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Silla
Silla
(57 BC[note 1] – 935 AD) (Hangul: 신라; Hanja: 新羅; RR:  Silla
Silla
Korean pronunciation: [ɕil.la]) was a kingdom located in southern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula. Silla, along with Baekje
Baekje
and Goguryeo, formed the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Founded by Hyeokgeose of Silla, the dynasty was ruled by the Gyeongju Gim (Kim) (김, 金) clan for most of its 992-year history. It began as a chiefdom in the Samhan
Samhan
confederacies, once allied with China, until it eventually conquered the other two kingdoms, Baekje
Baekje
in 660 and Goguryeo
Goguryeo
in 668. Thereafter, Later Silla
Later Silla
occupied most of the Korean Peninsula, while the northern part re-emerged as Balhae, a successor-state of Goguryeo. After nearly 1,000 years of rule, Silla fragmented into the brief Later Three Kingdoms of Silla, Later Baekje, and Taebong, handing over power to Goryeo
Goryeo
in 935.[2]

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Founding 2.2 Early period 2.3 Emergence of a centralized monarchy 2.4 Later Silla 2.5 Decline and fall

3 Society and politics 4 Military 5 Culture

5.1 Buddhism

6 Foreign relations 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Citations 10.2 Sources

11 External links

Name[edit] Until its founding as a full-fledged kingdom, Silla
Silla
was recorded using several hanja, Chinese character, combinations to phonetically approximate its native Korean name. Among those used, there include 斯盧 (사로, Saro), 斯羅 (사라, Sara), 徐那(伐) (서나[벌], Seona[beol]), 徐耶(伐) (서야[벌], Seoya[beol]), 徐羅(伐) (서라[벌], Seora[beol]), and 徐伐 (서벌, Seobeol). In 503, Jijeung of Silla standardized the characters into 新羅(신라), which in Modern Korean is pronounced "Shilla". One etymological hypothesis suggests that the name Seorabeol might have been the origin of the word Seoul, meaning "capital city", and also the name of the present capital of South Korea, which was previously known as Hanseong
Hanseong
(漢城) or Hanyang (漢陽). The name of the Silla
Silla
capital may have changed into its Late Middle Korean form Syeobeul (셔블), meaning "royal capital city," which might have changed to Syeoul (셔울) soon after, and finally resulted in Seoul (서울) in the Modern Korean language. The name of either Silla
Silla
or its capital Seorabeol was widely used throughout Northeast Asia as the ethnonym for the people of Silla, appearing as Shiragi in Japanese and as Solgo or Solho in the language of the medieval Jurchens
Jurchens
and their later descendants, the Manchus, respectively. In the modern Mongolian language, Korea
Korea
and Koreans
Koreans
are still known as Солонгос Solongos, which seems to be an alteration of Silla
Silla
influenced by the Mongolian word for "rainbow" (солонго solongo). Silla
Silla
was also referred to as Gyerim
Gyerim
(鷄林, 계림), literally "chicken forest," a name that has its origins in the forest near the Silla
Silla
capital. Legend has it that the state's founder was born in the same forest, hatched from the egg of a cockatrice (Kor. gyeryong, 雞龍, 계룡, literally "chicken-dragon"). History[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Korea

