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Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka, ślůnsko godka (Silesian pronunciation: [ˈɕlonskɔ 'gɔtka]), Czech: Slezština, Polish: język śląski / etnolekt śląski, German: Wasserpolnisch) is a West Slavic lect, part of its Lechitic group.[2] Its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by Central German
Central German
due to the existence of numerous Silesian German speakers in the area prior to World War II
World War II
and after, until the 1990s.[4] There is no consensus on whether Silesian is a separate language or a somewhat divergent dialect of Polish.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Distribution 2 Grammar 3 Example 4 Dialects of Silesian 5 Dialect vs. language

5.1 Politicization 5.2 Views

6 Writing system 7 Culture 8 Recognition 9 Literature 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Distribution[edit] Silesian speakers currently live in the region of Upper Silesia, which is split between southwestern Poland
Poland
and the northeastern Czech Republic. At present Silesian is commonly spoken in the area between the historical border of Silesia
Silesia
on the east and a line from Syców
Syców
to Prudnik
Prudnik
on the west as well as in the Rawicz
Rawicz
area. Until 1945 Silesian was also spoken in enclaves in Lower Silesia. Lower Silesian, a variety of Central German, was spoken by the ethnic German majority population of that region. The German speaking populace was either evacuated en masse by German forces towards the end of the war or deported by the new administration upon the Polish annexation of Silesia
Silesia
after World War II. Before the war, most Slavic speakers also spoke German and, at least in eastern Upper Silesia, many German-speakers were acquainted with Slavic Silesian. According to the last official census in Poland
Poland
in 2011, about 509,000[1] people declared Silesian as their native language (in census 2002, about 60,000[5]), and in the censuses in Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia, nearly 0.9 million people declared Silesian nationality.[1][6][7][8] Grammar[edit] Although the morphological differences between Silesian and Polish have been researched extensively, other grammatical differences have not been studied in depth. One example is that, in contrast with Polish, Silesian retains separate past conditional (jo bych śe była uobaliyła — "I would have slipped"). Another major difference is in question-forming. In Polish, questions that do not contain interrogative words are formed either by using intonation or the interrogative particle czy. In Silesian, questions that do not contain interrogative words are formed by using intonation (with a markedly different intonation pattern than in Polish) or inversion (e.g. je to na mapie?); there is no interrogative particle. Example[edit]

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According to Jan Miodek, standard Polish has been always used by Upper Silesians
Silesians
as a language of prayers.[9] The Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer
in Silesian, Polish, Czech, and English.

Silesian (Steuer spelling) Polish Czech English

:Uojcze nasz, kery jeżeś we ńebje,

bydź pośwjyncůne mjano Twoje. Przińdź krůlestwo Twoje, bydź wola Twoja, jako we ńebje, tak tyż na źymji. Chlyb nasz kożdodźynny dej nům dźiśej.

A uodpuść nům nasze winy, jako a my uodpuszczůmy naszym wińńikům. A ńy wůdź nos na pokuszyńy, nale zbow nos uode złygo. Amyn.

:Ojcze nasz, któryś jest w niebie,

święć się imię Twoje, przyjdź królestwo Twoje, bądź wola Twoja jako w niebie tak i na ziemi. Chleba naszego powszedniego daj nam dzisiaj.

I odpuść nam nasze winy, jako i my odpuszczamy naszym winowajcom. I nie wódź nas na pokuszenie, ale nas zbaw ode złego. Amen.

:Otče náš, jenž jsi na nebesích,

posvěť se jméno Tvé Přijď království Tvé. Buď vůle Tvá, jako v nebi, tak i na zemi. Chléb náš vezdejší dej nám dnes

A odpusť nám naše viny, jako i my odpouštíme naším viníkům a neuveď nás v pokušení, ale zbav nás od zlého. Amen.

Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come, thy will be done, on earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

Dialects of Silesian[edit]

Map showing the distribution of the Lachian dialects
Lachian dialects
(west) and the Cieszyn Silesian dialect
Cieszyn Silesian dialect
(east) in the Czech-Polish-Slovak borderlands.

Silesian has many dialects:

Dialects spoken on both sides of the Czech–Polish border:

Cieszyn Silesian dialect

Dialects spoken in areas which are now part of the Czech Republic:

Jabłonków Silesian dialect Lach Silesian dialect

Opava subdialect Ostrava
Ostrava
subdialect Frenštát subdialect

Dialects spoken in areas which are now part of Poland:

Niemodlin Silesian dialect Gliwice Silesian dialect Kluczbork Silesian dialect Prudnik
Prudnik
Silesian dialect Opole Silesian dialect Sulkovian Silesian dialect

Dialect vs. language[edit]

Grave inscription at Lutheran cemetery in Střítež near Český Těšín. The inscription, which says "Rest in Peace", is in the Cieszyn Silesian dialect.

