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The Silesian Uprisings
Silesian Uprisings
(German: Aufstände in Oberschlesien; Polish: Powstania śląskie) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles
Poles
and Polish Silesians
Silesians
of Upper Silesia, from 1919 to 1921, against German rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War I. In the latter-day history of Poland
Poland
after World War II, the insurrections were celebrated as centrepieces of national pride.

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Mineral resources 1.2 Demographics in the early 20th century 1.3 Versailles plebiscite

2 Uprisings

2.1 First uprising (1919) 2.2 Second uprising (1920) 2.3 Third uprising (1921)

3 Aftermath 4 References 5 Further reading

Background[edit]

Wojciech Korfanty, organized the Polish Silesian Uprisings
Silesian Uprisings
in Upper Silesia

Much of Silesia
Silesia
had belonged to the Polish Crown in medieval times, but it passed to the Kings of Bohemia
Bohemia
in the 14th century, then to the Austrian Habsburgs. Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
of Prussia
Prussia
seized Silesia
Silesia
from Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria
in 1742 in the War of Austrian Succession, after which it became a part of Prussia[2] and in 1871 the German Empire. Although the province had by now become overwhelmingly German speaking, a large Polish minority remained in Upper Silesia. [3][4][5] Mineral resources[edit] Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
was bountiful in mineral resources and heavy industry, with mines and iron and steel mills. The Silesian mines were responsible for almost a quarter of Germany's annual output of coal, 81 percent of its zinc and 34 percent of its lead.[6] After World War I, during the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles, the German government claimed that, without Upper Silesia, it would not be able to fulfill its obligations with regard to reparations to the Allies.[citation needed] Demographics in the early 20th century[edit] The area in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
east of the Oder
Oder
was dominated by ethnic Poles, most of whom were working class. Most spoke a dialect of Polish, but many felt they were a Slavic group of their own called Silesians.[2] In contrast, most of the local middle and upper classes – the landowners, businessmen, factory owners, local government, police and Catholic clergy – were ethnic Germans.[2] There was a further division along religious lines. The German Silesians
Silesians
were almost all Protestant, while the Polish Silesians
Silesians
were invariably Roman Catholic.[2] In the German census of 1900, 65% of the population of the eastern part of Silesia
Silesia
was recorded as Polish speaking, which decreased to 57% in 1910.[2] This was partly a result of forced Germanization,[7] but was also due to the creation of a bilingual category, which reduced the number of Polish speakers.[2] German scholar Paul Weber drew a language map that showed that in 1910 in most of Upper Silesian districts east of the Oder
Oder
river, Polish-speaking Silesians constituted a majority, forming more than 70% of the population there.[2] While still under German control, various Polish identified Silesians would write, publish, and/or distribute pamphlets, newsletters, and other written material, promoting the idea of a Polish-Silesian Identity. Included among the identifies was adherance to the Roman Catholic church. One such publisher was Ignacy Bulla (later changed to Buła in celebration), who would spread information related to these identities at risk to his own life and freedom. He is widely credited with having inspired the Polish-Silesian patriotic feelings that inspired the uprisings. His contribution to bringing Silesia
Silesia
back into the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
was the subject of at least one dissertation presented by a Seminary student. Versailles plebiscite[edit]

