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The Sikh
Sikh
Empire
Empire
(also Sikh
Sikh
Khalsa
Khalsa
Raj, Sarkar-i- Khalsa
Khalsa
or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.[4] The empire existed from 1799, when Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
captured Lahore, to 1849 and was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa
Khalsa
from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls.[5][6] At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire
Empire
extended from the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
in the west to western Tibet
Tibet
in the east, and from Mithankot
Mithankot
in the south to Kashmir
Kashmir
in the north. The religious demography of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire
Empire
was Muslim (70%), Sikh
Sikh
(17%), Hindu (13%).[7] The population was 3.5 million.[8] It was the last major region of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
to be conquered by the British. The foundations of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire
Empire
can be traced to as early as 1707, the year of Aurangzeb's death and the start of the downfall of the Mughal Empire. With the Mughals
Mughals
significantly weakened, the Sikh
Sikh
army, known as the Dal Khalsa, a rearrangement of the Khalsa
Khalsa
inaugurated by Guru Gobind Singh, led expeditions against them and the Afghans in the west. This led to a growth of the army which split into different confederacies or semi-independent misls. Each of these component armies controlled different areas and cities. However, in the period from 1762 to 1799, Sikh
Sikh
commanders of the misls appeared to be coming into their own as independent warlords. The formation of the empire began with the capture of Lahore, by Ranjit Singh, from its Afghan ruler, Zaman Shah Durrani, and the subsequent and progressive expulsion of Afghans from the Punjab, by defeating them in the Afghan- Sikh
Sikh
Wars, and the unification of the separate Sikh
Sikh
misls. Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
was proclaimed as Maharaja
Maharaja
of the Punjab
Punjab
on 12 April 1801 (to coincide with Vaisakhi), creating a unified political state. Sahib Singh Bedi, a descendant of Guru Nanak, conducted the coronation.[9] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
rose to power in a very short period, from a leader of a single misl to finally becoming the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Punjab. He began to modernise his army, using the latest training as well as weapons and artillery. After the death of Ranjit Singh, the empire was weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement. Finally, by 1849 the state was dissolved after the defeat in the Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
wars. The Sikh
Sikh
Empire
Empire
was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh
Sikh
capital, Multan, also in Punjab, Peshawar
Peshawar
and Kashmir
Kashmir
from 1799 to 1849.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 Formation of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire 1.3 Start 1.4 End of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire

2 Geography 3 Religious policy 4 Timeline 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Sources

7 Further reading 8 External links

History[edit] Background[edit] The Sikh
Sikh
religion began around the time of the conquest of Northern India
India
by Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire. His conquering grandson, Akbar the Great, supported religious freedom and after visiting the langar of Guru Amar Das
Guru Amar Das
got a favourable impression of Sikhism. As a result of his visit he donated land to the langar and the Mughals
Mughals
did not have any conflict with Sikh gurus
Sikh gurus
until his death in 1605.[10] His successor Jahangir, however, saw the Sikhs as a political threat. He ordered Guru Arjun Dev, who had been arrested for supporting the rebellious Khusrau Mirza,[11] to change the passage about Islam
Islam
in the Adi Granth. When the Guru refused, Jahangir
Jahangir
ordered him to be put to death by torture.[12] Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
Dev's martyrdom led to the sixth Guru, Guru Hargobind, declaring Sikh
Sikh
sovereignty in the creation of the Akal Takht
Akal Takht
and the establishment of a fort to defend Amritsar.[13] Jahangir
Jahangir
attempted to assert authority over the Sikhs by jailing Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
at Gwalior, but released him after a number of years when he no longer felt threatened. The Sikh
Sikh
community did not have any further issues with the Mughal empire until the death of Jahangir
Jahangir
in 1627. The succeeding son of Jahangir, Shah Jahan, took offence at Guru Hargobind's "sovereignty" and after a series of assaults on Amritsar
Amritsar
forced the Sikhs to retreat to the Sivalik Hills.[13] The next guru, Guru Har Rai, maintained the guruship in these hills by defeating local attempts to seize Sikh
Sikh
land and playing a neutral role in the power struggle between two of the sons of Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb and Dara Shikoh, for control of the Mughal Empire. The ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, moved the Sikh
Sikh
community to Anandpur and travelled extensively to visit and preach in defiance of Aurangzeb, who attempted to install Ram Rai as new guru. Guru Tegh Bahadur
Guru Tegh Bahadur
aided Kashmiri Pandits
Kashmiri Pandits
in avoiding conversion to Islam
Islam
and was arrested by Aurangzeb. When offered a choice between conversion to Islam
Islam
and death, he chose to die rather than compromise his principles and was executed.[14] Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
assumed the guruship in 1675 and to avoid battles with Sivalik Hill rajas moved the guruship to Paunta. There he built a large fort to protect the city and garrisoned an army to protect it. The growing power of the Sikh
Sikh
community alarmed the Sivalik Hill rajas who attempted to attack the city but Guru Gobind Singh's forces routed them at the Battle of Bhangani. He moved on to Anandpur and established the Khalsa, a collective army of baptised Sikhs, on 30 March 1699.[15] The establishment of the Khalsa
Khalsa
united the Sikh community against various Mughal-backed claimants to the guruship.[16] In 1701, a combined army of the Sivalik Hill rajas and the Mughals under Wazir Khan attacked Anandpur. The Khalsa
Khalsa
retreated but regrouped to defeat the Mughals
Mughals
at the Battle of Muktsar. In 1707, Guru Gobind Singh accepted an invitation by Aurangzeb's successor Bahadur Shah I to meet him. The meeting took place at Agra
Agra
on 23 July 1707.[15] In August 1708 Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
visited Nanded, the seat of Mughal Telangana Subah. There he met a Bairāgī recluse, Madho Das, and converted him to Sikhism, giving him a new name, Banda Singh.[15][17] Banda Singh Bahadur
Banda Singh Bahadur
(1670–1716; also known as Lachman Das, Lachman Dev and Madho Das[17]) met Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
at Nanded
Nanded
and adopted the Sikh
Sikh
religion. A short time before his death, Guru Gobind Singh ordered him to reconquer Punjab
Punjab
region and gave him a letter that commanded all Sikhs to join him. After two years of gaining supporters, Banda Singh Bahadur
Banda Singh Bahadur
initiated an agrarian uprising by breaking up the large estates of Zamindar families and distributing the land to the poor peasants who farmed the land.[18] Banda Singh Bahadur started his rebellion with the defeat of Mughal armies at Samana and Sadhaura
Sadhaura
and the rebellion culminated in the defeat of Sirhind. During the rebellion, Banda Singh Bahadur
Banda Singh Bahadur
made a point of destroying the cities in which Mughals
Mughals
had been cruel to the supporters of Guru Gobind Singh. He executed Wazir Khan in revenge for the deaths of Guru Gobind Singh's sons and Pir Budhu Shah after the Sikh
Sikh
victory at Sirhind.[19] He ruled the territory between the Sutlej river and the Yamuna river, established a capital in the Himalayas
Himalayas
at Lohgarh
Lohgarh
and struck coinage in the names of Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
and Guru Gobind Singh.[18] In 1716, his army was defeated by the Mughals
Mughals
after he attempted to defend his fort at Gurdas Nangal. He was captured along with 700 of his men and sent to Delhi, where they were all tortured and executed after refusing to convert to Islam.[20] Formation of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire[edit] Start[edit]

Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh

Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, leader of Sikh
Sikh
Empire.

Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
in 1830.[21]

The formal start of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire
Empire
began with the merger of these "Misls" by the time of coronation of Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
in 1801, creating a unified political state. All the Misl
Misl
leaders, who were affiliated with the army, were the nobility with usually long and prestigious family backgrounds in Sikh
Sikh
history.[5][22] The main geographical footprint of the empire was from the Punjab
Punjab
region to Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
in the west, to Kashmir
Kashmir
in the north, Sindh
Sindh
in the south, and Tibet
Tibet
in the east. The religious demography of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire
Empire
was Muslim (70%), Sikh
Sikh
(17%), Hindu (13%).[23] The population was 3.5 million, according to Amarinder Singh`s The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore
Lahore
Durbar. In 1799 Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
moved the capital to Lahore from Gujranwala, where it had been established in 1763 by his grandfather, Charat Singh.[24] End of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire[edit]

Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
holding court in 1838

After Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the empire was severely weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement. This opportunity was used by the British East India
India
Company to launch the Anglo-Sikh Wars. The Battle of Ferozeshah
Battle of Ferozeshah
in 1845 marked many turning points, the British encountered the Punjab
Punjab
Army, opening with a gun-duel in which the Sikhs "had the better of the British artillery". As the British made advances, Europeans in their army were especially targeted, as the Sikhs believed if the army "became demoralised, the backbone of the enemy's position would be broken".[25] The fighting continued throughout the night. The British position "grew graver as the night wore on", and "suffered terrible casualties with every single member of the Governor General's staff either killed or wounded".[26] Nevertheless, the British army took and held Ferozeshah. British General Sir James Hope Grant
James Hope Grant
recorded: "Truly the night was one of gloom and forbidding and perhaps never in the annals of warfare has a British Army on such a large scale been nearer to a defeat which would have involved annihilation."[26] The reasons for the withdrawal of the Sikhs from Ferozeshah are contentious. Some believe that it was treachery of the non- Sikh
Sikh
high command of their own army which led to them marching away from a British force in a precarious and battered state. Others believe that a tactical withdrawal was the best policy.[27] The Sikh
Sikh
empire was finally dissolved at the end of the Second Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War in 1849 into separate princely states and the British province of Punjab. Eventually, a Lieutenant Governorship was formed in Lahore
Lahore
as a direct representative of the British Crown. Geography[edit]

The Punjab
Punjab
was a region straddling India
India
and the Afghan Durrani Empire. The following modern-day political divisions made up the historical Sikh
Sikh
Empire:

Punjab
Punjab
till Multan
Multan
in south

parts of Panjab (Punjab), Pakistan, with the capital Lahaur (Lahore) Parts of Punjab, India Parts of Himachal Pradesh, India Jammu Division, Jammu and Kashmir, India
India
and Pakistan.

Kashmir, conquered 5 July 1819 - 15 March 1846, India/Pakistan/China[28][29]

Gilgit, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan. (Occupied from 1842 to 1846)[30] Ladakh, India

Khyber Pass, Afghanistan/Pakistan[31]

Peshawar, Pakistan[32] (taken in 1818, retaken in 1834) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan
Pakistan
(documented from Hazara (taken in 1818, again in 1836) to Bannu)[33]

Jamrud
Jamrud
District (Khyber Agency, Pakistan) was the westernmost limit of the Sikh
Sikh
Empire. The westward expansion was stopped in the Battle of Jamrud, in which the Afghans managed to kill the prominent Sikh general Hari Singh Nalwa
Hari Singh Nalwa
in an offensive, though the Sikhs successfully held their position at their Jamrud
Jamrud
fort. Ranjit Singh sent his General Sirdar Bahadur Gulab Singh
Gulab Singh
Powind thereafter as reinforcement and he crushed the Pashtun rebellion harshly.[34] In 1838, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
with his troops marched into Kabul to take part in the victory parade along with the British after restoring Shah Shoja to the Afghan throne at Kabul.[35] Religious policy[edit]

Religious policy

Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
rebuilt Harmandir Sahib
Harmandir Sahib
in marble and copper in 1809, overlaid the sanctum with gold foil in 1830. This has led to the name the Golden Temple.[36]

In 1835, Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
donated 1 tonne of gold for plating the Kashi Vishwanath Temple's dome.[37][38]

The Sikh
Sikh
Empire
Empire
was idiosyncratic in that it allowed men from religions other than their own to rise to commanding positions of authority.[39] A ban on cow slaughter, which can be related to Hindu sentiments, was universally imposed in the Sarkar Khalsaji.[40][41] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
also donated huge amounts of gold for the construction of Hindu temples not only in his state, but also in the areas which were under the control of the Marathas, with whom Sikhs had a cordial relation. The Sikhs attempted not to offend the prejudices of Muslims, noted Baron von Hügel, the Austrian botanist and explorer,[42] yet the Sikhs were described as harsh. In this regard, Masson's explanation is perhaps the most pertinent: "Though compared to the Afghans, the Sikhs were mild and exerted a protecting influence, yet no advantages could compensate to their Mohammedan subjects, the idea of subjection to infidels, and the prohibition to slay kine, and to repeat the azan, or 'summons to prayer'."[43] Timeline[edit]