A pub in Piekary Śląskie
Piekary Śląskie
with Silesian (Gliwice Silesian dialect) name ("Sideboard", "Buffet") and inscriptions ("Watch out. Go down to us here").

Politicization[edit] Opinions are divided among linguists regarding whether Silesian is a distinct language, a dialect of Polish, or in the case of Lach, a variety of Czech. The issue can be contentious, because some Silesians consider themselves to be a distinct nationality within Poland. When Czechs, Poles, and Germans each made claims to substantial parts of Silesia
Silesia
as constituting an integral part of their respective nation-states in the 19th and 20th centuries, the language of Slavic speaking Silesians
Silesians
became politicized. Some, like Óndra Łysohorsky, a poet and author in the Czech Republic, saw the Silesians
Silesians
as being their own distinct people, which culminated in his effort to create a literary standard he called the "Lachian Language." Silesian inhabitants supporting the cause of each of these ethnic groups had their own robust network of supporters across Silesia's political borders which shifted over the course of the 20th Century
20th Century
prior to the large-scale ethnic cleansing in the aftermath of World War II. Views[edit] Some linguists from Poland
Poland
such as Jolanta Tambor,[10][full citation needed] Juan Lajo,[11][full citation needed] Dr Tomasz Wicherkiewicz[12][full citation needed] and philosopher Dr hab Jerzy Dadaczyński,[13][full citation needed] sociologist Dr Elżbieta Anna Sekuła[14][full citation needed] and sociolinguist Tomasz Kamusella[15][16] support its status as a language. According to Stanisław Rospond, it is impossible to classify Silesian as a dialect of the contemporary Polish language
Polish language
because he considers it to be descended from the Old Polish language.[17][original research?] Other Polish linguists, such as Jan Miodek
Jan Miodek
and Edward Polański, do not support its status as a language.[citation needed] Jan Miodek
Jan Miodek
and Dorota Simonides, both of Silesian origin, prefer conservation of the entire range of Silesian dialects rather than standardization.[18] The German linguist Reinhold Olesch was eagerly interested about the "Polish vernaculars" of Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
and other Slavic varieties such as Kashubian and Polabian.[19][20][21][22] Most linguists writing in English, such as Alexander M. Schenker,[23] Robert A. Rothstein,[24] and Roland Sussex and Paul Cubberley[25] in their respective surveys of Slavic languages, list Silesian as a dialect of Polish, as does Encyclopædia Britannica.[26] Gerd Hentschel wrote "Das Schlesische ... kann somit ... ohne Zweifel als Dialekt des Polnischen beschrieben werden" ("Silesian ... can thus ... without doubt be described as a dialect of Polish").[27][28] In the Czech Republic, disagreement exists concerning the Lach dialects which rose to prominence thanks to Óndra Łysohorsky and his translator Ewald Osers. [29] While some have considered it a separate language, most now view Lach as a dialect of Czech.[30][31][32] Writing system[edit] There have been a number of attempts at codifying the language spoken by Slavophones in Silesia. Probably the most well-known was undertaken by Óndra Łysohorsky when codifying the Lachian dialects
Lachian dialects
in creating the Lachian literary language in the early 20th century. Ślabikŏrzowy szrajbōnek is the relatively new alphabet created by the Pro Loquela Silesiana organization to reflect the sounds of all Silesian dialects. It was approved by Silesian organizations affiliated in Rada Górnośląska. Ubuntu translation is in this alphabet[33] as is the Silesian. It is used in a few books, including the Silesian alphabet book.[34]

Letters: A, Ã, B, C, Ć, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ł, M, N, Ń, O, Ŏ, Ō, Ô, Õ, P, R, S, Ś, T, U, W, Y, Z, Ź, Ż.[34]

One of the first alphabets created specifically for Silesian was Steuer's Silesian alphabet, created in the Interwar period
Interwar period
and used by Feliks Steuer for his poems in Silesian. The alphabet consists of 30 graphemes and eight digraphs:

Letters: A, B, C, Ć, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, Ł, M, N, Ń, O, P, R, S, Ś, T, U, Ů, W, Y, Z, Ź, Ż Digraphs: Au, Ch, Cz, Dz, Dź, Dż, Rz, Sz

Based on the Steuer alphabet, in 2006 the Phonetic Silesian Alphabet was proposed:[35]

Letters: A B C Ć
Ć
Č D E F G H I J K L M N Ń O P R Ř
Ř
S Ś Š T U Ů W Y Z Ź Ž.

