Siemens-Schuckertwerke
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Siemens-Schuckert (or Siemens-Schuckertwerke) was a
German German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...

German
electrical engineering company headquartered in
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Berlin
,
Erlangen Erlangen (; East Franconian East Franconian (german: Ostfränkisch), usually referred to as Franconian (') in German, is a dialect which is spoken in Franconia Franconia (german: Franken; in the Franconian dialect: ''Franggn'' rɑŋgŋ ...

Erlangen
and
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Nuremberg
that was incorporated into the
Siemens AG Siemens AG ( ) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...

Siemens AG
in 1966. Siemens Schuckert was founded in 1903 when
Siemens & Halske Siemens & Halske Aktiengesellschaft, AG (or Siemens-Halske) was a German electrical engineering company that later became part of Siemens. It was founded on 12 October 1847 as ''Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske'' by Werner von Siem ...

Siemens & Halske
acquired Schuckertwerke. Subsequently, Siemens & Halske specialized in communications engineering and Siemens-Schuckert in power engineering and pneumatic instrumentation. During
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
Siemens-Schuckert also produced aircraft. It took over manufacturing of the renowned
Protos Protos means "first," derived from the ancient Greek . Protos may also refer to: * Protos (monastic office), a monastic office at the Eastern Orthodox monastic state of Mount Athos * Protos (constructor), a former racing car constructor * Protos o ...
vehicles in 1908. In
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the company had a factory producing aircraft and other parts at
Monowitz Monowitz (also known as Monowitz-Buna, Buna and Auschwitz III) was a Nazi concentration camp and labor camp (''Arbeitslager'') run by Nazi Germany in Occupation of Poland (1939–1945), occupied Poland from 1942–1945, during World War II and th ...
near
Auschwitz The Auschwitz concentration camp () was a complex of over 40 concentration In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or ...

Auschwitz
. There was a workers camp near the factory known as
Bobrek concentration camp Bobrek was a subcamp of Monowitz concentration camp located in or near Bobrek, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, and was part of the Auschwitz concentration camp, Auschwitz concentration camp complex. It was built by Siemens-Schuckert and held ap ...
. The Siemens Schuckert logo consisted of an S with a smaller S superimposed on the middle with the smaller S rotated left by 45 degrees.Siemens used this as a theme for their logos with absorbed companies: Siemens & Halske's logo was a large S with a small superimposed and rotated H. Others were Siemens-Apparate- und Maschinenbau (A), Siemens-Bauunion (B), Siemens-Planiawerke (P) and Siemens-Reiniger (R) The logo was used into the late 1960s, when both companies merged with the
Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG Siemens Communications was the Telecommunication, communications and information business arm of Germany, German industrial Conglomerate (company), conglomerate Siemens AG, until 2006. It was the largest division of Siemens, and had two business uni ...
to form the present-day
Siemens AG Siemens AG ( ) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...

Siemens AG
.


Aircraft

Siemens-Schuckert built a number of designs in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
and inter-war era. They also produced
aircraft engine An aircraft engine, often referred to as an aero engine, is the power component of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by ...

aircraft engine
s under the Siemens-Halske brand, which evolved into their major product line after the end of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. The company reorganized as Brandenburgische Motorenwerke, or simply Bramo, in 1936, and were later purchased in 1939 by
BMW Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, commonly referred to as BMW (), is a German multinational corporation which produces luxury vehicle A luxury car is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most def ...

BMW
to become BMW Flugmotorenbau.