1699 - Formation of the Khalsa
Khalsa
by Guru Gobind Singh. 1710–1716, Banda Singh defeats the Mughals
Mughals
and declares Khalsa
Khalsa
rule. 1716–1738, turbulence, no real ruler; Mughals
Mughals
take back the control for two decades but Sikhs engage in guerrilla warfare 1733–1735, the Khalsa
Khalsa
accepts, only to reject, the confederal status given by Mughals. 1748–1757, Afghan invasion of Ahmad Shah Durrani 1757-1761, Maratha rule with help of Sikhs 1761-1767, Recapture of Punjab
Punjab
region by Afghan in Third Battle of Panipat 1763–1774, Charat Singh
Charat Singh
Sukerchakia, Misldar of Sukerchakia
Sukerchakia
misl, establishes himself in Gujranwala. 1764–1783, Baba Baghel Singh, Misldar of Karor Singhia Misl, imposes taxes on the Mughals. 1783- Sikh
Sikh
Occupation of Delhi
Delhi
and Red Fort 1773, Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
dies and his son Timur Shah launches several invasions into Punjab. 1774–1790, Maha Singh
Maha Singh
becomes Misldar of the Sukerchakia
Sukerchakia
misl.

The Battle of Sobraon
Battle of Sobraon
in 1846. Contemporary picture

1790–1801, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
becomes Misldar of the Sukerchakia
Sukerchakia
misl. 1799, formation of the Sikh
Sikh
Khalsa
Khalsa
Army 12 April 1801 (coronation) – 27 June 1839, reign of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. 1st June 1813, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
is given the Kohinoor Diamond. 13 July 1813, Battle of Attock, the Sikh
Sikh
Empire's first significant victory over the Durrani Empire. March – 2 June 1818, Battle of Multan, the 2nd battle in the Afghan– Sikh
Sikh
wars. 3 July 1819, Battle of Shopian

The charge of the British 16th Lancers at Aliwal on 28 January 1846, during the Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
war

14 March 1823, Battle of Nowshera 30 April 1837, Battle of Jamrud 27 June 1839 – 5 November 1840, reign of Maharaja
Maharaja
Kharak Singh 5 November 1840 – 18 January 1841, Chand Kaur
Chand Kaur
is briefly Regent. 18 January 1841 – 15 September 1843, reign of Maharaja
Maharaja
Sher Singh. May 1841 – August 1842, Sino- Sikh
Sikh
war 15 September 1843 – 31 March 1849, reign of Maharaja
Maharaja
Duleep Singh. 1845–1846, First Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War. 1848–1849, Second Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War.

Preceded by Durrani Empire Sikh
Sikh
Empire 1799–1849 Succeeded by British East India
India
Company

See also[edit]

Sikhism
Sikhism
portal Punjab
Punjab
portal India
India
portal Pakistan
Pakistan
portal Afghanistan
Afghanistan
portal History portal

History of Afghanistan History of Pakistan History of India History of Punjab Kapurthala State Aurangzeb Maratha Empire Mughal Empire Punjab
Punjab
Army

