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Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Situated on the upper Danube, it is the capital of the Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
district. Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
is renowned for its castle, Schloss Sigmaringen, which was the seat of the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
until 1850 and is still owned by the Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
family.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Prehistory and early history 2.2 Middle Ages 2.3 Modern times

2.3.1 Vichy French enclave (1944–1945)

3 Religions 4 Transportation infrastructure 5 Notable residents 6 People who worked locally 7 Sons and daughters of the town 8 Bibliography 9 References 10 External links

Geography[edit] Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
lies in the Danube
Danube
valley, surrounded by wooded hills in the south of the Swabian Alb
Swabian Alb
around 40 km away from Lake Constance. The surrounding towns are on the north, Winterlingen
Winterlingen
(in the district of Zollernalb) and Veringenstadt, on the east, Bingen, Sigmaringendorf, and Scheer, on the south, Mengen, Krauchenwies, Inzigkofen, and Meßkirch, and on the west, Leibertingen, Beuron, and Stetten am kalten Markt. The city is made up from the following districts: Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
(inner-city), Gutenstein, Jungnau, Laiz, Oberschmeien and Unterschmeien. History[edit] Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
was first documented in 1077 and was in the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
until 1850, after which it became the Prussian Province of Hohenzollern. Prehistory and early history[edit] The history of settlement in the territory of the present town Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
dates back to the Paleolithic.[2] Middle Ages[edit] In the 11th century, the end of the Early Middle Ages, the first castle was built on the rock that protected the valley. The first written reference[3] is from 1077, when King Rudolf of Rheinfelden tried in vain to conquer Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
castle. The official city foundation was in 1250. In 1325 the city was sold to Ulrich III, Count of Württemberg. In 1460 and 1500, the castle was rebuilt into a chateau. About the county of Werdenberg Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
came in 1535 to the high noble family of the Hohenzollern. Modern times[edit] In 1632 the Swedes
Swedes
occupied the castle during the Thirty Years' War. From 1806 to 1849 Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
was the capital of the sovereign Principality
Principality
Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
and residence of the princes of Hohenzollern. As a result of the Revolution in Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
of 1848, the Princes of Hechingen
Hechingen
and Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
waived on their rule, whereby both principalities in 1850 fell to Prussia. From 1850 to 1945 Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
was the seat of Prussian Government for the Province of Hohenzollern. Karl Anton von Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
was 1858-1862 Prime Minister of Prussia. From 1914 to 1918 around 150 men from the town lost their lives during World War I. In the Nazi era a Gestapo
Gestapo
office was in Sigmaringen. Since 1937 it belonged to the Gestapo
Gestapo
Stuttgart.[4] Between 1934 and 1942 more than 100 men were sterilized because of "hereditary diseases". During the Nazi medical murders, the "T4", became on 12 December 1940 for the first time 71 mentally handicapped and mentally ill patients victims of Nazi injustice. The deportation led them into the Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre, where the men and women were murdered as "unworthy of life".[5] After the closure of Grafeneck in December 1940, on 14 March 1941 a further deportation to the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre
Hadamar Euthanasia Centre
was made. Vichy French enclave (1944–1945)[edit]

The Castle of Sigmaringen

On September 7, 1944, following the Allied invasion of France, Philippe Pétain
Philippe Pétain
and members of the Vichy government cabinet were relocated to Germany. A city-state ruled by the government in exile headed by Fernand de Brinon was established at Sigmaringen. There were three embassies in the city-state, representing each of Vichy-France's allies: Germany, Italy, and Japan. French writers Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Lucien Rebatet
Lucien Rebatet
and Roland Gaucher, fearing for their lives because of their political and anti-Semitic writings, fled along with the Vichy government to Sigmaringen. Céline's novel D'un château l'autre (English: Castle to Castle) describes the fall of Sigmaringen. The city was taken by Free French forces on April 22, 1945. Pétain returned voluntarily to France, where he stood trial for treason. See also Commission gouvernementale de Sigmaringen (fr). Religions[edit] The following religions are present in Sigmaringen:[citation needed]

Roman Catholic Church Evangelische Landeskirche in Württemberg Evangelische Militärkirchengemeinde Freie Christengemeinde Jehovah's Witnesses New Apostolic Church

Transportation infrastructure[edit] Three railways meet in Sigmaringen, the Danube
Danube
Valley Railway leading from Donaueschingen
Donaueschingen
to Ulm, the Tübingen–Sigmaringen railway
Tübingen–Sigmaringen railway
from Tübingen
Tübingen
to Aulendorf, and the line operated by the Hohenzollerische Landesbahn from Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
to Hechingen. Public transport is organized by Verkehrsverbund Neckar-Alb-Donau (NALDO)[6][better source needed]. Notable residents[edit] Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
was the birthplace of Saint Fidelis of Sigmaringen, a Roman Catholic martyr of the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
in Switzerland, and Ferdinand of Romania, King of Romania. It was one of the residences of deceased Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, the late representative of the house, who was the first in the line of succession to the throne of Romania, by Salic law. Frederick Miller, founder of the Miller Brewing Company, was living in Sigmaringen during the start of his brewing career. People who worked locally[edit]

Louis-Ferdinand Céline
Louis-Ferdinand Céline
(1894–1961), pro-Nazi and antisemitic French writer, fled in 1944 to Sigmaringen, as well as the Vichy government had been housed there. Lucien Rebatet
Lucien Rebatet
(1903–1972), pro-Nazi and antisemitic French writer, fled in 1944 to Sigmaringen, as well as the Vichy government had been housed there. Winfried Kretschmann
Winfried Kretschmann
(born 1948), politician, Minister-President of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
(The Greens), lives in the district of Laiz.