WW I

Siemens-Schuckert designed a number of heavy bombers early in World War I, building a run of seven
Riesenflugzeug A ''Riesenflugzeug'' (plural ''Riesenflugzeuge'', German for "giant aircraft"), sometimes colloquially referred to in English as an R-plane, was any member of a class of large World War I Imperial Germany, German bombers, possessing at least three ...
. Intended to be used in the strategic role in long duration flights, the SSW R-series had three 150 h.p
Benz Bz.III The Benz Bz.III was a six-cylinder, water-cooled Cooling tower and water discharge of a nuclear power plant Water cooling is a method of heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms ...
engines in the cabin driving two propellers connected to a common gear-box through a combination leather-cone and centrifugal-key clutch in SSW R.I to the SSW R.VII models (the SSW R.VIII utilized four engines). In the case of engine failure, which was extremely common at the time, the bomber could continue flying on two engines while the third was repaired by the in-flight mechanic. Two transmission shafts transferred the power from the gear-box to propeller gear-boxes mounted on the wing struts. Although there were some problems with the clutch system, the gear-box proved to be reliable when properly maintained. The SSW R.1 through the SSW R.VII designs were noted for their distinctive forked fuselage. Several of these aircraft (SSW R.V through the SSW R.VII) fought on the Eastern Front. Although interesting in concept, the cost of these and the R-types from other companies was so great that the air force eventually abandoned the concept until more practical designs arrived later in the war. The first
fighter
fighter
designed at the works was the Siemens-Schuckert E.I which appeared in mid 1915, and which was the first aircraft to be powered by the Siemens-Halske Sh.I, a new
rotary
rotary
, developed by Siemens-Schuckert, in which the cylinders and the propeller rotated in opposite directions. A small number of production machines were supplied to various ''
Feldflieger Abteilung Feldflieger Abteilung (''FFA'', Field Flying Company) was the title of the pioneering field aviation units of what became the ''Luftstreitkräfte The ''Deutsche Luftstreitkräfte'' (, German Air Force)—known before October 1916 as (Imperial ...
'' to supplement supplies of the
Fokker Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a fe ...

Fokker
and Pfalz monoplane fighters used at the time mainly for escort work. The prototype SSW E.II, powered by the inline Argus AsII, crashed in June 1916, killing Franz Steffen, one of the designers of the SSW R types. By early 1916 the first generation of German monoplane fighters were outclassed by the
Nieuport 11 The Nieuport 11 (or Nieuport XI C.1 in contemporary sources), nicknamed the ''Bébé'', was a France, French World War I single seat sesquiplane fighter aircraft, designed by Gustave Delage. It was the primary aircraft that ended the Fokker Sco ...
and the
Nieuport 17 The Nieuport 17 C.1 (or Nieuport XVII C.1 in contemporary sources) was a French sesquiplane fighter designed and manufactured by the Nieuport company during World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, ...

Nieuport 17
which very quickly followed it; and Siemens-Schuckert were supplied with a captured Nieuport 17 to "study". The resulting SSW D.I was powered by the Siemens-Halske Sh.I, but was otherwise a fairly literal copy of the Nieuport 17. This aircraft was the first Siemens-Schuckert fighter to be ordered in quantity, but by the time it became available in numbers (well into 1917) it was outclassed by contemporary Albatros fighters. Development of the Sh.I engine resulted in the eleven-cylinder, 160 hp Sh.III, perhaps one of the most advanced rotary engine designs of the war. The D.I fighter also formed the basis for a series of original designs, which by the end of 1917 had reached a peak in the
Siemens-Schuckert D.III
Siemens-Schuckert D.III
, which went into limited production in early 1918, and found use in home defense units as an
interceptor Interceptor may refer to: Vehicles * Interceptor aircraft (or simply "interceptor"), a type of point defense fighter aircraft designed specifically to intercept and destroy enemy aircraft * Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor, a police car * ...
, due to its outstanding rate of climb. Further modifications improved its handling and performance to produce the
Siemens-Schuckert D.IV
Siemens-Schuckert D.IV
. Several offshoots of the design included triplanes and a parasol monoplane, but none saw production.