Silesian's phonetic alphabet replaces the digraphs with single letters (Sz with Š, etc.) and does not include the letter Ł, whose sound can be represented phonetically with U. It is therefore the alphabet that contains the fewest letters. Although it is the (phonetically) most logical and hence the most intuitive writing of Silesian, it did not become popular with Silesian organizations, with the argument that it contains too many caron diacritics and hence resembles the Czech alphabet. Large parts of the Silesian, however, are written in Silesian's phonetic alphabet. Sometimes other alphabets are also used, such as the "Tadzikowy muster" (for the National Dictation Contest of the Silesian language) or the Polish alphabet, but writing in this alphabet is problematic as it does not allow for the differentiation and representation of all Silesian sounds.[34] Culture[edit] Silesian has recently seen an increased use in culture, for example:

TV and radio stations (for example: TV Silesia, Sfera TV, TVP Katowice, Slonsky Radio,[36] Radio Piekary, Radio Silesia, Radio Fest); music groups (for example: Jan Skrzek, Krzysztof Hanke, Hasiok, Dohtor Miód, FEET); theatre[37] (for example: Polterabend in Silesian Theatre[38]); film (for example: Grzeszny żywot Franciszka Buły ("The Sinful Life of Franciszek Buła") books (for example, the so-called Silesian Bible; poetry: "Myśli ukryte" by Karol Gwóźdź) teaching aids (for example, a Silesian basal reader)[39]

Recognition[edit]

Bilingual sign in Katowice
Katowice
(Katowicy): Polish Kwiaciarnia ("florist") and Silesian Blumy i Geszynki ("flowers and gifts").

In 2003, the National Publishing Company of Silesia
Silesia
(Narodowa Oficyna Śląska) commenced operations.[40] This publisher was founded by the Alliance of the People of the Silesian Nation (Związek Ludności Narodowości Śląskiej) and it prints books about Silesia
Silesia
and books in Silesian language. In July 2007, the Slavic Silesian language
Silesian language
was given the ISO 639-3 code szl.[41] On 6 September 2007, 23 politicians of the Polish parliament made a statement about a new law to give Silesian the official status of a regional language.[42] The first official National Dictation Contest of the Silesian language (Ogólnopolskie Dyktando Języka Śląskiego) took place in August 2007. In dictation as many as 10 forms of writing systems and orthography have been accepted.[43][44] On 30 January 2008 and in June 2008, two organizations promoting Silesian language
Silesian language
were established: Pro Loquela Silesiana and Tôwarzistwo Piastowaniô Ślónskij Môwy "Danga".[45] On 26 May 2008, the Silesian was founded.[46] On 30 June 2008 in the edifice of the Silesian Parliament
Silesian Parliament
in Katowice, a conference took place on the status of the Silesian language. This conference was a forum for politicians, linguists, representatives of interested organizations and persons who deal with the Silesian language. The conference was titled "Silesian — Still a Dialect or Already a Language?" (Śląsko godka — jeszcze gwara czy jednak już język?).[47] In 2012, the Ministry of Administration and Digitization registered the Silesian language
Silesian language
in Annex 1 to the Regulation on the state register of geographical names;[48] however, in a November 2013 amendment to the regulation, Silesian is not included.[49] Literature[edit]

