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The Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal, unofficially the Silver Star, is the United States Armed Forces's third-highest personal decoration for valor in combat. The Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal is awarded primarily to members of the United States Armed Forces
United States Armed Forces
for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States.

Contents

1 History 2 Award criteria 3 Appearance 4 Recipients

4.1 Female recipients 4.2 Notable recipients

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] The Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal (SSM)[5] is the successor award to the "Citation Star" (​3⁄16 silver star) which was established by an Act of Congress on July 9, 1918, during World War I. On July 19, 1932, the Secretary of War approved the conversion of the "Citation Star" to the SSM with the original "Citation Star" incorporated into the center of the medal. Authorization for the Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal was placed into law by an Act of Congress for the U.S. Navy on August 7, 1942, and an Act of Congress for the U.S. Army on December 15, 1942. The current statutory authorization for the medal is Title 10 of the United States Code, 10 U.S.C. § 3746 for the U.S. Army, 10 U.S.C. § 8746 for the U.S. Air Force, and 10 U.S.C. § 6244 for the U.S. Navy. The U.S. Army and Air Force award the medal as the "Silver Star". The U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard continue to award the medal as the " Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal". Since 21 December 2016, the Department of Defense (DoD) refers to the decoration as the Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal.[5] Award criteria[edit] The Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal is awarded for gallantry, so long as the action does not justify the award of one of the next higher valor awards: the Distinguished Service Cross, the Navy Cross, or the Air Force Cross.[7] The gallantry displayed must have taken place while in action against an enemy of the United States, while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force, or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party.[5] The Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal is awarded for singular acts of valor or heroism over a brief period, such as one or two days of a battle.[5] Air Force pilots and combat systems officers and Navy/Marine Corps naval aviators and flight officers flying fighter aircraft, are often considered eligible to receive the Silver Star
Silver Star
upon becoming an ace (i.e., having five or more confirmed aerial kills), which entails the pilot and, in multi-seat fighters, the weapons system officer or radar intercept officer, intentionally and successfully risking his life multiple times under combat conditions and emerging victorious.[8] However, during the Vietnam War, the last conflict to produce U.S. fighter aces: an Air Force pilot and two navigators/weapon systems officers (who were later retrained as Air Force pilots), a naval aviator and a naval flight officer/radar intercept officer who had achieved this distinction, were eventually awarded the Air Force Cross and Navy Cross, respectively, in addition to SSMs previously awarded for earlier aerial kills.[citation needed]

Unit award equivalent

Air Force – Gallant Unit Citation Army – Valorous Unit Award Coast Guard – Coast Guard Unit Commendation Navy-Marine Corps – Navy Unit Commendation

Appearance[edit] The Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal is a gold five-pointed star, 1 1⁄2 inches (38 mm) in circumscribing diameter with a laurel wreath encircling rays from the center and a 3⁄16 inch (4.8 mm) diameter silver star superimposed in the center. The pendant is suspended from a rectangular shaped metal loop with rounded corners. The reverse has the inscription FOR GALLANTRY IN ACTION. The ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches (35 mm) wide and consists of the following stripes: 7⁄32 inch (5.6 mm) Old Glory red (center stripe); proceeding outward in pairs 7⁄32 inch (5.6 mm) white; 7⁄32 inch (5.6 mm) ultramarine blue; 3⁄64 inch (1.2 mm) white; and 3⁄32 inch (2.4 mm) ultramarine blue.[9]

Ribbon devices

Second and subsequent awards of the Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal are denoted by bronze or silver oak leaf clusters in the Army and Air Force and by gold or silver ​5⁄16 inch stars in the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard.[5][10][11][5] Recipients[edit]

Army Specialist Monica Lin Brown
Monica Lin Brown
receives the Silver Star
Silver Star
from then-Vice President Dick Cheney, 2008.