Silesian insurgents

Cap badge of the Polish Storm Detachment during Silesian Uprisings

The Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
had ordered a plebiscite in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
to determine whether the territory should be a part of Germany or Poland.[2] The plebiscite was to be held within two years of the Treaty (signed in 1919) in the whole of Upper Silesia, although the Polish government had only requested it to be held in the areas east of the Oder
Oder
river, which had a significant number of Polish speakers.[2] Thus the plebiscite took place in all of Upper Silesia, including the predominantly Polish-speaking areas in the east and the predominantly German-speaking areas west of the river.[2] The Upper Silesian plebiscite was to be conducted on March 20, 1921. In the meantime, the German administration and police remained in place.[2] Meanwhile, propaganda and strong arm tactics by both sides led to increasing unrest.[2] The German authorities warned that those voting for Poland
Poland
might forfeit their jobs and pensions.[2] Pro-Polish activists argued that, under Polish rule, Silesian Poles
Poles
would no longer be discriminated against. Poland
Poland
also promised to honour their German state social benefits, such as the old age pensions.[2] However, many German Army veterans joined the Freikorps
Freikorps
(Free Corps), a paramilitary organization whose troops fought any pro-Polish activists.[2] The pro- Poland
Poland
side employed the Polish Military Organisation (POW) – a secret military organisation and predecessor of Polish intelligence – to fight back with the same force. [8] Eventually, the deteriorating situation resulted in Upper Silesian Uprisings conducted by Poles
Poles
in 1919 and 1920. The right to vote was granted to all aged 20 and older who either had been born in or lived in the plebiscite area. A result was the mass migration of both Germans and Poles.[9] The German newcomers accounted for 179,910; the Polish newcomers numbering over 10,000.[2] Without these "new voters", the pro-German vote would have had a majority of 58,336 instead of the final 228,246.[2] The plebiscite took place as arranged on March 20, two days after the signing of the Treaty of Riga, which ended the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
of 1919/1920. A total of 707,605 votes were cast for Germany and 479,359 for Poland.[2] The Third Silesian Uprising
Third Silesian Uprising
conducted by Poles
Poles
broke out in 1921. The League of Nations
League of Nations
was asked to settle the dispute before it led to even more bloodshed. In 1922, a six-week debate decided that Upper Silesia
Silesia
should be divided. This was accepted by both countries, and the majority of Upper Silesians. Approximately 736,000 Poles
Poles
and 260,000 Germans thus found themselves now in Polish (Upper) Silesia, and 532,000 Poles
Poles
and 637,000 Germans remained in German (Upper) Silesia.[citation needed] Uprisings[edit] First uprising (1919)[edit]

First Silesian Uprising

Date 16–26 August 1919

Location Parts of Upper Silesia

Result German forces crush uprising

Belligerents

Grenzschutz Oberschlesisches Freiwilligen-Korps Reichswehr Polish Military Organisation

Commanders and leaders

Alfons Zgrzebniok

On 15 August 1919, German border guards (Grenzschutz) massacred ten Silesian civilians in a labour dispute at the Mysłowice
Mysłowice
mine (Myslowitzer Grube). The massacre sparked protests from the Silesian Polish miners, including a general strike of about 140,000 workers,[10] and caused the First Silesian Uprising
First Silesian Uprising
against German control of Upper Silesia. The miners demanded the local government and police become ethnically mixed to include both Germans and Poles.[2] About 21,000 Germans soldiers of the Weimar Republic's Provisional National Army (Vorläufige Reichsheer), with about 40,000 troops held in reserve, quickly put down the uprising. The army's reaction was harsh; and about 2,500 Poles
Poles
were either hanged or executed by firing squad for their parts in the violence.[citation needed] Some 9,000 ethnic Poles
Poles
sought refuge in the Second Polish Republic, taking along their family members. This came to an end when Allied forces were brought in to restore order, and the refugees were allowed to return later that year. Second uprising (1920)[edit]

Second Silesian Uprising

Date 19–25 August 1920

Location Upper Silesia

Result Foreign-enforced cease-fire

Belligerents

Polish Military Organization German civil government and police of Upper Silesia Allied Plebiscite Commission Military Forces

The Second Silesian Uprising
Second Silesian Uprising
(Polish: Drugie powstanie śląskie) was the second of three uprisings. In February 1920, an Allied Plebiscite Commission was sent to Upper Silesia. It was composed of the representatives of the Allied forces, mostly from France, with smaller contingents from United Kingdom and Italy.[2] Soon, however, it became apparent that the Allied forces were too few to maintain order; further, the Commission was torn apart by lack of consensus: the British and Italians favoured the Germans, while the French supported the Poles.[2] Those forces failed to prevent continuing unrest.[2] In August 1920, a German newspaper in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
printed what later turned out to be a false announcement of the fall of Warsaw to the Red Army in the Polish–Soviet War. Pro-German activists spontaneously organised a march to celebrate what they assumed would be the end of independent Poland. The volatile situation quickly degenerated into violence as pro-German demonstrators began looting Polish shops; the violence continued even after it had become clear that Warsaw had not fallen.[2][11] The violence eventually led on August 19 to a Polish uprising, which quickly took control of government offices in the districts of Kattowitz
Kattowitz
(Katowice), Pless (Pszczyna), Beuthen (Bytom). Between August 20 and 25, the rebellion spread to Königshütte
Königshütte
(Chorzów), Tarnowitz
Tarnowitz
(Tarnowskie Góry), Rybnik, Lublinitz (Lubliniec) and Gross Strehlitz (Strzelce Opolskie). The Allied Commission declared its intention to restore order but internal differences kept anything from being done. British representatives held the French responsible for the easy spread of the uprising through the eastern region.[12] The uprising was slowly brought to an end in September by a combination of allied military operations and negotiations between the parties. The Poles
Poles
obtained the disbanding of the Sipo police and the creation of a new police (Abstimmungspolizei) for the area which would be 50% Polish.[11] Poles
Poles
were also admitted to the local administration. The Polish Military Organisation
Polish Military Organisation
in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
was supposed to be disbanded, though in practice this did not happen. Third uprising (1921)[edit]