Prehistory

Jeulmun Mumun

Ancient

Gojoseon  ?–108 BC

Jin state

Proto–Three Kingdoms

Buyeo Goguryeo Okjeo Dongye Samhan

Ma Byeon Jin

Four Commanderies of Han

Three Kingdoms

Goguryeo 37 BC – 668 AD

Baekje 18 BC – 660 AD

Silla 57 BC – 935 AD

Gaya confederacy 42–562

North–South States

Later Silla
Later Silla
(Unified Silla) 668–935

Balhae 698–926

Later Three Kingdoms

Later Baekje 892–936

Taebong
Taebong
(Later Goguryeo) 901–918

Later Silla 668–935

Unitary dynastic period

Goryeo 918–1392

Joseon 1392–1897

Korean Empire 1897–1910

Colonial period

Japanese rule 1910–1945

Provisional Government 1919–1948

Division of Korea

Military Governments 1945–1948

North Korea 1948–present

South Korea 1948–present

By topic

Art Language Military (Goguryeo) Monarchs Naval Science and technology

Timeline

Korea
Korea
portal

v t e

Founding[edit] During the Proto–Three Kingdoms
Proto–Three Kingdoms
period, central and southern Korea consisted of three confederacies called the Samhan. Silla
Silla
began as Saro-guk, a statelet within the 12-member confederacy known as Jinhan. Saro-guk consisted of six villages and six clans. According to Korean records, Silla
Silla
was founded by Bak Hyeokgeose of Silla
Silla
in 57 BC, around present-day Gyeongju. Hyeokgeose is said to have been hatched from an egg laid from a white horse, and when he turned 13, six clans submitted to him as king and established Saro (or Seona)[who?]. He is also the progenitor of the Bak (박) clan, now one of the most common family names in Korea. The Samguk Sagi
Samguk Sagi
and History of the Northern Dynasties state that the original Lelang Commandery
Lelang Commandery
which later became the Jinhan
Jinhan
confederacy (辰韓) was the origin of Silla.[3][4][5] The people claimed they were descendants of Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
(秦) migrants, fleeing Qin's forced labor policies, and moved to the Mahan confederacy, which gave them land to the east. The confederacy was also called Qinhan (秦韓).[6][7][3][4][5][8][9][10] In various kinds of ancient inscriptions on monuments of Munmu of Silla, it is recorded that King Silla
Silla
came from Xiongnu. Also, there are some Korean researchers point out s grave goods of Silla
Silla
and Xiongnu
Xiongnu
are alike and also some researchers insist Silla
Silla
King is descended from Xiongnu.[11][12][13][14][15][16] About this, the Korean public broadcaster KBS has reported a documentary.[17][18][19] Early period[edit] By the 2nd century, Silla
Silla
existed as a distinct state in the southeastern area of the Korean peninsula. It expanded its influence over neighboring Jinhan
Jinhan
chiefdoms, but through the 3rd century was probably no more than the strongest city-state in a loose federation. To the west, Baekje
Baekje
had centralized into a kingdom by about 250, overtaking the Mahan confederacy. To the southwest, Byeonhan was being replaced by the Gaya confederacy. In northern Korea, Goguryeo, a kingdom by about 50 CE, destroyed the last Chinese commandary in 313 and had grown into a threatening regional power. Emergence of a centralized monarchy[edit] Naemul of Silla
Naemul of Silla
(356–402) of the Gim clan established a hereditary monarchy, eliminating the rotating power-sharing scheme, and took the royal title of Maripgan (from the native Korean roots mari or meori meaning "head" or "hair" and gan or han meaning "great, grand, many, much," which was previously used for ruling princes in southern Korea, and may have some relationship with the Mongol/Turkic title Khan). In 377, it sent emissaries to China
China
and established relations with Goguryeo. Facing pressure from Baekje
Baekje
in the west and Japan in the south,[20] in the later part of the 4th century, Silla
Silla
allied with Goguryeo. However, when Goguryeo
Goguryeo
began to expand its territory southward, moving its capital to Pyongyang
Pyongyang
in 427, Nulji of Silla was forced to ally with Baekje. By the time of Beopheung of Silla (514–540), Silla
Silla
was a full-fledged kingdom, with Buddhism
Buddhism
as state religion, and its own Korean era name. Silla
Silla
absorbed the Gaya confederacy
Gaya confederacy
during the Gaya– Silla
Silla
Wars, annexing Geumgwan Gaya
Geumgwan Gaya
in 532 and conquering Daegaya
Daegaya
in 562, thereby expanding its borders to the Nakdong River basin. Jinheung of Silla
Jinheung of Silla
(540–576) established a strong military force. Silla
Silla
helped Baekje
Baekje
drive Goguryeo
Goguryeo
out of the Han River (Seoul) area, and then wrested control of the entire strategic region from Baekje
Baekje
in 553, breaching the 120-year Baekje- Silla
Silla
alliance. Also, King Jinheung established the Hwarang. The early period ended with the death of Jindeok of Silla
Jindeok of Silla
and the demise of the "hallowed bone" (seonggol) rank system. Later Silla[edit] Main article: Unified Silla See also: North South States Period

