they had three younger sisters.[6] He was editor of the Bucks County Messenger in 1821. A year later, he moved to Washington, D.C., and studied political movements while working for the printing firm of Gales and Seaton. On 17 October 1822 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Cameron married Margaret Brua (1794-1875),[7] daughter of Peter Brua (19 Feb 1771 – 1 Jan 1842) and Catherine Rupley (1777 – 19 Jan 1832),[8] the daughter of Johann Jacob Rupple alias Lieut. Jacob Rupley.[9][10] Cameron purchased and ran the Harrisburg Republican in 1824.

Portrait of Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
by Freeman Thorpe

Cameron served as state printer of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
from 1825 until 1827, and was state adjutant general in 1826. He constructed several rail lines and merged them into the Northern Central Railway. He founded the Bank of Middletown in 1832 and engaged in other business enterprises. In 1838, he was appointed as commissioner to settle claims of the Winnebago Indians. Politics[edit]

Cameron as a senator favoring greenbacks, Harper's Weekly, June 6, 1874

Cameron began his political career as a Democrat, supporting the campaigns of Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
and Martin Van Buren.[11] He was elected to replace James Buchanan
James Buchanan
in the United States Senate
United States Senate
in 1845, serving until 1849.[1] A persistent opponent of slavery, Cameron switched to the Know Nothing
Know Nothing
Party, before joining the Republican Party in 1856.[12] In 1857, Cameron was again elected to the United States Senate.[1] Cameron received votes for the nomination for President at the 1860 Republican National Convention, but gave his support to Abraham Lincoln at the 1860 Republican National Convention. Lincoln, as part of a political bargain, named Cameron Secretary of War. Because of allegations of corruption and lax management, he was forced to resign early in 1862. His corruption was so notorious that a Pennsylvania congressman, Thaddeus Stevens, when discussing Cameron's honesty with Lincoln, told Lincoln that "I don't think that he would steal a red hot stove."[1] When Cameron demanded Stevens retract this statement, Stevens told Lincoln "I believe I told you he would not steal a red-hot stove. I will now take that back." Cameron was succeeded as Secretary of War by Edwin Stanton, who had been serving as a legal advisor to the War Secretary. Cameron then served as Minister to Russia.[1] Cameron's brother, James Cameron, colonel of the 79th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment, was killed in action at the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861.

Simon Cameron

Cameron made a political comeback after the Civil War, building a powerful state party machine that would dominate Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
politics for the next seventy years.[12] In 1866, Cameron was again elected to the Senate. Cameron convinced his close friend Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
to appoint his son, James Donald Cameron, as Secretary of War in 1876.[12] Later that year, Cameron helped Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
win the Republican nomination in 1876.[12] Cameron resigned from the Senate in 1877 after assuring that his son would be the successor to his seat. Though Cameron had intended for his son to succeed him as head of the state machine, Matthew Quay
Matthew Quay
ultimately succeeded Cameron as the party boss.[13] Later life[edit] Cameron retired to his farm at Donegal Springs Cameron Estate
Cameron Estate
near Maytown, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
where he died on June 26, 1889.[1] He is buried in the Harrisburg Cemetery
Harrisburg Cemetery
in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.[1] Cameron County, Pennsylvania, and Cameron Parish, Louisiana, are named in his honor. See also[edit]

Simon Cameron House
Simon Cameron House
and Bank, Middletown, Pennsylvania Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
House, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
School, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h "Cameron, Fritchie are luminaries of era". Intelligencer Journal. 2011-02-07. Retrieved 2016-11-11.  ^ Martha Foutz, in North America Family Histories, accessed February 2018. ^ Find-a-Grave: Conrad Foutz, accessed February 2018. ^ Wikitree: Conrad Foutz, accessed February 2018. ^ Conrad Foutz of the Lancaster County Militia, Seventh Battalion, second class, under Capt. McKee, 1781; SAR Application, citing Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Archives Fifth Series, Vol. VII, page 732. ^ a b [1] Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Mennonite Vital Records, 1750-2014 for Charles Cameron, accessed February 2018. ^ Marriage of Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
and Margareth Brua; Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Historic Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Church and Town Records; Reel: 691, via ancestry.com paid subscription site accessed February 2018. ^ Find-a-Grave: Catherine Rupley Brua, accessed February 2018. ^ Margaretta Brua, in the U.S., Sons of the American Revolution Membership Applications, accessed via ancestry.com paid subscription site in February 2018. ^ Find-a-Grave: Johan Jacob Rupple, accessed February 2018. ^ "Simon Cameron". Tulane.edu. Tulane. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ a b c d " Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
Historical Marker". Explore PA History.com. WITF. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ Blair, William Alan (April 1989). "A Practical Politician: The Boss Tactics of William Stanley Quay". Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
History. 56 (2): 78–89. 