The Department of Defense does not keep extensive records for the Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal. Independent groups estimate that between 100,000 and 150,000 SSMs have been awarded since the decoration was established.[12] Colonel David Hackworth
David Hackworth
who was awarded ten SSMs while serving in the Army during the Korean War and Vietnam War, is likely to be the person awarded the most SSMs.[13] Female recipients[edit] Three Army nurses that served in World War I
World War I
were cited in 1919 and 1920 with Citation Stars for gallantry in attending to the wounded while under artillery fire in July 1918. In 2007, it was discovered that they had never been awarded their Citation Stars. The three nurses (Army nurses served without rank until 1920) were awarded the Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal posthumously:[14][15] [16]

Jane Rignel - Mobile Hospital No. 2, 42nd Division, for gallantry in "giving aid to the wounded under heavy fire" in France on July 15, 1918 Linnie Leckrone - Shock Team No. 134, Field Hospital No. 127, 32nd Division, for gallantry while "attending to the wounded during an artilley bombardment" in France on July 29, 1918 Irene Robar - Shock Team No. 134, Field Hospital No. 127, 32nd Division, for gallantry while "attending to the wounded during an artillery bombardment" in France on July 29, 1918

An unknown number of servicewomen received the award in World War II. Four Army nurses serving in Italy during the war—First Lieutenant Mary Roberts, Second Lieutenant Elaine Roe, Second Lieutenant Rita Virginia Rourke, and Second Lieutenant Ellen Ainsworth (posthumous)—became the first women recipients of the Silver Star, all cited for their bravery in evacuating the 33rd Field Hospital at Anzio
Anzio
on February 10, 1944.[17] Later that same year, Corporal Magdalena Leones, a Filipino American, received the medal for clandestine activities on Luzon;[18] as of 2016[update], she is the only female Asian American
Asian American
to receive a Silver Star.[19] The next known servicewomen to receive the Silver Star
Silver Star
is Army National Guard Sergeant
Sergeant
Leigh Ann Hester
Leigh Ann Hester
in 2005, for gallantry during an insurgent ambush on a convoy in Iraq[17] and Army Specialist Monica Lin Brown in March 2008, for extraordinary heroism as a combat medic in the War in Afghanistan.[17] Notable recipients[edit] See also: Category:Recipients of the Silver Star Notable recipients include:

Larry "Scrappy" Blumer Joseph H. Albers John R. Alison Darr H. Alkire Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr. Samuel E. Anderson Bernard L. Austin William Brantley Aycock Peter Badcoe
Peter Badcoe
(two awards) Robert H. Barrow Olinto Barsanti César Basa Harry F. Bauer Charles Alvin Beckwith David Bellavia Rafael Celestino Benítez Albert Blithe Royal L. Bolling Richard Bong Bruce Godfrey Brackett Omar Bradley Maurice L. Britt Monica Lin Brown Hubert Buchanan Phil H. Bucklew Arleigh Burke Jess Cain Modesto Cartagena Johnny Checketts Llewellyn Chilson
Llewellyn Chilson
(three awards) David Christian (two awards) Nestor Chylak Wesley Clark Max Cleland Lynn Compton Garlin Murl Conner
Garlin Murl Conner
(four awards)[20] John Thomas Corley
John Thomas Corley
(eight awards) Louis Cukela William J. Cullerton[21] Roy M. Davenport Juan César Cordero Dávila Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Ray Davis Oliver W. Dillard James H. Doolittle Hugh A. Drum Jesus S. Duran
Jesus S. Duran
(upgraded to the Medal of Honor, 2014) Charles Durning Graves B. Erskine Douglas Fairbanks Jr. Joseph A. Farinholt Geoffrey Cheney Ferris Bernard Fisher Wayne Fisk Martin H. Foery Ronald Fogleman George M. Foote Mayhew Foster Guy Gabaldon
Guy Gabaldon
(upgraded to the Navy Cross, 1960) Francis Gambacorta James M. Gavin Hobart R. Gay Jerauld R. Gentry John J. Gilligan Luigi Giorgi (Italian serviceman) John W. Goode David L. Grange
David L. Grange
(three awards) Charles H. Green (Cdr, 3rd Bn, RAR) John Campbell Greenway William Guarnere Ed Guthman Horatio B. Hackett David Hackworth
David Hackworth
(ten awards) Hugh William Hadley Alexander Haig Thomas Hall Robert Halperin Iceal Hambleton Edward Hardin Tom Harmon Raymond Harvey Carlos Hathcock Vern Haugland Sterling Hayden Leo D. Hermle
Leo D. Hermle
(three awards) Diego E. Hernández Leigh Ann Hester Clifford B. Hicks Thomas Taro Higa Charles Franklin Hildebrand David Lee "Tex" Hill Tony Hillerman Lucius Roy Holbrook Gordon Pai'ea Chung-Hoon Joe R. Hooper (two awards) Robert L. Howard Clifton James Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg Lyndon B. Johnson Phil Johnon Sam Johnson
Sam Johnson
(two awards) James L. Jones John Kerry Jonny Kim Joseph Kittinger
Joseph Kittinger
(two awards) Charles C. Krulak Chris Kyle Henry Louis Larsen
Henry Louis Larsen
(three awards) Ben Lear John C. H. Lee Kurt Chew-Een Lee Honoré Ligarde Homer Litzenberg Elliott Loughlin
Elliott Loughlin
(two awards) Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
(seven awards) Victor Maghakian
Victor Maghakian
(two awards) Fred K. Mahaffey
Fred K. Mahaffey
(three awards) Peyton C. March Richard Marcinko George Marshall Richard Marshall Barry McCaffrey (2) [22] John McCain Herbert Raymond "H.R." McMaster[23] Sid McMath John McNulty (two awards) William A. McNulty William K. MacNulty Merrill A. McPeak Charles B. McVay III Ray Melikian
Ray Melikian
(three awards) Charles L. Melson Daniel J. Miller Harold Miller Michael A. Monsoor Cliff Montgomery Audie Murphy
Audie Murphy
(two awards) Michael P. Murphy
Michael P. Murphy
(upgraded to MOH) Raymond Murray
Raymond Murray
(four awards) Bismarck Myrick Oliver North Henry Ringling North Mike O'Callaghan Eric T. Olson Jorge Otero Barreto
Jorge Otero Barreto
(three awards) Mohamed Oufkir Moultrie Patten George S. Patton George Patton IV Keith Payne Endicott Peabody John J. Pershing Basil L. Plumley
Basil L. Plumley
(two awards) Pascal Poolaw (four awards) Harvey Possinger Charles E. Potter Tommy Prince Francis Gary Powers Chesty Puller Agustín Ramos Calero William Wilson Quinn Edward F. Rector Stephen C. Reich Rick Rescorla Robert B. Rheault Karl W. Richter Matthew Ridgeway
Matthew Ridgeway
(two awards) Antonio Rodríguez Balinas Pedro Rodriguez Robert Rosenthal Barney Ross James N. Rowe Dick Rutan Alfredo M. Santos Paul Saunders Harold Schrier Leonard T. Schroeder
Leonard T. Schroeder
Jr. Robert L. Scott Arthur D. Simons Rodger W. Simpson H. Norman Schwarzkopf Ben Schwartzwalder Sidney Shachnow Frederick W. Smith Oliver Prince Smith Ronald Speirs Brian Stann James Stockdale
James Stockdale
(four awards) Sean Stokes George L. Street III Samuel D. Sturgis Jr. Richard K. Sutherland Thomas Tigue Pat Tillman Michel Thomas William F. Train
William F. Train
II Matt Urban
Matt Urban
(two awards) James Van Fleet
James Van Fleet
(three awards) Paul K. Van Riper
Paul K. Van Riper
(two awards) Humbert Roque Versace Donald Walters John T. Walton Rawleigh Warner, Jr. Billy Waugh Jim Webb Haskell Wexler Kevin Wheatley Charles Willeford James E. Williams
James E. Williams
(two awards) Jocko Willink Jerauld Wright Tahsin Yazıcı Chuck Yeager
Chuck Yeager
(two awards) Elton Younger Douglas A. Zembiec James T. Harwood

See also[edit]

List of Australian Silver Star
Silver Star
recipients

References[edit]