Paul Weber. 1913. Die Polen in Oberschlesien: eine statistische Untersuchung. Verlagsbuchhandlung von Julius Springer in Berlin (in German) Norbert Morciniec. 1989. Zum Wortgut deutscher Herkunft in den polnischen Dialekten Schlesiens. Zeitschrift für Ostforschung, Bd. 83, Heft 3 (in German) Joseph Partsch. 1896. Schlesien: eine Landeskunde für das deutsche Volk. T. 1., Das ganze Land (die Sprachgrenze 1790 und 1890; pp. 364–367). Breslau: Verlag Ferdinand Hirt. (in German) Joseph Partsch. 1911. Schlesien: eine Landeskunde für das deutsche Volk. T. 2., Landschaften und Siedelungen. Breslau: Verlag Ferdinand Hirt. (in German) Lucyna Harc et al. 2013. Cuius Regio? Ideological and Territorial Cohesion of the Historical Region of Silesia
Silesia
(c. 1000-2000) vol. 1., The Long Formation of the Region Silesia
Silesia
(c. 1000-1526). Wrocław: eBooki.com.pl ISBN 978-83-927132-1-0 Lucyna Harc et al. 2014. Cuius regio? Ideological and Territorial Cohesion of the Historical Region of Silesia
Silesia
(c. 1000-2000) vol. 2., The Strengthening of Silesian Regionalism (1526–1740). Wrocław: eBooki.com.pl ISBN 978-83-927132-6-5 Lucyna Harc et al. 2014. Cuius regio? Ideological and Territorial Cohesion of the Historical Region of Silesia
Silesia
(c. 1000-2000) vol. 4., Region Divided: Times of Nation-States (1918-1945). Wrocław: eBooki.com.pl ISBN 978-83-927132-8-9 Tomasz Kamusella. 2014.Ślōnsko godka / The Silesian Language. Zabrze: NOS, 196 pp. ISBN 9788360540220.[50] Tomasz Kamusella. 2014. Warszawa wie lepiej Ślązaków nie ma. O dyskryminacji i języku śląskim [Warsaw Knows Better – The Silesians
Silesians
Don’t Exist: On Discrimination and the Silesian Language]. Zabrze, Poland: NOS, 174 pp. ISBN 9788360540213.[51] Tomasz Kamusella. 2013. The Silesian Language in the Early 21st Century: A Speech Community on the Rollercoaster of Politics (pp 1–35). Die Welt der Slaven. Vol 58, No 1. Tomasz Kamusella. 2011. Silesian in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: A Language Caught in the Net of Conflicting Nationalisms, Politics, and Identities (pp 769–789). 2011. Nationalities Papers. No 5. Kamusella, Tomasz (2011). "Language: Talking or trading blows in the Upper Silesian industrial basin?". Multilingua - Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication. 30 (1): 3–24. doi:10.1515/mult.2011.002. ISSN 1613-3684.  Tomasz Kamusella. 2009. Échanges de paroles ou de coups en Haute-Silésie: la langue comme ‘lieu’ de contacts et de luttes interculturels [Exchange of Words or Blows in Upper Silesia: Language as a "Place" of Contacts and Intercultural Struggles] (pp 133–152). Cultures d'Europe centrale. No 8: Lieux communs de la multiculturalité urbaine en Europe centrale, ed by Delphine Bechtel and Xavier Galmiche. Paris: CIRCE. Tomasz Kamusella. 2007. Uwag kilka o dyskryminacji Ślązaków i Niemców górnośląskich w postkomunistycznej Polsce [A Few Remarks on the Discrimination of the Silesians
Silesians
and Upper Silesia’s Germans in Postcommunist Poland]. Zabrze, Poland: NOS, 28 pp. ISBN 978-83-60540-68-8. Tomasz Kamusella. 2006. Schlonzsko: Horní Slezsko, Oberschlesien, Górny Śląsk. Esej o regionie i jego mieszkańcach [Schlonzsko: Upper Silesia. An Essay on the Region and Its Inhabitants] (2nd, corrected and enlarged edition). Zabrze, Poland: NOS, 148 pp. ISBN 978-83-60540-51-0.[52] Tomasz Kamusella. 2009. Codzienność komunikacyjno-językowa na obszarze historycznego Górnego Śląska [The Everyday Language Use in Historical Upper Silesia] (pp 126–156). In: Robert Traba, ed. Akulturacja/asymilacja na pograniczach kulturowych Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej w XIX i XX wieku [Acculturation/Assimilation in the Cultural Borderlands of East-Central Europe