Third Silesian Uprising

Date 2 May – 21 July 1921

Location Upper Silesia

Result League of Nations
League of Nations
forces a ceasefire.

Belligerents

Grenzschutz Freikorps Selbstschutz Polish Military Organisation Greater Polish Army Inter-Allied Commission

Commanders and leaders

Friedrich Wilhelm von Schwartzkoppen Karl Höfer Wojciech Korfanty Maciej Hrabia Mielzynski Jules Gratier Filippo Salvioni William Heneker

Strength

40,000

The Third Silesian Uprising
Third Silesian Uprising
(Polish: Trzecie powstanie śląskie) was the last, largest and longest of the three uprisings. It included the Battle of Annaberg. It began in the aftermath of a plebiscite that yielded mixed results. The British and French governments could not reach a consensus on the interpretation of the plebiscite.[2] The primary problem was the disposition of the "Industrial Triangle" east of the Oder
Oder
river, whose triangle ends were marked by the cities of Beuthen (Bytom), Gleiwitz (Gliwice) and Kattowitz
Kattowitz
(Katowice), all three of which were mostly inhabited by ethnic Germans.[2] The French wanted to weaken Germany, and thus supported Polish claims on the territory; the British and the Italians disagreed, in part because the German government declared that a loss of the Silesian industries would render Germany incapable of paying the demanded war reparations.[2] In late April 1921, rumours spread that the British position would prevail.[2] This caused the local Polish activists to organize another uprising. The insurrection was to begin in early in May. Having learned from previous failures, the Third Uprising was carefully planned and organized under the leadership of Wojciech Korfanty. It started on May 2–3, 1921, with the destruction of German rail bridges (see "Wawelberg Group") in order to slow down the movement of German reinforcements. A particular concern was to prevent a recurrence of violent acts against Polish civilians by members of the Freikorps, demobilised Imperial German army units that had refused to disband. These paramilitary units existed throughout Germany and usually acted independently from both the provisional official army and the leadership of the fledgling German Republic. The Inter-Allied Commission, in which General Henri Le Rond
Henri Le Rond
was the most influential person, waited rather long before taking any steps to end the violence.[13] The French troops generally favored the insurrection.[13] In some cases, British and Italian contingents actively cooperated with Germans.[13] UK Prime Minister Lloyd George's speech in the British Parliament, strongly disapproving of the insurrection, aroused the hopes of some Germans.[13] But the Entente appeared to have no troops ready and available for dispatch.[13] The only action the 'Inter-Allied Military Control Commission' and the French government made was demanding immediate prohibition of the recruiting of German volunteers from outside Upper Silesia, and this was promptly made public.[13] After the initial success of the insurgents in taking over a large portion of Upper Silesia, the German Grenzschutz several times resisted the attacks of Wojciech Korfanty's Polish troops, in some cases with the cooperation of British and Italian troops.[13] An attempt on the part of the British troops to take steps against the Polish forces was prevented by General Jules Gratier, the French commander-in-chief of the Allied troops.[13] Eventually, the insurgents kept most of territory they had won, including the local industrial district. They proved that they could mobilize large amounts of local support, while the German forces based outside Silesia
Silesia
were barred from taking an active part in the conflict. Twelve days after the outbreak of the insurrection, Korfanty offered to take his troops behind a line of demarcation (the "Korfanty Line"), conditional on the released territory not being re-occupied by German forces, but by Allied troops.[13] It was not, however, until July 1 that the British troops arrived in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
and began to advance in company with those of the other Allies towards the former frontier.[13] Simultaneously with this advance the 'Inter-Allied Commission' pronounced a general amnesty for the illegal actions committed during the insurrection, with the exception of acts of revenge and cruelty.[13] The German Grenzschutz was withdrawn and disbanded.[13] Aftermath[edit]

Silesian Insurgents Monument
Silesian Insurgents Monument
in Katowice. The largest and heaviest monument in Poland, constructed in 1967.