Further reading[edit]

Bradley, Erwin Stanley (1966). Simon Cameron, Lincoln's Secretary of War: A Political Biography. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press. LCCN 65020756.  Crippen, Lee Forbes (1942). Simon Cameron, Ante-Bellum Years. Oxford, Mississippi: Mississippi Valley Press. ISBN 0306703629.  Kahan, Paul (2016). Amiable Scoundrel: Simon Cameron, Lincoln's Scandalous Secretary of War. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-1-61234-814-8. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Simon Cameron.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Simon Cameron.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
in "The New Student's Reference Work"

Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
biography in Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army a publication of the United States
United States
Army Center of Military History Spartacus Educational: Simon Cameron Mathew Brady Studio: Simon Cameron biographic sketch at U.S. Congress website Biography at Lincoln Institute Mr. Lincoln and Friends: Simon Cameron Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
at Find a Grave The John Harris- Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
Mansion

U.S. Senate

Preceded by James Buchanan U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Pennsylvania March 13, 1845 – March 3, 1849 Served alongside: Daniel Sturgeon Succeeded by James Cooper

Preceded by Richard Brodhead U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Pennsylvania March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861 Served alongside: William Bigler, Edgar Cowan Succeeded by David Wilmot

Preceded by Edgar Cowan U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Pennsylvania March 4, 1867 – March 12, 1877 Served alongside: Charles R. Buckalew, John Scott, William A. Wallace Succeeded by J. Donald Cameron

Political offices

Preceded by Joseph Holt U.S. Secretary of War Served under: Abraham Lincoln March 5, 1861 – January 14, 1862 Succeeded by Edwin M. Stanton

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Cassius Marcellus Clay United States
United States
Minister to Russia January 17, 1862 – September 18, 1862 Succeeded by Cassius Marcellus Clay

Honorary titles

Preceded by Joseph Cilley Oldest living U.S. Senator September 16, 1887 – June 26, 1889 Succeeded by David Meriwether

Preceded by Henry Foster Most Senior Living U.S. Senator (Sitting or Former) May 11, 1889 – June 26, 1889 Succeeded by Alpheus Felch and James W. Bradbury

v t e

United States
United States
Senators from Pennsylvania

Class 1

W. Maclay Gallatin Ross S. Maclay Leib Roberts Findlay Barnard Dallas McKean Sturgeon Brodhead S. Cameron Wilmot Buckalew J. Scott Wallace Mitchell Quay Knox Oliver Knox Crow Reed Guffey Martin H. Scott Heinz Wofford Santorum Casey

Class 3

Morris Bingham Muhlenberg Logan Gregg Lacock Lowrie Marks Wilkins Buchanan S. Cameron Cooper Bigler Cowan S. Cameron J. Cameron Penrose Pepper Vare† Grundy Davis Myers Duff Clark Schweiker Specter Toomey

Notes

† Never officially seated.

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of War and the Army

Department of War (1789–1947)

Secretaries of War

B. Lincoln Knox Pickering McHenry Dexter Dearborn Eustis Armstrong Monroe W. Crawford Calhoun Barbour P. Porter Eaton Cass Poinsett Bell Spencer J. Porter Wilkins Marcy G. Crawford Conrad J. Davis Floyd Holt S. Cameron Stanton Schofield Rawlins Belknap A. Taft J. Cameron McCrary Ramsey R. Lincoln Endicott Proctor Elkins Lamont Alger Root W. Taft Wright Dickinson Stimson Garrison Baker Weeks D. Davis Good Hurley Dern Woodring Stimson Patterson Royall

Assistant Secretaries of War

Scott Watson Tucker Wolcott Dana Eckert Grant Doe Meiklejohn Sanger Oliver Breckinridge Ingraham Crowell Williams Wainwright D. Davis MacNider Robbins Hurley Payne Woodring L. Johnson Patterson McCloy Petersen

Under Secretaries of War

Patterson Royall Draper

Department of the Army (1947–present)

Secretaries of the Army

Royall Gray Pace Stevens Brucker Stahr Vance Ailes Resor Froehlke Callaway Hoffmann C. Alexander Marsh Stone West Caldera White Harvey Geren McHugh Fanning Esper

Under Secretaries of the Army

Draper Gray Voorhees A. Alexander Bendetsen E. Johnson Slezak Finucane Milton Ailes Ignatius Resor McGiffert Beal BeLieu Staudt Augustine LaBerge Ambrose Stone Shannon Reeder Walker Rostker Dahlberg Brownlee Geren Ford Westphal Carson Murphy McCarthy

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry

Agriculture (1829–1857; 1863–1881)