East-Central Europe
in the 19th and 20th Centuries] (vol 1: Stereotypy i pamięć [Stereotypes and memory]). Warsaw: Instytut Studiów Politycznych PAN and Niemiecki Instytut Historyczny. Tomasz Kamusella. 2009. Czy śląszczyzna jest językiem? Spojrzenie socjolingwistyczne [Is Silesian a Language? A Sociolinguistic View] (pp 27–35). In: Andrzej Roczniok, ed. Śląsko godka - jeszcze gwara czy jednak już język? / Ślōnsko godko – mundart jeszcze eli już jednak szpracha. Zabrze: NOŚ. Tomasz Kamusella. 2006. Schlonzska mowa. Język, Górny Śląsk i nacjonalizm (Vol II) [ Silesia
Silesia
and Language: Language, Upper Silesia and Nationalism, a collection of articles on various social, political and historical aspects of language use in Upper Silesia]. Zabrze, Poland: NOS, 151 pp. ISBN 83-919589-2-2. Tomasz Kamusella. 2005. Schlonzska mowa. Język, Górny Śląsk i nacjonalizm (Vol I) [ Silesia
Silesia
and Language: Language, Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
and Nationalism, a collection of articles on various social, political and historical aspects of language use in Upper Silesia]. Zabrze, Poland: NOS, 187 pp. ISBN 83-919589-2-2.[53] Tomasz Kamusella. 2004. The Szlonzokian Ethnolect in the Context of German and Polish Nationalisms (pp. 19–39). Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism. No 1. London: Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism. DOI: 10.1111/j.1754-9469.2004.tb00056.x. Tomasz Kamusella. 2001. Schlonzsko: Horní Slezsko, Oberschlesien, Górny Śląsk. Esej o regionie i jego mieszkańcach [Schlonzsko: Upper Silesia. An Essay on the Region and Its Inhabitants]. Elbląg, Poland: Elbląska Oficyna Wydawnicza, 108 pp. ISBN 83-913452-2-X.[54] Tomasz Kamusella. 1999. Język a Śląsk Opolski w kontekście integracji europejskiej [Language and Opole Silesia
Silesia
in the Context of European Integration] (pp 12–19). Śląsk Opolski. No 3. Opole, Poland: Instytut Śląski. Tomasz Kamusella. 1998. Das oberschlesische Kreol: Sprache und Nationalismus in Oberschlesien im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert [The Upper Silesian Creole: Language and Nationalism in the 19th and 20th Centuries] (pp 142–161). In: Markus Krzoska und Peter Tokarski, eds. . Die Geschichte Polens und Deutschlands im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Ausgewählte Baiträge. Osnabrück, Germany: fibre. Tomasz Kamusella. 1998. Kreol górnośląski [The Upper Silesian Creole] (pp 73–84). Kultura i Społeczeństwo. No 1. Warsaw, Poland: Komitet Socjologii ISP PAN. Andrzej Roczniok and Tomasz Kamusella. 2011. Sztandaryzacyjo ślōnski godki / Standaryzacja języka śląskiego [The Standardization of the Silesian Language] (pp 288–294). In: I V Abisigomian, ed. Lingvokul’turnoe prostranstvo sovremennoi Evropy cherez prizmu malykh i bolshikh iazykov. K 70-letiiu professora Aleksandra Dimitrievicha Dulichenko (Ser: Slavica Tartuensis, Vol 9). Tartu: Tartu University. Robert Semple. London 1814. Observations made on a tour from Hamburg through Berlin, Gorlitz, and Breslau, to Silberberg; and thence to Gottenburg (pp. 122–123)