Sons and daughters of the town[edit]

Richard Lauchert
Richard Lauchert
(1825–1868), painter and professor Theodor Bilharz
Theodor Bilharz
(1825–1862), physician and scientist Max Giese (1879–1935), contractor, inventor of the concrete pump Josef Henselmann (1898–1987), sculptor and longtime head of the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich Johann Georg of Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
(1932–2016), art historian and museum director Karl Lehmann
Karl Lehmann
(born 1936), Cardinal and Bishop of Mainz, from 1987 to 2008 chairman of the German Bishops' Conference Lothar Späth
Lothar Späth
(1937–2016), politician (CDU), former Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg Matthias Endres (born 1969), physician Pascal Wehrlein
Pascal Wehrlein
(born 1994), Formula 1
Formula 1
racing driver

Bibliography[edit]

Martin Mauthner. Otto Abetz and His Paris Acolytes - French Writers Who Flirted with Fascism, 1930–1945. (Sussex Academic Press, 2016). ISBN 978-1-84519-784-1

References[edit]

^ "Gemeinden in Deutschland nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und Postleitzahl am 30.09.2016". Statistisches Bundesamt
Statistisches Bundesamt
(in German). 2016.  ^ name="Stadtporträt" ^ Bericht in der Chronik des Kloster Petershausen: Von dort zog König Rudolf von Schwaben nach Burg Sigimaringin und belagerte sie. Als er aber erfuhr, dass König Heinrich IV. mit einem Heer über die Alpenpässe herannahte, um die Festung zu entsetzen, zog er ab und ging nach Sachsen. ^ Ingrid Bauz, Sigrid Brueggemann, Roland Maier (eds.). The secret police in Württemberg and Hohenzollern. Stuttgart
Stuttgart
2013, ISBN 3-89657-138-9, p 90ff. ^ Thomas Stöckle, Grafeneck 1940. The euthanasia crimes in East Germany. 2nd Edition. Silberburg-Verlag, Tübingen
Tübingen
2005, ISBN 3-87407-507-9. Thomas Stöckle, head of Memorial in Grafeneck emphasizes that these are preliminary. Basis of the figures are statistical material from the Grafeneck process of 1949 and reports of the individual dispensing stations ^ de:Verkehrsverbund Neckar-Alb-Donau

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sigmaringen, Germany.

Official website Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
castle Erster Farbfotos aus Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
1936

v t e

Swabian Circle
Swabian Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire

Ecclesiastical

Augsburg Constance Ellwangen Kempten Lindau

Secular

Baden Buchau Heiligenberg Hohenzollern-Hechingen Klettgau Liechtenstein Tengen Waldburg

Scheer Trauchburg Waldsee Wolfegg Wurzach Zeil

Württemberg

Prelates

Baindt Buchau Elchingen Gengenbach Gutenzell Heggbach Irsee Kaisheim Mainau Marchtal Neresheim Ochsenhausen Petershausen Roggenburg Rot Rottenmünster Salmanweiler St. George's in Isny Schussenried Söflingen Ursberg Weingarten Weißenau Wettenhausen Zwiefalten

Counts Lords

Altshausen Baar Bondorf Eberstein Eglingen Eglofs Fugger

Jakob Johann Markus

Gundelfingen Gutenstein Hausen Heiligenberg Hohenems Hohengeroldseck Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Justingen Kinzigerthal Königsegg and Aulendorf Lustenau Meßkirch Mindelheim
Mindelheim
/ Schwabegg Oberdischingen Öttingen

Baldern Öttingen Wallerstein

Rechberg Rothenfels and Stauffen Stühlingen
Stühlingen
and Hohenhöwen Tettnang
Tettnang
/ Langenargen Thannhausen Wiesensteig

Cities

Aalen Augsburg Biberach Bopfingen Buchau Buchhorn Dinkelsbühl Eßlingen Gengenbach Giengen Heilbronn Isny Kaufbeuren Kempten Leutkirch Lindau Memmingen Nördlingen Offenburg Pfullendorf Ravensburg Reutlingen Rottweil Schwäbisch Gmünd Schwäbisch Hall Überlingen Ulm Wangen Weil Wimpfen Zell

Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

Towns and municipalities in Sigmaringen

Bad Saulgau Beuron Bingen Gammertingen Herbertingen Herdwangen-Schönach Hettingen Hohentengen Illmensee Inzigkofen Krauchenwies Leibertingen Mengen Messkirch Neufra Ostrach Pfullendorf Sauldorf Scheer Schwenningen Sigmaringen Sigmaringendorf Stetten am kalten Markt Veringenstadt Wald

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 150116825 LCCN: n82055268 GND: 4054930-6 BNF:

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