Marks Seymour Brown Page P. Smith Mouton Linn Upham Sturgeon Soulé Allen (abolished 1857–1863) Sherman Cameron Morton Frelinghuysen Paddock Johnston

Agriculture and Forestry (1884–1977)

Miller Palmer Paddock George Proctor Hansbrough Dolliver Warren Burnham Gore Gronna Norris McNary E. Smith Thomas Capper Thomas Ellender Aiken Ellender Talmadge

Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry (1977–)

Talmadge Helms Leahy Lugar Harkin Lugar Harkin Cochran Chambliss Harkin Lincoln Stabenow Roberts

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Foreign Relations

Barbour Macon Brown Barbour R. King Barbour Macon Sanford Macon Tazewell Forsyth Wilkins Clay Buchanan Rives Archer Allen Sevier Hannegan Benton W. King Foote Mason Sumner Cameron Hamlin Eaton Burnside Edmunds Windom Miller Sherman Morgan Sherman Frye Davis Cullom Bacon Stone Hitchcock Lodge Borah Pittman George Connally Vandenberg Connally Wiley George Green Fulbright Sparkman Church Percy Lugar Pell Helms Biden Helms Biden Lugar Biden Kerry Menendez Corker

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Environment and Public Works

Public Buildings (1838–1857)

Fulton Kerr Dayton Cameron Bright Hunter Whitcomb James Bayard

Public Buildings and Grounds (1857–1947)

Bright Foot Brown Fessenden Morrill Dawes Jones Rollins Mahone Stanford Vest Quay Fairbanks Warren Scott Sutherland Swanson Reed Fernald Lenroot Keyes Connally Maloney Andrews

Public Works (1947–1977)

Revercomb Chávez Martin Chávez McNamara Randolph

Environment and Public Works (1977–)

Randolph Stafford Burdick Moynihan Baucus Chafee Smith Reid Smith Jeffords Inhofe Boxer Inhofe Barrasso

v t e

United States
United States
Ambassadors to Russia
Russia

Ambassador to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1780–1917)

Dana Short Adams Bayard Pinkney Campbell Middleton Randolph Buchanan Dickerson Wilkins Clay Dallas Cambreleng Todd Ingersoll Bagby Brown Seymour Pickens Appleton Clay Cameron Clay Dawson Smythe Curtin Orr Jewell Boker Stoughton Foster Hunt Sargent Taft Lawton Lothrop Tree Rice Smith White Breckinridge Hitchcock Tower McCormick Meyer Riddle Rockhill Guild Pindell Marye Francis

Ambassador to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1933–1991)

Bullitt Davies Steinhardt Standley Harriman Smith Kirk Kennan Bohlen Thompson Kohler Thompson Beam Stoessel Toon Watson Hartman Matlock Strauss

Ambassador to the Russian Federation (1992–present)

Strauss Pickering Collins Vershbow Burns Beyrle McFaul Tefft Huntsman

v t e

Cabinet of President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
(1861–65)

Secretary of State

William H. Seward
William H. Seward
(1861–65)

Secretary of the Treasury

Salmon P. Chase
Salmon P. Chase
(1861–64) William P. Fessenden
William P. Fessenden
(1864–65) Hugh McCulloch
Hugh McCulloch
(1865)

Secretary of War

Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
(1861–62) Edwin M. Stanton
Edwin M. Stanton
(1862–65)

Attorney General

Edward Bates
Edward Bates
(1861–64) James Speed
James Speed
(1864–65)

Postmaster General

Montgomery Blair
Montgomery Blair
(1861–64) William Dennison (1864–65)

Secretary of the Navy

Gideon Welles
Gideon Welles
(1861–65)

Secretary of the Interior

Caleb B. Smith (1861–62) John P. Usher (1863–65)

Related

Team of Rivals
Team of Rivals
(2005 book)

v t e

(1856 ←) United States
United States
presidential election, 1860 (1864 →)

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Abraham Lincoln

VP nominee

Hannibal Hamlin

Candidates

Edward Bates Simon Cameron Salmon P. Chase William L. Dayton John McLean William H. Seward Benjamin Wade

Democratic Party Conventions

Northern Nominee

Stephen A. Douglas

Northern VP nominee

Herschel V. Johnson

Southern Nominee

John C. Breckinridge

Southern VP nominee

Joseph Lane

Candidates

Daniel S. Dickinson James Guthrie Robert M. T. Hunter Andrew Johnson

Constitutional Union Party Convention

Nominee

John Bell

VP nominee

Edward Everett

Candidates

John J. Crittenden William A. Graham Sam Houston William C. Rives

Other 1860 elections: House Senate

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 16253895 LCCN: n86114834 US Congress: C000068 SN

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