^ http://govdocs.rutgers.edu/mil/army/r600_8_22.pdf ^ https://awards.navy.mil/awards/webdoc01.nsf/(vwDocsByID)/DL060927142728/$file/1650.1H.pdf ^ http://static.e-publishing.af.mil/production/1/af_a1/publication/afi36-2803/afi36-2803.pdf ^ https://media.defense.gov/2017/Mar/29/2001723556/-1/-1/0/CIM_1650_25E.PDF ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Department of Defense Manual 1348.33 Volume 3" (PDF). Department of Defense Technical Information Center. 21 December 2016. pp. 14–16. Retrieved 13 May 2016.  ^ "Ribbon Order of Precedence" (PDF). Medals and Awards Program. Personnel Management, CG-12. United States Coast Guard. Retrieved 9 June 2013.  ^ "Section 578.12 – Silver Star". Code of Federal Regulations. Government Printing Office. Retrieved 9 October 2012.  ^ Korean War pilot receives Silver Star
Silver Star
56 years later Archived 2011-06-06 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2009-03-10. ^ "Silver Star". The Institute of Heraldry. Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  External link in work= (help) ^ Coast Guards Medals and Awards, COMDTINSTM1650D, May 2008, P. 1-13 a, 2-3 5., 1-16 "a" ^ Navy-Marine Awards manual, Aug. 22, 2006, SECNAVINST 1650.1H, P. 1-8, 123. 1., 1-22 ^ Home of Heroes: Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal. Retrieved 2008-12-16. ^ Hackworth, Col David H. (December 2002). "Look Truth Right in the Eye". Proceedings (Interview). Interview with Fred L. Schultz and Gordon Keiser. Military.com. Retrieved 9 October 2012.  ^ Military Medicine, 2008. ^ "Daughter Accepts Silver Star
Silver Star
Her World War I
World War I
Nurse Mother Earned". United States Army. 2 August 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2012.  ^ [1] ^ a b c Abrashi, Fisnik (March 9, 2008). "Medic Stationed in Afghanistan Becomes 2nd Woman to Be Awarded Silver Star". Fox News. Associated Press.  ^ Drummond, Tammerlin (17 June 2016). "Filipina Silver Star
Silver Star
winner, Richmond resident Magdalena Leones dies at 95". East Bay Times. Retrieved 18 June 2016.  "Magdalena Leones". militarytimes.com. Sightline Media Group. Retrieved 18 June 2016.  Leonardo Q. Nuval (1996). Remember Them Kindly: Some Filipinos During World War II. Claretian Publications. p. 31. ISBN 978-971-501-678-0.  Guillermo, Emil (5 July 2016). "Magdalena Leones, Filipina WWII Silver Star Recipient Who Aided MacArthur, Dies in California". NBC News. Retrieved 15 March 2018.  ^ "Only Filipina WWII US Silver Star
Silver Star
recipient dies at 95". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Makati City. 21 June 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2018. Filipino WWII veterans and her family members mourn the passing of Cpl. Magdalena Estoista Leones, 95, who entered the history books as the only Asian female to have been awarded the Silver Star
Silver Star
in World War II for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States.  ^ "Battle joined: Army panel backs WWII vet's posthumous bid for Medal of Honor - Fox News". 4 November 2015.  ^ O'Donnell, Maureen. " Military Times Hall of Valor: William J. Cullerton". Military Times. Retrieved 2013-01-25.  ^ The Hall of Valor Project https://valor.militarytimes.com/hero/7445#29700 and https://valor.militarytimes.com/hero/7445#30405 ^ http://www.americanwarlibrary.com/personnel/silver.htm

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Silver Star.

Silver Star
Silver Star
database at MilitaryTimes.com (Archive.org, not searchable) Awards and Decorations Air Force Personnel Center

Inter-service awards and decorations of the United States military

Federal military decorations

Medal of Honor Silver Star
Silver Star
Medal Legion of Merit Distinguished Flying Cross Bronze Star Medal Purple Heart Meritorious Service Medal Air Medal

Department level military decorations

Defense Distinguished Service Homeland Security Distinguished Service Medal Defense Superior Service Defense Meritorious Service Joint Service Commendation Joint Service Achievement Joint Meritorious Unit

Federal service medals

Prisoner of War National Defense Service Medal Antarctica Service Korean Service Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal Vietnam Service Southwest Asia Service Kosovo Campaign Afghanistan Campaign Medal Iraq
Iraq
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