See also[edit]

List of Silesian-language books in standard orthography List of Silesian-language films Silesian German Texas Silesian Wymysorys language Masurian dialect

References[edit]

^ a b c "Raport z wyników: Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011" [Report of results: National Census of Population and Housing, 2011.] (PDF). Central Statistical Office of Poland
Poland
(in Polish). 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-21.  ^ a b "Ethnologue report for language code: szl". Ethnologue. Languages of the World.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Silesian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Tomasz Kamusella. 2013. The Silesian Language in the Early 21st Century: A Speech Community on the Rollercoaster of Politics (pp 1-35). Die Welt der Slaven. Vol 58, No 1. ^ "Ludność według języka używanego w kontaktach domowych i deklaracji narodowościowej w 2002 roku" [Population by language used at home and declarations of nationality in 2002] (in Polish). Main Statistical Office of the Polish Government: report of Polish census of 2002. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2011-06-06.  ^ "Obyvatelstvo podle národnosti podle krajů" (PDF). Czech Statistical Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-31.  ^ "Národnost ve sčítání lidu v českých zemích" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-13. Retrieved 2012-08-16.  ^ National Minorities in the Slovak Republic - Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic ^ [1] ^ "Ekspertyza naukowa prof. U Ś Dr hab. Jolanty Tambor" (en: "Scientific expertise by Juan Lajo"), 2008 ^ "Ekspertyza naukowa pana Juana Lajo" (en: "Scientific expertise by Juan Lajo"), 2008 ^ "Ekspertyza naukowa dra Tomasza Wicherkiewicza" (en: "Scientific expertise by Tomasz Wicherkiewicz"), 2008 ^ "Ekspertyza naukowa ks. dra hab. Jerzego Dadaczyńskiego") (en: "Scientific expertise by Jerzy Dadaczyński"), 2008 ^ "Ekspertyza naukowa dr Elżbiety Anny Sekuły" (en: "Scientific expertise by Elżbieta Anna Sekuła"), 2008 ^ Tomasz Kamusella. Schlonzska mowa — Język, Górny Śląsk i nacjonalizm [Silesian speech — language, Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
and nationalism] (in Polish). ISBN 83-919589-2-2.  ^ Tomasz Kamusella
Tomasz Kamusella
(2003). "The Szlonzoks and their Language: Between Germany, Poland
Poland
and Szlonzokian Nationalism" (PDF). European University Institute — Department of History and Civilization and Opole University.  ^ "Polszczyzna śląska" - Stanisław Rospond, Ossolineum
Ossolineum
1970, p. 80–87 ^ "The Silesian Language in the Early 21st Century: A Speech Community on the Rollercoaster of Politics Tomasz Kamusella". xlibx.com. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ Ernst Eichler (1999). Neue deutsche Biographie [New German biography] (in German). p. 519.  ^ Reinhold Olesch (1987). Zur schlesischen Sprachlandschaft: Ihr alter slawischer Anteil [On the Silesian language
Silesian language
landscape: their old Slavic share] (in German). pp. 32–45.  ^ Joanna Rostropowicz. Śląski był jego językiem ojczystym: Reinhold Olesch, 1910–1990 [Silesian was his mother tongue: Reinhold Olesch, 1910–1990] (in Polish).  ^ Krzysztof Kluczniok, Tomasz Zając (2004). Śląsk bogaty różnorodnością — kultur, narodów i wyznań. Historia lokalna na przykładzie wybranych powiatów, miast i gmin [Silesia, a rich diversity — of cultures, nations and religions. Local history, based on selected counties, cities and municipalities]. Urząd Gm. i M. Czerwionka-Leszczyny, Dom Współpracy Pol.-Niem., Czerwionka-Leszczyny. ISBN 83-920458-5-8.  ^ Alexander M. Schenker, "Proto-Slavonic", The Slavonic Languages (1993, Routledge), pages 60–121. ^ Robert A. Rothstein, "Polish," The Slavonic Languages (1993, Routledge), pages 686–758. ^ Roland Sussex & Paul Cubberley, The Slavic Languages
Slavic Languages
(2006, Cambridge University Press). ^ "Silesian". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Gerd Hentschel. "Schlesisch" (PDF) (in German).  ^ Gerd Hentschel (2001). "Das Schlesische – eine neue (oder auch nicht neue) slavische Sprache?". Mitteleuropa – Osteuropa. Oldenburger Beiträge zur Kultur und Geschichte Ostmitteleuropas. ISBN 3-631-37648-0.  ^ Ewald Osers (1949). Silesian Idiom and Language. New York.  ^ Dušan Šlosar. "Tschechisch" (PDF) (in German).  ^ Aleksandr Dulichenko. "Lexikon der Sprachen des europäischen Ostens" [Encyclopedia of Languages of Eastern Europe] (PDF) (in German).  ^ Pavlína Kuldanová (2003). "Útvary Českého Národního Jazyka" [Services of the Czech National Language] (in Czech).  ^ ""Silesian Ubuntu Translation" team". Launchpad.net. 5 July 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ a b c Mirosław Syniawa: Ślabikŏrz niy dlŏ bajtli. Pro Loquela Silesiana. ISBN 978-83-62349-01-2 ^ Ślůnski alfabyt fůnetyčny> Phonetic Silesian Alphabet described on Silesian ^ (in Silesian) [2] ^ "Po śląsku w kaplicy" [Once in the chapel of Silesia] (in Polish). e-teatr.pl. Retrieved 6 April 2012.  ^ "Stanisław Mutz — Polterabend" (in Polish). Silesian Theatre. Archived from the original on 2007-06-24.  ^ (in Silesian) Przemysław Jedlicki, Mirosław Syniawa (13 February 2009). "Ślabikorz dlo Slůnzokůw". Gazeta Wyborcza
Gazeta Wyborcza
Katowice. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009.  ^ "Narodowa Oficyna Śląska" [National Publishing Company of Silesia] (in Silesian). Archived from the original on 4 September 2007.  ^ "ISO documentation of Silesian language". SIL International.  ^ Dziennik Zachodni (2008). "Śląski wśród języków świata" [Silesian Among the Languages of the World] (in Polish). Our News Katowice.  ^ (in Silesian) / (in Polish) "National Dictation contest of the Silesian language".  ^ Ortography: diacritic, Czech, phonetic, Hermannowa, Polish, Polish plus, Steuer's, Tadzikowa, Wieczorkowa, multisigned. ^ "Śląski wśród języków świata" [The Silesian language
Silesian language
is a foreign language]. Dziennik Zachodni (in Polish). 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-06-20.  ^ "Śląska już działa" [Silesian already operating]. Gazeta Wyborcza-Gospodarka (in Polish). 2008.  ^ (in Polish) "Katowice: konferencja dotycząca statusu śląskiej mowy" [Katowice: Conference concerning the status of the Silesian language]. Polish Wikinews. 1 July 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2012.  ^ Dz.U. 2012 nr 0 poz. 309 - Internet System of Legal Acts ^ Dz. U. z 2013 r. poz. 1346 http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU20130001346 ^