The Silesian Eagle
Silesian Eagle
medal, awarded to Freikorps
Freikorps
Oberland members who helped suppress the Silesian uprisings.

Agreements between the Germans and Poles
Poles
in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
and appeals issued by both sides, as well as the dispatch of six battalions of Allied troops and the disbandment of the local guards, contributed markedly to the pacification of the district.[13] The Allied Supreme Council was, however, still unable to come to an agreement on the partition of the Upper Silesian territory on the lines of the plebiscite.[2][13] The British and the French could only agree on one solution: turning the question over to the Council of the League of Nations.[2][13] The greatest excitement was caused all over Germany and in the German part of Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
by the intimation that the Council of the League of Nations had handed over the matter for closer investigation to a commission, consisting of four representatives – one each from Belgium, Brazil, Spain, and China.[13] The commission collected its own data and issued a decision, stressing the principle of self-determination.[2] On the basis of the reports of this commission and those of its experts, in October 1921 the Council awarded the greater part of the Upper Silesian industrial district to Poland.[2] The Polish Government had decided to give Silesia
Silesia
considerable autonomy with the Silesian Parliament
Silesian Parliament
as a constituency and the Silesian Voivodeship
Silesian Voivodeship
Council as the executive body. Poland
Poland
obtained almost exactly half of the 1,950,000 inhabitants, viz., 965,000, but not quite a third of the territory, i.e., only 3,214 of 10,951 square kilometres (1,241 of 4,228 mi²).[13] This, however, comprised by far the more valuable portion of the district. Of 61 coal mines 49½ fell to Poland, the Prussian state losing 3 mines out of 4. Of a coal output of 31,750,000 tonnes, 24,600,000 tonnes fell to Poland. All iron mines with an output of 61,000 tonnes fell to Poland.[13] Of 37 furnaces, 22 went to Poland, 15 to Germany. Of a pig-iron output of 570,000 tonnes, 170,000 tonnes remained German, and 400,000 tonnes became Polish.[13] Of 16 zinc and lead mines, which produced 233,000 tons in 1920, only 4 with an output of 44,000 tonnes remained German.[13] The main towns of Königshütte (Chorzów), Kattowitz
Kattowitz
(Katowice), and Tarnowitz
Tarnowitz
(Tarnowskie Góry) were given to Poland.[13] In the Silesian territory that Poland
Poland
regained, the Germans were a significant minority. Similarly, a significant minority of Poles (about half a million Poles) was still left on the German side, most of them in Oppeln (Opole).[2] In order to mitigate the hardships likely to arise from the partition of a district that was essentially an economic unit, it was decided, on the recommendation of the Council of the League of Nations, that German and Polish delegates, under a chairman appointed by the Council of the League, should draw up economic regulations as well as a statute for the protection of minorities, which were to have a duration of fifteen years.[13] Special
Special
measures were threatened in the event that either of the two states should refuse to participate in the drawing up of such regulations, or to accept them subsequently.[13] In May 1922, the League of Nations
League of Nations
issued the German-Polish Accord on East Silesia
Silesia
(also known as the Geneva Convention) intended to preserve the economic unity of the area and to guarantee minority rights. The League also set up a tribunal to arbitrate disputes. Furthermore, in response to a German complaint about the importance of Silesian coal for the German industry, Germany was given the right to import 500,000 tons per year at discounted prices.[2] Three years down the road, in 1925, when the coal agreement ended, Germany refused to import the coal, attempting to use the coal issue as a lever against Poland, trying to impose a revision of the whole Polish-German frontier.[2] Polish-German relations
Polish-German relations
worsened, as Germany also began a tariff war with Poland, but the Polish government would not yield on the border issue.[2] The last veteran of the Silesian Uprisings, Wilhelm Meisel, died in 2009 at the age of 105.[14][15] References[edit]