Monarchs of Korea

Silla

(Pre-unification)

Hyeokgeose 57 BCE – 4 CE Namhae 4–24 Yuri 24–57 Talhae 57–80 Pasa 80–112 Jima 112–134 Ilseong 134–154 Adalla 154–184 Beolhyu 184–196 Naehae 196–230 Jobun 230–247 Cheomhae 247–261 Michu 262–284 Yurye 284–298 Girim 298–310 Heulhae 310–356 Naemul 356–402 Silseong 402–417 Nulji 417–458 Jabi 458–479 Soji 479–500 Jijeung 500–514 Beopheung 514–540 Jinheung 540–576 Jinji 576–579 Jinpyeong 579–632 Seondeok 632–647 Jindeok 647–654 Muyeol 654–661

v t e

In the 7th century Silla
Silla
allied itself with the Chinese Tang dynasty. In 660, under Muyeol of Silla (654-661), Silla
Silla
subjugated Baekje. In 668, under King Munmu of Silla (King Muyeol's successor) and General Gim Yu-sin, Silla
Silla
conquered Goguryeo
Goguryeo
to its north. Silla
Silla
then fought for nearly a decade to expel Chinese forces on the peninsula intent on creating Tang colonies there to finally establish a unified kingdom as far north as modern Pyongyang.[21] The northern region of the defunct Goguryeo
Goguryeo
state later reemerged as Balhae. Silla's middle period is characterized by the rising power of the monarchy at the expense of the jingol nobility. This was made possible by the new wealth and prestige garnered as a result of Silla's unification of the peninsula, as well as the monarchy's successful suppression of several armed aristocratic revolts following early upon unification, which afforded the king the opportunity of purging the most powerful families and rivals to central authority. Further, for a brief period of about a century from the late 7th to late 8th centuries the monarchy made an attempt to divest aristocratic officialdom of their landed base by instituting a system of salary payments, or office land (jikjeon, 직전, 職田), in lieu of the former system whereby aristocratic officials were given grants of land to exploit as salary (the so–called tax villages, or nogeup, 녹읍, 祿邑). By the late 8th century, however, these royal initiatives had failed to check the power of the entrenched aristocracy. The mid to late 8th century saw renewed revolts led by branches of the Gim clan which effectively limited royal authority. Most prominent of these was a revolt led by Gim Daegong that persisted for three years. One key evidence of the erosion of kingly authority was the rescinding of the office land system and the re-institution of the former tax village system as salary land for aristocratic officialdom in 757. The middle period of Silla
Silla
came to an end with the assassination of Hyegong of Silla in 780, terminating the kingly line of succession of Muyeol of Silla, the architect of Silla's unification of the peninsula. Hyegong's demise was a bloody one, the culmination of an extended civil war involving most of the kingdom's high–ranking noble families. With Hyegong's death, during the remaining years of Silla
Silla
the king was reduced to little more than a figurehead as powerful aristocratic families became increasingly independent of central control. Thereafter the Silla
Silla
kingship was fixed in the house of Wonseong of Silla
Silla
(785–798), though the office itself was continually contested among various branches of the Gim lineage. Nevertheless, the middle period of Silla
Silla
witnessed the state at its zenith, the brief consolidation of royal power, and the attempt to institute a Chinese style bureaucratic system. Decline and fall[edit] The final century and a half of the Silla
Silla
state was one of nearly constant upheaval and civil war as the king was reduced to little more than a figurehead and powerful aristocratic families rose to actual dominance outside the capital and royal court. The tail end of this period, called the Later Three Kingdoms period, briefly saw the emergence of the kingdoms of Later Baekje
Baekje
and Later Goguryeo, which were really composed of military forces capitalizing on their respective region's historic background, and Silla's submission to the Goryeo
Goryeo
dynasty. Society and politics[edit]

Monarchs of Korea

Silla

(Post-unification)