Tomasz Kamusella
Tomasz Kamusella
and Motoki Nomachi. 2014. The Long Shadow of Borders: The Cases of Kashubian and Silesian in Poland
Poland
(pp 35-60). The Eurasia Border Review. Vol 5, No 2, Fall. http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/publictn/eurasia_border_review/ebr_v5n2/EBR_v5n2_35.pdf

Review: Mark Brüggemann. 2013.Ślōnsko godka. The Silesian language, https://www.pol-int.org/pl/publikationen/l-nsko-godka-silesian-language#r405. Review: Michael Moser
Michael Moser
(uk). 2013. Zeitschrift für Slawistik (pp 118–119). Vol 58, No 1. Potsdam: Universität Potsdam.

^

Review: Michael Moser
Michael Moser
(uk). 2013. Zeitschrift für Slawistik (pp 118–119). Vol 58, No 1. Potsdam: Universität Potsdam.

^

Review: Anon. 2010. The Sarmatian Review. Sept. (p 1530). Review: Svetlana Antova. 2007. Bulgarian Ethnology / Bulgarska etnologiia. No 4 (pp 120–121).

^

Review: Kai Struve. 2006. Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung. No 4. Marburg, Germany: Herder-Institut (pp 611–613). http://www.herder-institut.de/rezensionen/2006_55_611_613.pdf Review: Kai Struve. 2007. Recenzyjo Instituta Herdera [Herder-Institute’s Review] (pp 26–27). Ślůnsko Nacyjo. No 5, Jul. Zabrze: NOŚ. Review: Jerzy Tomaszewski. 2007. Czy istnieje naród śląski? [Does the Silesian Nation Exist] (pp 280–283). Przegląd Historyczny. No 2. Warsaw: DiG and University of Warsaw. Review: Jerzy Tomaszewski. 2007. Czy istnieje naród śląski? [Does the Silesian Nation Exist] (pp 8–12). 2007. Ślůnsko Nacyjo. No 12, Dec. Zabrze: NOŚ.

^

Review: Andreas R Hofmann. 2002. Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung. No 2. Marburg, Germany: Herder-Institut (p 311). Review: Anon. 2002. Esej o naszym regionie [An Essay on Our region] (p 4). Głos Ludu. Gazeta Polaków w Republice Czeskiej. No 69, June 11. Ostrava, Czech Republic: Vydavatelství OLZA. Review: Walter Żelazny eo:Walter Żelazny. 2003. Niech żyje śląski lud [Long Live the Silesian People] (pp 219–223). Sprawy Narodowościowe. No 22. Poznań, Poland: Zakład Badań Narodowościowych PAN.

External links[edit]

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Silesian

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Silesian language.