^ (in Polish) Ostatnie chwile odlewni Woźniaków. Zaglebie.info ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Anna M. Cienciala, THE REBIRTH OF POLAND ^ Racisms Made in Germany edited by Wulf D. Hund, Wulf Dietmar Hund, Christian Koller, Moshe Zimmermann LIT Verlag Münster 2011 page 20, 21 ^ The Ideology of Kokugo: Nationalizing Language in Modern Japan Lee Yeounsuk page 161 University of Hawaii Press 2009 ^ The Immigrant Threat: The Integration of Old and New Migrants in Western Europe since 1850 (Studies of World Migrations) Leo Lucassen page 61 University of Illinois Press page 2005 ^ MacMillan, Margaret (2001). Paris 1919. Random House. p. 219. ISBN 0-375-50826-0.  ^ "Mapy narodowościowe Górnego Śląska od połowy XIX wieku do II Wojny Światowej" Dorota Borowiecz Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego 2005 ISBN 83-229-2569-7 ^ Polish military leaders during Polish-Bolshevik War ^ Plebiscite contributions for benefit of uniting Warmia and Masuria, Spisz and Orawa, Cieszyn Silesia. Poland.pl portal ^ (in Polish) ŚLADY PRZESZŁOŚCI W MYSŁOWICACH ^ a b Watt, Richard (1979). Bitter Glory: Poland
Poland
and its Fate. Barnes and Noble. ISBN 0-7607-0997-1.  ^ Gajda, Patricia A. (1982). PostScript to Victory: British Policy and the German-Polish Borderlands 1919–1925. University Press of America. p. 69. ISBN 0-8191-2204-1.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Edmund Burke, James Dodsley, Annual Register, v. 2 – 1922, Google Print, p.179-180 (public domain text) ^ Książek, Mirosława (1 January 2009). "Wilusiowi stuknie 105 lat!" (in Polish). Retrieved 23 October 2010.  ^ "Odszedł najstarszy Ślązak" (in Polish). Nowiny: Dziennik Zachodni. 10 June 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2010.  "Wilhelm Meisel do końca cieszył się życiem, bardzo lubił towarzystwo, muzykę oraz ruch. Interesował się tym, co dzieje się w Polsce i na świecie."

Further reading[edit]

Henryk Zieliński, Rola powstania wielkopolskiego oraz powstań śląskich w walce o zjednoczenie ziem zachodnich z Polską (1918–1921), w: Droga przez Półwiecze. Rohan Butler, MA, J.P.T. Bury, MA, & M.E. Lambert (ed.), MA, Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919–1939, 1st Series, volume XI, Upper Silesia, Poland, and the Baltic States, January 1920 – March 1921, Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO), London, 1961 (amended edition 1974), ISBN 0-11-591511-7* W.N. Medlicott, MA, D.Lit., Douglas Dakin, MA, PhD, & M.E. Lambert, MA (ed.), Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919–1939, 1st Series, volume XVI, Upper Silesia, March 1921 – November 1922 HMSO, London, 1968. Dziewanowski, M. K., Poland
Poland
in the 20th century, New York: Columbia University Press, 1977. Hughes, Rupert, "Germany's Silesian Plot: Colonizing Scheme to Overcome Polish Majority in a Region Which Contains Vast Resources for Future War-Making", The New York Times, October 12, 1919.

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v t e

Silesia
Silesia
topics

History

Offensives Uprisings Wars (First, Second, Third) Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
plebiscite Treaty of Dresden Treaty of Teschen Book of Henryków Battle of Legnica Battle of Leuthen more...

Geography

Areas

Jelenia Góra valley Kłodzko Valley Lower Silesian Wilderness Obniżenie Milicko-Głogowskie Ostrava Valley Oświęcim Basin Przedgórze Sudeckie Silesian Walls Silesian Foothills Silesian Lowlands Silesian Przesieka Silesian Upland Silesian-Lusatian Lowlands Silesian-Moravian Foothills Wał Trzebnicki Zielona Góra Acclivity

Lakes

Jezioro Goczałkowickie Jezioro Otmuchowskie Jezioro Sławskie Nyskie Slezská Harta Dam

Mountains

Carpathian

Silesian Beskids Moravian-Silesian Beskids

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Eastern Central Western

Rivers

Elbe

Divoká Orlice Jizera Úpa

Oder

Barycz Bóbr Kaczawa Kłodnica Kwisa Liswarta Mała Panew Nysa Kłodzka Olza Ślęza

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Unofficial anthems

Schlesien Unvergessene Heimat Schlesierlied Slezská hymna

Other topics

Demographics Landsmannschaft Schlesien Silesian Autonomy Movement Silesians

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