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Fenech, Louis E. (2013). The Sikh
Sikh
Zafar-namah of Guru Gobind Singh: A Discursive Blade in the Heart of the Mughal Empire. Oxford University Press (USA). p. 239. ISBN 978-0199931453. We see such acquaintance clearly within the Sikh
Sikh
court of Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, for example, the principal language of which was Persian.  ^ Grewal, J.S. (1990). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. p. 107. ISBN 0 521 63764 3. Retrieved 15 April 2014.  ^ Satinder Singh, Raja Gulab Singh's Role 1971, pp. 46-50. ^ "Ranjit Singh: A Secular
Secular
Sikh
Sikh
Sovereign by K.S. Duggal. ''(Date:1989. ISBN 8170172446'')". Exoticindiaart.com. 3 September 2015. Retrieved 2009-08-09.  ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, (Edition: Volume V22, Date: 1910–1911), Page 892. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). The Sikhs of the Punjab, Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 63764 3.  ^ "Ranjit Singh: A Secular
Secular
Sikh
Sikh
Sovereign by K.S. Duggal. ''(Date:1989. ISBN 81-7017-244-6'')". Exoticindiaart.com. 1 February 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009.  ^ Amarinder Singh`s The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore Durbar ^ The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism, section Sāhib Siṅgh Bedī, Bābā (1756–1834). ^ Kalsi 2005, pp. 106–107 ^ Markovits 2004, p. 98 ^ Melton, J. Gordon (Jan 15, 2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History. ABC-CLIO. p. 1163. Retrieved Nov 3, 2014.  ^ a b Jestice 2004, pp. 345–346 ^ Johar 1975, pp. 192–210 ^ a b c Ganda Singh. "Gobind Singh Guru (1666-1708)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 11 August 2014.  ^ Jestice 2004, pp. 312–313 ^ a b "Banda Singh Bahadur". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 May 2013.  ^ a b Singh 2008, pp. 25–26 ^ Nesbitt 2005, p. 61 ^ Singh, Kulwant (2006). Sri Gur Panth Prakash: Episodes 1 to 81. Institute of Sikh
Sikh
Studies. p. 415. ISBN 9788185815282.  ^ Miniature painting from the photo album of princely families in the Sikh
Sikh
and Rajput territories by Colonel James Skinner (1778–1841) ^ "MAHARAJAH RANJIT SINGH … - Online Information article about MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH". Encyclopedia.jrank.org. Retrieved 9 August 2009.  ^ "Ranjit Singh: A Secular
Secular
Sikh
Sikh
Sovereign by K.S. Duggal. ''(Date:1989. ISBN 81-7017-244-6'')". Exoticindiaart.com. 1 February 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009.  ^ World and Its Peoples: Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Marshall Cavendish. 2007. p. 411. ISBN 9780761475712.  ^ Ranjit Singh: administration and British policy, (Prakash, p.31-33) ^ a b Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, the last to lay arms, (Duggal, p.136-137) ^ Frasier, G.M. (1990) Flashman and the Mountain of Light, Harper-Collins, London ^ The Masters Revealed, (Johnson, p. 128) ^ Britain and Tibet
Tibet
1765–1947, (Marshall, p.116) ^ Ben Cahoon. " Pakistan
Pakistan
Princely States". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 9 August 2009.  ^ The Khyber Pass: A History of Empire
Empire
and Invasion, (Docherty, p.187) ^ The Khyber Pass: A History of Empire
Empire
and Invasion, (Docherty, p.185-187) ^ Bennett-Jones, Owen; Singh, Sarina, Pakistan
Pakistan
& the Karakoram Highway Page 199 ^ Hastings Donnan, Marriage Among Muslims: Preference and Choice in Northern Pakistan, (Brill, 1997), 41.[1] ^ Encyclopædia Britannica - Ranjit Singh ^ Trudy Ring, Noelle Watson & Paul Schellinger 2012, pp. 28-29. ^ Matthew Atmore Sherring (1868). The Sacred City of the Hindus: An Account of Benares in Ancient and Modern Times. Trübner & co. p. 51.  ^ Madhuri Desai (2007). Resurrecting Banaras: Urban Space, Architecture and Religious Boundaries. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-549-52839-5.  ^ Kartar Singh Duggal (1 January 2001). Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. pp. 125–126. ISBN 978-81-7017-410-3. ^ Lodrick, D.O. 1981. Sacred Cows, Sacred Places. Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 145 ^ Vigne, G.T., 1840. A Personal Narrative of a Visit to Ghuzni, Kabul, and Afghanistan, and a Residence at the Court of Dost Mohammed…, London: Whittaker and Co. p. 246 The Real Ranjit Singh; by Fakir Syed Waheeduddin, published by Punjabi University, ISBN 81-7380-778-7, 1 Jan 2001, 2nd ed. ^ Hügel, Baron (1845) 2000. Travels in Kashmir
Kashmir
and the Panjab, containing a Particular Account of the Government and Character of the Sikhs, tr. Major T.B. Jervis. rpt, Delhi: Low Price Publications, p. 151 ^ Masson, Charles. 1842. Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Panjab, 3 v. London: Richard Bentley (1) 37

Sources[edit]