Munmu 661–681 Sinmun 681–691 Hyoso 692–702 Seongdeok 702–737 Hyoseong 737–742 Gyeongdeok 742–765 Hyegong 765–780 Seondeok 780–785 Wonseong 785–798 Soseong 798–800 Aejang 800–809 Heondeok 809–826 Heungdeok 826–836 Huigang 836–838 Minae 838–839 Sinmu 839 Munseong 839–857 Heonan 857–861 Gyeongmun 861–875 Heongang 875–886 Jeonggang 886–887 Jinseong 887–897 Hyogong 897–912 Sindeok 912–917 Gyeongmyeong 917–924 Gyeongae 924–927 Gyeongsun 927–935

v t e

See also: Bone rank system From at least the 6th century, when Silla
Silla
acquired a detailed system of law and governance, social status and official advancement were dictated by the bone rank system. This rigid lineage-based system also dictated clothing, house size and the permitted range of marriage. Since its emergence as a centralized polity Silla
Silla
society had been characterized by its strict aristocratic makeup. Silla
Silla
had two royal classes: "sacred bone" (seonggol, 성골, 聖骨) and "true bone" (jingol, 진골, 眞骨). Up until the reign of King Muyeol this aristocracy had been divided into "sacred bone" and "true bone" aristocrats, with the former differentiated by their eligibility to attain the kingship. This duality had ended when Queen Jindeok, the last ruler from the "sacred bone" class, died in 654.[22] The numbers of "sacred bone" aristocrats had been decreasing for generations, as the title was only conferred to those whose parents were both "sacred bones", whereas children of a "sacred" and a "true bone" parent were considered as "true bones". There were also many ways for a "sacred bone" to be demoted to a "true bone", thus making the entire system even more likely to collapse eventually. The king (or queen) theoretically was an absolute monarch, but royal powers were somewhat constrained by a strong aristocracy. The "Hwabaek" (화백-和白) served as royal council with decision-making authorities on some vital issues like succession to the throne or declarations of war. The Hwabaek was headed by a person (Sangdaedeung) chosen from the "sacred bone" rank. One of the key decisions of this royal council was the adoption of Buddhism
Buddhism
as state religion.[23] Following unification Silla
Silla
began to rely more upon Chinese models of bureaucracy to administer its greatly expanded territory. This was a marked change from pre-unification days when the Silla
Silla
monarchy stressed Buddhism, and the Silla
Silla
monarch's role as a "Buddha-king". Another salient factor in post-unification politics were the increasing tensions between the Korean monarchy and aristocracy. Other items uncovered during the excavation include a silver bowl engraved with an image of the Persian goddess Anahita; a golden dagger from Persia; clay busts; and figurines portraying Middle Eastern merchants. Samguk Sagi—the official chronicle of the Three Kingdoms era, compiled in 1145—contains further descriptions of commercial items sold by Middle Eastern merchants and widely used in Silla society. The influence of Iranian peoples culture was profoundly felt in other ways as well, most notably in the fields of music, visual arts, and literature. The popularity of Iranian designs in Korea
Korea
can be seen in the widespread use of pearl-studded roundels and symmetrical, zoomorphic patterns. An ancient Persian epic poem, the Kushnameh, contains detailed descriptions of Silla.[24] Military[edit] The early Silla
Silla
military was built around a small number of Silla royal guards designed to protect royalty and nobility and in times of war served as the primary military force if needed. Due to the frequency of conflicts between Baekje
Baekje
and Goguryeo
Goguryeo
as well as Yamato Japan, Silla
Silla
created six local garrisons one for each district. The royal guards eventually morphed into "sworn banner" or Sodang
Sodang
units. In 625 another group of Sodang
Sodang
was created. Garrison soldiers were responsible for local defense and also served as a police force. A number of Silla's greatest generals and military leaders were Hwarang
Hwarang
(equivalent to the Western knights or chevaliers). Originally a social group, due to the continuous military rivalry between the Three Kingdoms of Korea, they eventually transformed from a group of elite male aristocratic youth into soldiers and military leaders. Hwarang
Hwarang
were key in the fall of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
(which resulted in the unification of the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
under Unified Silla) and the Silla–Tang Wars, which expelled Tang forces in the other two Korean kingdoms. Culture[edit] A significant number of Silla