Wikinews
Wikinews
has related news: Silesian language
Silesian language
granted ISO code

Silesian edition of, the free encyclopedia

(in Silesian) Jynzyk S'loonski

v t e

Languages of Poland

Official language

Polish

Minority languages

Recognized

Armenian Belarusian Czech German Hebrew Karaim Kashubian Lemko Lithuanian Romani Russian Slovak Ukrainian Yiddish

Unrecognized

Silesian Wymysorys

Sign languages

Polish Sign Language

v t e

Slavic languages

History

Proto-Balto-Slavic Up to Proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic (Accent) Old Church Slavonic Modern languages Cyril and Methodius Cyrillic script Glagolitic alphabet

West Slavic languages

Czech Kashubian Polabian Middle Polish Old Polish Polish Pomeranian Slovak Slovincian Lower Sorbian Upper Sorbian

East Slavic languages

Belarusian Iazychie Old East Slavic Old Novgorodian Russian Ruthenian Ukrainian

South Slavic languages

Bulgarian Macedonian Serbo-Croatian

Bosnian Croatian Montenegrin Serbian

Slovene

Constructed languages

Church Slavonic Pan-Slavic language

Interslavic Slovio

Slavonic-Serbian

Separate Slavic dialects and microlanguages

Balachka Banat Bulgarian Burgenland Croatian Carpathian Rusyn Canadian Ukrainian Chakavian Cieszyn Silesian Czechoslovak Eastern Slovak Kajkavian Knaanic Lach Lesser Polish Masovian Masurian Moravian Molise Croatian Pannonian Rusyn Podhale Prekmurje Slovene Resian Shtokavian Silesian Slavic dialects of Greece Surzhyk Torlakian Trasianka West Polesian

Historical phonology

Slavic first palatalization Slavic second palatalization Slavic liquid metathesis and pleophony Dybo's law Havlík's law Hirt's law Illič-Svityč's law Ivšić's law Meillet's law Pedersen's law Ruki sound law Winter's law

Italics indicate extinct languages.

v t e

Silesia
Silesia
topics

History

Offensives Uprisings Wars (First, Second, Third) Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
plebiscite Treaty of Dresden Treaty of Teschen Book of Henryków Battle of Legnica Battle of Leuthen more...

Geography

Areas

Jelenia Góra valley Kłodzko Valley Lower Silesian Wilderness Obniżenie Milicko-Głogowskie Ostrava
Ostrava
Valley Oświęcim Basin Przedgórze Sudeckie Silesian Walls Silesian Foothills Silesian Lowlands Silesian Przesieka Silesian Upland Silesian-Lusatian Lowlands Silesian-Moravian Foothills Wał Trzebnicki Zielona Góra Acclivity

Lakes

Jezioro Goczałkowickie Jezioro Otmuchowskie Jezioro Sławskie Nyskie Slezská Harta Dam

Mountains

Carpathian

Silesian Beskids Moravian-Silesian Beskids

Sudetes

Eastern Central Western

Rivers

Elbe

Divoká Orlice Jizera Úpa

Oder

Barycz Bóbr Kaczawa Kłodnica Kwisa Liswarta Mała Panew Nysa Kłodzka Olza Ślęza

Vistula

Biała Brynica Gostynia Przemsza Pszczynka Rawa

Politics

Subdivisions

Former

Duchies

Piasts dukes

Silesian Voivodeship
Silesian Voivodeship
(1920–39)

parliament politicians treasury

State country Silesia
Silesia
Province

Upper Silesia Lower Silesia

Sudetenland New Silesia Austrian Silesia Eastern Silesia

Current

Jeseník District Moravian–Silesian Region Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis / Görlitz

Voivodeships

Lower Silesian Lubusz Voivodeships Opole Silesian

EP constituencies

Lower Silesian and Opole Silesian

Economy

Bielski Okręg Przemysłowy Katowice
Katowice
urban area Legnicko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy Lower Silesian Coal Basin Upper Silesian Coal Basin

Industrial Region Ostrava-Karviná / Rybnik Coal Areas

Upper Silesian metropolitan area Tourism

Society

Culture

Architecture

Familok

Regional costume (Śląskie stroje ludowe)

Cuisine

Black noodles Bryja Ciapkapusta Dumplings Galert Hauskyjza Karminadle Kołocz Kreple Krupniok (Kaszanka) Makówki Moczka Modra kapusta Siemieniotka Szałot Wodzionka Żur śląski

Religion

Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia Silesian Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland Roman Catholic Church Pentecostal Church in Poland

Sport

Football Association Moravian–Silesian Football League National football team Silesian Stadium

Languages

Silesian

Bytom Cieszyn Jabłonków Lach Lower Namysłów Niemodlin Opole Prudnik Sulkovian Syców Texas

Czech German

Silesian German (Lower Silesian)

Moravian Polish

Symbols

Coats of arms Flags

Unofficial anthems

Schlesien Unvergessene Heimat Schlesierlied Slezská hymna

Other topics

Demographics Landsmannschaft Schlesien Silesian Autonomy Movement Silesians

Cate

.