Heath, Ian (2005), The Sikh
Sikh
Army 1799-1849, Osprey Publishing (UK), ISBN 1-84176-777-8  Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2005), Sikhism, Religions of the World, Chelsea House Publications, ISBN 978-0-7910-8098-6  Markovits, Claude (2004), A history of modern India, 1480-1950, London, England: Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1-84331-152-2  Jestice, Phyllis G. (2004), Holy people of the world: a cross-cultural encyclopedia, Volume 3, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-57607-355-1  Johar, Surinder Singh (1975), Guru Tegh Bahadur, University of Wisconsin--Madison Center for South Asian Studies, ISBN 81-7017-030-3  Singh, Pritam (2008), Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab
Punjab
Economy, Routledge, pp. 25–26, ISBN 978-0-415-45666-1  Nesbitt, Eleanor (2005), Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, USA, p. 61, ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7 

Further reading[edit]

Volume 2: Evolution of Sikh
Sikh
Confederacies (1708–1769), By Hari Ram Gupta. (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. Date: 1999, ISBN 81-215-0540-2, 383 pages, illustrated). The Sikh
Sikh
Army (1799–1849) (Men-at-arms), By Ian Heath. (Date: 2005, ISBN 1-84176-777-8). The Heritage of the Sikhs By Harbans Singh. (Date: 1994, ISBN 81-7304-064-8). Sikh
Sikh
Domination of the Mughal Empire. (Date: 2000, Second Edition. ISBN 81-215-0213-6). The Sikh
Sikh
Commonwealth or Rise and Fall of Sikh
Sikh
Misls. (Date: 2001, revised edition. ISBN 81-215-0165-2). Maharaja
Maharaja
Ranjit Singh, Lord of the Five Rivers, By Jean-Marie Lafont. (Oxford University Press. Date: 2002, ISBN 0-19-566111-7). History of Panjab, By Dr L. M. Joshi and Dr Fauja Singh.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sikh
Sikh
Empire.

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Kingdom of Ranjit Singh Battle of Jamrud

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Sikh
War

Battle of Mudki Battle of Ferozeshah Battle of Aliwal Battle of Sobraon

Second Anglo- Sikh
Sikh
War

Battle of Ramnagar Battle of Chillianwala Siege of Multan Battle of Gujrat

Adversaries

Mughal Empire Emirate of Afghanistan British Empire

Forts

Dallewal Fort Jamrud
Jamrud
Fort Multan
Multan
Fort Harkishangarh Sumergarh Uri Fort Lahore
Lahore
Fort

v t e

Empires

Ancient

Akkadian Egyptian Assyrian Babylonian Carthaginian Chinese

Qin Han Jin Northern Wei Tang

Hellenistic

Macedonian Seleucid

Hittite Indian

Nanda Maurya Satavahana Shunga Gupta Harsha

Iranian

Elamite Median Achaemenid Parthian Sasanian

Kushan Mongol

Xianbei Xiongnu

Roman

Western Eastern

Teotihuacan

Post-classical

Arab

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Fatimid Córdoba

Aragonese Angevin Aztec Benin Bornu Bruneian Bulgarian

First Second

Byzantine

Nicaea Trebizond

Carolingian Chinese

Sui Tang Song Yuan

Ethiopian

Zagwe Solomonic

Georgian Hunnic Inca Indian

Chola Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Eastern Ganga dynasty Delhi Vijayanagara

Iranian

Samanid

Kanem Khmer Latin Majapahit Malaccan Mali Mongol

Yuan Golden Horde Chagatai Khanate Ilkhanate

Moroccan

Idrisid Almoravid Almohad Marinid

North Sea Oyo Roman Serbian Somali

Ajuran Ifatite Adalite Mogadishan Warsangali

Songhai Srivijaya Tibetan Turko-Persian

Ghaznavid Great Seljuk Khwarezmian Timurid

Vietnamese

Ly Tran Le

Wagadou

Modern

Ashanti Austrian Austro-Hungarian Brazilian Central African Chinese

Ming Qing China Manchukuo

Ethiopian French

First Second

German

First/Old Reich Second Reich Third Reich

Haitian

First Second

Indian

Maratha Sikh Mughal British Raj

Iranian

Safavid Afsharid

Japanese Johor Korean Mexican

First Second

Moroccan

Saadi Alaouite

Russian USSR Somali

Gobroon Majeerteen Hobyo Dervish

Swedish Tongan Turkish

Ottoman Karaman Ramazan

Vietnamese

Tay Son Nguyen Vietnam

Colonial

American Belgian British

English

Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Omani Norwegian Portuguese Spanish Swedish

Lists

Empires

largest

ancient great powers medieval great powers m

.