Silla
tombs can still be found in Gyeongju, the capital of Silla. Silla
Silla
tombs consist of a stone chamber surrounded by a soil mound. The historic area around Gyeongju
Gyeongju
was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage
World Heritage
list in 2000.[25] Much of it is also protected as part of Gyeongju
Gyeongju
National Park. Additionally, two villages near Gyeongju
Gyeongju
named Hahoe
Hahoe
and Yangdong Folk Village
Yangdong Folk Village
were submitted for UNESCO
UNESCO
heritages in 2008 or later by related cities and the South Korean government.[26] Since the tombs were harder to break into than those of Baekje, a larger amount of objects has been preserved.[27] Notable amongst these are Silla's elaborate gold crowns and jewelry. The Bronze Bell of King Seongdeok the Great of Silla is known to produce a distinctive sound. Cheomseongdae
Cheomseongdae
near Gyeongju
Gyeongju
is the oldest extant astronomical observatory in East Asia but some disagree on its exact functions. It was built during the reign of Queen Seondeok (632–647). Muslim traders brought the name "Silla" to the world outside the traditional East Asian sphere through the Silk Road. Geographers of the Arab and Persian world, including ibn Khurdadhbih, al-Masudi, Dimashiki, Al-Nuwayri, and al-Maqrizi, left records about Silla. The current descendants to the Silla
Silla
dynasty fall under the Gim name. Family records since the last ruler have been provided, but these records have yet to be fully verified. Buddhism[edit] Buddhism
Buddhism
was introduced to Silla
Silla
in 528.[28] Silla
Silla
had been exposed to the religion for over a century during which the faith had certainly made inroads into the native populace. The Buddhist monk Ado introduced Silla
Silla
to Buddhism
Buddhism
when he arrived to proselytize in the mid 5th century.[29] However, according to legend, the Silla
Silla
monarchy was convinced to adopt the faith by the martyrdom of the Silla
Silla
court noble Ichadon, who was executed for his Buddhist faith by the Silla
Silla
king in 527 only to have his blood flow the color of milk. The importance of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Silla
Silla
society of the late early period is difficult to exaggerate. From King Beopheung and for the following six reigns Silla
Silla
kings adopted Buddhist names and came to portray themselves as Buddhist–kings.[30] Silla's strong Buddhist nature is also reflected by the thousands of remnant Buddhist stone figures and carvings, mostly importantly on Namsan. The international influence of the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
on these figures and carvings can be witnessed in the hallmarks of a round full form, a stern expression of the face, and drapery that clings to the body, but stylistic elements of native Korean culture can still be identified. [31] Foreign relations[edit] Korea's and Iran's long-running relationship started with cultural exchanges date back to the Three Kingdoms of Korea
Three Kingdoms of Korea
era, more than 1600 years ago by the way of the Silk Road. A dark blue glass was found in the Cheonmachong Tomb, one of Silla's royal tombs unearthed in Gyeongju. An exotic golden sword was found in Gyerim-ro, a street also located in Gyeongju. These are all relics that are presumed to be sent to Silla
Silla
from ancient Iran
Iran
or Persia
Persia
through the Silk Road. It was only during the Goryeo
Goryeo
Dynasty during King HyeonJong's reign when trade with Persia
Persia
was officially recorded in Korean history. But in academic circles, it is presumed that both countries had active cultural exchanges during the 7th century Silla
Silla
era which means the relationship between Korea
Korea
and Iran
Iran
began more than 1500 years ago."In a history book written by the Persian scholar Khurdadbid, it states that Silla
Silla
is located at the eastern end of China
China
and reads 'In this beautiful country Silla, there is much gold, majestetic cities and hardworking people. Their culture is comparable with Persia'.[32] "The Kushnameh, that tells of a Persian prince who went to Silla
Silla
in the seventh century and got married with a Korean princess, thus forming a royal marriage.” Park Geun-hye
Park Geun-hye
said during a Festival celebrating Iran
Iran
and Korea's 1500’s years of shared cultural ties.[33] Gallery[edit]

Gold ornament from early Silla. 

A golden inner cap. 5-6th century Silla. 

An artifact from Silla 

Tortoise Shell Comb 

Reliquary from 7th century Silla. 

