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The Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
(Spanish  [ˈsjera ˈmaðɾe oɾjenˈtal] (help·info)) is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico. The Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges (cordillera) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America
South America
and Antarctica.

Contents

1 Setting 2 Highest major summits 3 Ecology

3.1 Flora 3.2 Fauna 3.3 Threats and conservation

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Setting[edit] Spanning 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) the Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
runs from the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
on the border between Coahuila
Coahuila
and Texas
Texas
south through Nuevo León, southwest Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, and Hidalgo to northern Puebla, where it joins with the east-west running Eje Volcánico Transversal
Eje Volcánico Transversal
of central Mexico. The northernmost are the Sierra del Burro and the Sierra del Carmen
Sierra del Carmen
which reach the border with the United States at the Rio Grande. North of the Rio Grande, the range continues northwestward into Texas
Texas
and beyond as the Davis and Guadalupe Ranges. Mexico's Gulf Coastal Plain
Gulf Coastal Plain
lies to the east of the range, between the mountains and the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
coast. The Mexican Plateau, which averages 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) in elevation, lies between the Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
and the Sierra Madre Occidental
Sierra Madre Occidental
further west. The climate of the Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
is drier than the rainforest areas further south.

The Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
in Hidalgo state.

Highest major summits[edit] The highest point is Cerro San Rafael, at 3,700 metres (12,100 ft) above sea level, is the highest point of the Sierra Madre Oriental and the state of Coahuila
Coahuila
and the second in Mexico
Mexico
in isolation.[1][2]

The Highest Major Mountain Peaks of Sierra Madre Oriental

Rank Mountain Peak State Mountain Range Elevation Prominence Isolation

1 Cerro San Rafael[3] PB  Coahuila Sierra Madre Oriental 3700.0003700 m 12,139 feet 1855.0001855 m 6,086 feet 00627.58628 km 390 miles

2 Sierra de la Marta[4] PB  Coahuila  Nuevo León Sierra Madre Oriental 3700.0003700 m 12,139 feet 0000.000NA 00607.30607 km 377 miles

3 Cerro el Potosí
Cerro el Potosí
PB  Nuevo León Sierra Madre Oriental 3700.0003700 m 12,139 feet 1380.0001380 m 4,528 feet 00570.41570 km 354 miles

Ecology[edit] This long range of tall mountains is noted for its abundant biodiversity and large number of endemic species of plants and wildlife, from the dry north to the wetter south. The Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests are found at high elevations in the range (1,000–3,500 m or 3,300–11,500 ft above sea level).[5] To the east, the Tamaulipan matorral
Tamaulipan matorral
occupies the range's lower slopes in Nuevo León
Nuevo León
and northern Tamaulipas, while the Veracruz moist forests cover the lower slopes of the central range, and the eastern slopes at the southern end of the range are home to the Veracruz montane forests. West of the range, the Mexican Plateau
Mexican Plateau
is home to deserts and xeric shrublands, including the Chihuahuan Desert
Chihuahuan Desert
to the north, the Meseta Central matorral on the central part of the plateau, and the Central Mexican matorral
Central Mexican matorral
on the southern plateau. Much of the wildlife can also be found in the Sierra Madre Occidental, which runs parallel to these mountains along western Mexico. Flora[edit] Pine-oak forests are dominated by several species of pine, such as Pinus nelsonii, P. cembroides, P. pseudostrobus, and P. arizonica, and oak, such as Quercus castanea and Q. affinis.[5] Matorral is characterized by woody shrubs, small trees, cacti, and succulents. Montane chaparral is found above 1,700 m (5,600 ft) and is home to species in the genera Quercus, Arbutus, Yucca, Cercocarpus
Cercocarpus
and Bauhinia. Piedmont scrub occurs below 2,000 m (6,600 ft) and is composed of plants 3 to 5 m (9.8 to 16.4 ft) in height such as Helietta parvifolia, Neopringlea integrifolia and Acacia spp.[6] The canopy of moist forests is dominated by trees up to 30 m (98 ft) in height, including Brosimum alicastrum, Manilkara zapota, Celtis monoica, Bursera simaruba, Dendropanax arboreus, and Sideroxylon capiri.[7] Fauna[edit] Birds of the forest include the Mexican chickadee, Montezuma quail, Strickland's woodpecker, zone-tailed hawk and several species of jay. Pine-oak forests in Coahuila
Coahuila
are part of the migration route of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).[5] Threats and conservation[edit] Original habitats have been severely reduced by clearance for livestock grazing and logging over hundreds of years. Protected areas include the Cumbres de Monterrey National Park
Cumbres de Monterrey National Park
in Mexico
Mexico
and the Big Bend National Park in Texas. The El Cielo Biosphere
El Cielo Biosphere
in Tamaulipas preserves the northernmost tropical Veracruz moist forests in Mexico and extensive temperate cloud forests.[8] See also[edit]

Mountain peaks of Mexico

References[edit]

^ "Cerro San Rafael - Peakbagger.com". peakbagger.com. Retrieved 27 May 2016.  ^ "Sierra Madre Oriental". peakbagger.com. Retrieved 27 May 2016.  ^ The summit of Cerro San Rafael is the highest point of the Sierra Madre Oriental and the state of Coahuila. ^ The summit of Sierra de la Marta on the border with Coahuila
Coahuila
is the highest point of the state of Nuevo León. ^ a b c " Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
pine-oak forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2010-08-22.  ^ "Tamaulipan matorral". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2010-08-22.  ^ "Veracruz moist forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2010-08-22.  ^ "Gomez Farias Region and El Cielo Biosphere
El Cielo Biosphere
Reserve", "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-03-05. Retrieved 2014-12-18. , accessed 18 Dec 2014

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sierra Madre Oriental.

" Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
pine-oak forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. 

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