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SIGMARINGEN is a town in southern Germany
Germany
, in the state of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
. Situated on the upper Danube
Danube
, it is the capital of the Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
district .

Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
is renowned for its castle, Schloss Sigmaringen , which was the seat of the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1850 and is still owned by the Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
family.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory and early history * 2.2 Middle Ages

* 2.3 Modern times

* 2.3.1 Vichy French enclave (1944–1945)

* 3 Religions * 4 Transportation infrastructure * 5 Notable residents * 6 People who worked locally * 7 Sons and daughters of the town * 8 Bibliography * 9 References * 10 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
lies in the Danube
Danube
valley, surrounded by wooded hills in the south of the Swabian Alb around 40 km away from Lake Constance .

The surrounding towns are on the north, Winterlingen (in the district of Zollernalb) and Veringenstadt , on the east, Bingen , Sigmaringendorf , and Scheer , on the south, Mengen , Krauchenwies , Inzigkofen , and Meßkirch , and on the west, Leibertingen , Beuron , and Stetten am kalten Markt . The city is made up from the following districts: Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
(inner-city), Gutenstein , Jungnau , Laiz , Oberschmeien and Unterschmeien.

HISTORY

Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
was first documented in 1077 and was in the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1850, after which it became the Prussian Province of Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
.

PREHISTORY AND EARLY HISTORY

The history of settlement in the territory of the present town Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
dates back to the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
.

MIDDLE AGES

In the 11th century, the end of the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
, the first castle was built on the rock that protected the valley. The first written reference is from 1077, when King Rudolf of Rheinfelden tried in vain to conquer Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
castle. The official city foundation was in 1250. In 1325 the city was sold to Ulrich III, Count of Württemberg . In 1460 and 1500, the castle was rebuilt into a chateau. About the county of Werdenberg Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
came in 1535 to the high noble family of the Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
.

MODERN TIMES

In 1632 the Swedes
Swedes
occupied the castle during the Thirty Years\' War . From 1806 to 1849 Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
was the capital of the sovereign Principality
Principality
Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
and residence of the princes of Hohenzollern. As a result of the Revolution in Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
of 1848, the Princes of Hechingen
Hechingen
and Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
waived on their rule, whereby both principalities in 1850 fell to Prussia
Prussia
. From 1850 to 1945 Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
was the seat of Prussian Government for the Province of Hohenzollern. Karl Anton von Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
was 1858-1862 Prime Minister of Prussia. From 1914 to 1918 around 150 men from the town lost their lives during World War I
World War I
. In the Nazi era a Gestapo
Gestapo
office was in Sigmaringen. Since 1937 it belonged to the Gestapo
Gestapo
Stuttgart
Stuttgart
.

Between 1934 and 1942 more than 100 men were sterilized because of "hereditary diseases". During the Nazi medical murders, the "T4 ", became on 12 December 1940 for the first time 71 mentally handicapped and mentally ill patients victims of Nazi injustice. The deportation led them into the Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre , where the men and women were murdered as "unworthy of life". After the closure of Grafeneck in December 1940, on 14 March 1941 a further deportation to the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre was made.

Vichy French Enclave (1944–1945)

The Castle of Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen

On September 7, 1944, following the Allied invasion of France
France
, Philippe Pétain and members of the Vichy government cabinet were relocated to Germany. A city-state ruled by the government in exile headed by Fernand de Brinon was established at Sigmaringen. There were three embassies in the city-state, representing each of Vichy-France's allies: Germany, Italy , and Japan . French writers Louis-Ferdinand Céline , Lucien Rebatet and Roland Gaucher , fearing for their lives because of their political and anti-Semitic writings, fled along with the Vichy government to Sigmaringen. Céline's novel D'un château l'autre (English: Castle to Castle ) describes the fall of Sigmaringen. The city was taken by Free French
Free French
forces on April 22, 1945. Pétain returned voluntarily to France, where he stood trial for treason.

See also Commission gouvernementale de Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
(fr).

RELIGIONS

The following religions are present in Sigmaringen:

* Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
* Evangelische Landeskirche in Württemberg * Evangelische Militärkirchengemeinde * Freie Christengemeinde * Jehovah\'s Witnesses * New Apostolic Church

TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE

Three railways meet in Sigmaringen, the Danube
Danube
Valley Railway leading from Donaueschingen to Ulm
Ulm
, the Tübingen–Sigmaringen railway from Tübingen
Tübingen
to Aulendorf , and the line operated by the Hohenzollerische Landesbahn from Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
to Hechingen
Hechingen
.

Public transport is organized by Verkehrsverbund Neckar-Alb-Donau (NALDO).

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
was the birthplace of Saint Fidelis of Sigmaringen , a Roman Catholic martyr of the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
in Switzerland, and Ferdinand of Romania , King of Romania
Romania
. It was one of the residences of deceased Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , the late representative of the house, who was the first in the line of succession to the throne of Romania, by Salic law. Frederick Miller , founder of the Miller Brewing Company , was living in Sigmaringen during the start of his brewing career. The German politician Christian Rehm lived here during his youth.

PEOPLE WHO WORKED LOCALLY

* Louis-Ferdinand Céline (1894–1961), pro nazi and antisemitic French writer, fled in 1944 to Sigmaringen, as well as the Vichy government had been housed there. * Lucien Rebatet (1903–1972), pro nazi and anti-semitic French writer, fled in 1944 to Sigmaringen, as well as the Vichy government had been housed there. * Winfried Kretschmann (born 1948), politician, Minister President of Baden-Württemberg, (The Greens), lives in the district of Laiz

SONS AND DAUGHTERS OF THE TOWN

* Richard Lauchert (1825–1868), painter and professor * Theodor Bilharz (1825–1862), physician and scientist * Max Giese (1879–1935), contractor, inventor of the concrete pump * Josef Henselmann (1898–1987), sculptor and longtime head of the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich * Johann Georg of Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
(1932–2016), art historian and museum director * Karl Lehmann (born 1936), Cardinal and Bishop of Mainz, from 1987 to 2008 chairman of the German Bishops' Conference * Lothar Späth (1937–2016), politician (CDU), former Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg * Matthias Endres (born 1969), physician * Pascal Wehrlein
Pascal Wehrlein
(born 1994), Formula 1
Formula 1
racing driver

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Martin Mauthner. Otto Abetz and His Paris Acolytes - French Writers Who Flirted with Fascism, 1930–1945. (Sussex Academic Press, 2016). ISBN 978-1-84519-784-1

REFERENCES

* ^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016". Statistisches Bundesamt (in German). 2016. * ^ name="Stadtporträt" * ^ Bericht in der Chronik des Kloster Petershausen: Von dort zog König Rudolf von Schwaben nach Burg Sigimaringin und belagerte sie. Als er aber erfuhr, dass König Heinrich IV. mit einem Heer über die Alpenpässe herannahte, um die Festung zu entsetzen, zog er ab und ging nach Sachsen. * ^ Ingrid Bauz, Sigrid Brueggemann, Roland Maier (eds.)