The last king of Silla, King Gyeongsun (r. 927–935). 

A crown from late 5th or early 6th Silla. 

The Silla
Silla
bell was cast in 771 CE. 

Seokguram 

This standing statue of the Bhaisajyaguru Buddha is made of gilt bronze, made in the Silla
Silla
period. 

See also[edit]

Korea
Korea
portal

Silla
Silla
monarchs family tree Gyeongju
Gyeongju
National Museum Crowns of Silla List of Silla
Silla
people History of Korea Gyerim
Gyerim
Territory Area Command Hwarang: The Poet Warrior Youth

Notes[edit]

^ 57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea
Korea
today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding."

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b 박용운 (1996). 고려시대 개경연구 147~156쪽.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-03-21. Retrieved 2008-03-08.  Retrieved on 2008-03-08 ^ a b

History of the Northern Dynasties Volume 94, History of Silla Classical Chinese

新罗者,其先本辰韩种也。地在高丽东南,居汉时乐浪地。辰韩亦曰秦韩。相传言秦世亡人避役来适,马韩割其 东界居之,以秦人,故名之曰秦韩。其言语名物,有似中国人。....其文字、甲兵,同于中国。

English

Silla
Silla
is descendent of Jinhan
Jinhan
confederacy. Its land is in southeast of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
and it is old land of Lelang Commandery
Lelang Commandery
of Han dynasty. It is called Jinhan
Jinhan
or Qinhan. According to Xiangyun (相伝), founders were fugitives who came in avoiding hardship during the period of Qin dynasty. Mahan gave east land to them and made those Qin people live there. Therefore, this is called Qinhan. Their language and name are similar to Chinese.

— 北史 卷94 列傳第82 四夷 Chinese Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: 北史/卷094#新羅

^ a b

Samguk Sagi
Samguk Sagi
volume 1 Classical Chinese

前此 中國之人 苦秦亂東來者衆 多處馬韓東 與辰韓雜居 至是寖盛 故馬韓忌之 有責焉

English

The location of Jinhan
Jinhan
is east of Mahan. In old saying, they are old fugitives who came to Korea
Korea
to avoid hardship from Qin dynasty. And Mahan said they gave them east land.

— 三國史記 新羅本紀 卷1 赫居世居西干 Chinese Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: 三國史記/新羅本紀/卷1/赫居世 居西干#38年 (紀元前 20年)

^ a b

Ri Zhi Lu Volume 29 Classical Chinese

辰韩亦曰秦韩,相传言秦世亡人避役来适,马韩割其东界居之。以秦人故,名之曰秦韩。其言语名物有似中国人。

English

The location of Jinhan
Jinhan
is east of Mahan. They are fugitives who came to Korea
Korea
to avoid hardship of Qin dynasty. Mahan said they gave east land to them. They set up castle fences and their language is similar to the one in Qin dynasty. It is also called as Qinhan.

— 日知錄 卷29 Chinese Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: 日知錄/卷29

^ Horesh, N. (2014). Asian Thought on China's Changing International Relations. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 175. ISBN 978-1137299321.  "According to the Samguksagi entry for the 38th year of King Bak Hyeogeose of Silla, it is claimed that refugees from Qin settled in Jinhan, that is south-eastern Korea." ^

Samgungnyusa
Samgungnyusa
volume 1 Classical Chinese

後漢書云。辰韓耆老自言。秦之亡人來適韓國。而馬韓割東界地以與之。相呼為徒。有似秦語。故或名之為秦韓。

English

The History of the Later Han Dynasty writes, "An old person from Chenhan State said that some refugees came to Korea
Korea
from the Chinese Empire of Qin, and Mahan gave them some land of her eastern border.

— 三國遺事 卷1 Chinese Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Page:三國遺事 卷第一 1512年 奎章閣本.pdf/50

^

Record of the Three Kingdoms
Record of the Three Kingdoms
Book of Wei, Volume 30, History of Jinhan Classical Chinese

辰韓在馬韓之東,其耆老傳世,自言古之亡人避秦役來適韓國,馬韓割其東界地與之。有城柵。其言語不與馬韓同,名國為邦,弓為弧,賊為寇,行酒為行觴。

English

Jinhan confederacy
Jinhan confederacy
is located in the east of Mahan confederacy. In old saying of that area, people of Jinhan
Jinhan
was an old fugitive who came to Korea
Korea
to avoid the hardship of Qin dynasty, and Mahan gave them their east land. They set a castle fence and the language they speak is not the same as Mahan’s. At there, they call Guo (Hanja: 国) as Bang (Hanja: 邦), Gong (弓) as Hu (Hanja: 弧)、Zei (Hanja: 賊) as Kou (Hanja: 寇), and Xingjiu (Hanja: 行酒) as Xingshang (Hanja: 行觴).

— 三國志 魏書卷30辰韓伝 Chinese Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: 三國志/卷30#韓

^

Book of the Later Han
Book of the Later Han
Volume 85, History of Jinhan Classical Chinese

耆老自言秦之亡人,避苦役,適韓國,馬韓割東界地與之。其名國為邦,弓为弧,賊為寇,行酒為行觴,相呼為徒,有似秦語,故或名之為秦韓。

English

People of Jinhan
Jinhan
are old fugitives who came to Korea
Korea
to avoid hardship of Qin dynasty. Mahan said they gave east land to them. In Jinhan, country is called “Bang (邦)”,arrow is called “Hu (弧)”, thief is called “Kou (寇)” ,”Xingjiu (行酒)” called as “Xingshang (行觴)” (Turning cups of alcoholic drink) and they call each other as “Tu (徒)”. Their language is similar to language of Qin. So, this place is also called as Qinhan.

— 後漢書 卷85辰韓伝 Chinese Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: 後漢書/卷85

^

Book of Jin Volume 97, History of Jinhan Classical Chinese

辰韓在馬韓之東,自言秦之亡人避役入韓,韓割東界以居之,立城柵,言語有類秦人,由是或謂之爲秦韓。

English

The location of Jinhan
Jinhan
is east of Mahan. They are fugitives who came to Korea
Korea
to avoid hardship of Qin dynasty. Mahan said they gave east land to them. They set up castle fences and their language is similar to the one in Qin dynasty. It is also called as Qinhan.

— 晋書 巻97辰韓伝 Chinese Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: 晉書/卷097#馬韓 辰韓 弁韓

^ 「제목=고구려와 흉노의 친연성에 관한 연구저널=백산학보」『백산학보 제67호』 ^ 김대성. <이색보고> 金家 뿌리 탐사, 흉노왕의 후손 김일제 유적을 찾아서. 신동아. Retrieved 2016-09-25.  ^ Cho Gab-je. 騎馬흉노국가 新羅 연구 趙甲濟(月刊朝鮮 편집장)의 심층취재 내 몸속을 흐르는 흉노의 피. Monthly Chosun. Retrieved 2016-09-25.  ^ 김운회 (2005-08-30). 김운회의 '대쥬신을 찾아서' <23> 금관의 나라, 신라”. 프레시안. Retrieved 2016-09-25.  ^ 이종호『한국 7대 불가사의』、역사의아침、2007、p108 ^ 경주 사천왕사(寺) 사천왕상(四天王像) 왜 4개가 아니라 3개일까. 조선일보. 2009-02-27. Archived from the original on 2014-12-30. Retrieved 2016-09-25.  ^ 2부작 <문무왕릉비의 비밀> - 제1편: 신라 김씨왕족은 흉노(匈奴)의 후손인가?. KBS 역사추적. 2008-11-22. Retrieved 2016-09-25.  ^ 2부작 <문무왕비문의 비밀> - 제2편: 왜 흉노(匈奴)의 후예라고 밝혔나?. KBS 역사추적. 2008-11-29. Retrieved 2016-09-25.  ^ (채널돋보기) 신라 김씨 왕족은 흉노의 후손일까. 매일신문. 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2016-09-25.  ^ [1] ^ Encyclopedia of World History, Vol II, P371 Silla
Silla
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Korea
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Sources[edit]

Connor, Mary E. (2009). The Koreas. ABC-CLIO, LLC.  Keown, Damien; Prebish, Charles S., eds. (2010). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-49875-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Silla
Silla
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Silla
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