Inter-War Production

With the end of the war production of the D.IV continued, mainly for sales to Switzerland who flew them into the late 1920s. With the signing of the
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government ...
the next year all aircraft production in Germany was shut down. Siemens-Schuckert immediately disappeared, but Siemens-Halske continued sales of the Sh.III and started development of smaller engines for the civilian market. By the mid-1920s their rotary engines were no longer in vogue, but "non-turning" versions of the same basic mechanicals led to a series of 7-cylinder
radial engine The radial engine is a reciprocating engine, reciprocating type internal combustion engine, internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinder (engine), cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. ...

radial engine
s, the Sh.10 through Sh.14A, delivering up to 150 hp in the 14A. The Sh.14A became a best-seller in the trainer market, and over 15,000 of all the versions were eventually built. Siemens-Halske no longer had any competitive engines for the larger end of the market, and to address this they negotiated a license in 1929 to produce the 9-cylinder
Bristol Jupiter IV The Bristol Jupiter was a United Kingdom, British nine-cylinder single-row piston radial engine built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company. Originally designed late in World War I and known as the Cosmos Jupiter, a lengthy series of upgrades and de ...

Bristol Jupiter IV
. Minor changes for the German market led to the Sh.20 and Sh.21. Following the evolution of their smaller Sh.14's, the engine was then bored out to produce the 900 hp design, the Sh.22. In 1933 new engine naming was introduced by the RLM, and this design became the Sh.322, when Siemens was given the 300-block of numbers. The Sh.322 design had reliability problems and never became popular.


Bramo

The company reorganized as Bramo in 1936, and continued development of what was now their own large engine. Modifying the Sh.322 with the addition of
fuel injection Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector. This article focuses on fuel injection in reciprocating piston and rotary piston engines. All diesel ...
and a new
supercharger A supercharger is an air compressor A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. An air compressor is a specific type of gas compressor. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase ...
led to the
Bramo 323 The Bramo 323 ''Fafnir'' is a nine-cylinder radial Radial is a geometric term of location which may refer to: Mathematics and Direction * Vector (geometric), a line * Radius, adjective form of * Radial distance, a directional coordinate in a ...
''Fafnir'', which entered production in 1937. Although rather outdated in terms of design, by this time the engine had matured into a highly reliable powerplant despite its comparatively poor fuel economy, and 5,500 were produced until the lines shut down in 1944.


BMW – WW II

In design terms the 323 was basically a dead-end with little growth potential. By the start of the war its 1,000 hp was already at the low end of the performance scale, and use was limited to transports and bombers. In order to build a 1,500 hp-class engine Bramo started development of a two-row version of the engine as the
Bramo 329 Siemens-Schuckert (or Siemens-Schuckertwerke) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also ...
, mirroring similar developments at
BMW Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, commonly referred to as BMW (), is a German multinational corporation which produces luxury vehicle A luxury car is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most def ...

BMW
who were trying to scale up their
Pratt & Whitney Hornet The Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet was a widely used American aircraft engine An aircraft engine, often referred to as an aero engine, is the power component of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gain ...
into the two-row
BMW 139 Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, commonly referred to as BMW (), is a German multinational corporation which produces luxury vehicle A luxury car is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yan ...
. Design of both engines was well advanced in 1939 when BMW bought Bramo, and cancelled work on the 329 to concentrate on what would become the excellent
BMW 801 The BMW 801 was a powerful German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * ...
.


World War II

Realizing the two-row radial development was a risky proposition; Bramo engineers had also started developing
axial-flow An axial compressor is a gas compressor A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physik ...
jet engine A jet engine is a type of reaction engine A reaction engine is an engine or motor that produces thrust Thrust is a described quantitatively by . When a system expels or in one direction, the accelerated mass will cause a force of ...

jet engine
s in 1938. They were awarded a development contract to continue work on two designs, which would later become the 109-002 and 109-003 when the RLM officially started supporting jet development. The -002 used an advanced
contra-rotating Contra-rotating, also referred to as coaxial contra-rotating, is a technique whereby parts of a mechanism rotate in opposite directions about a common axis, usually to minimise the effect of torque In physics and mechanics, torque is the rot ...
compressor for added efficiency, while the -003 used a simpler compressor/stator system that remains in use in modern designs today. The -002 proved to be too complex and work on it soon ended, but the -003 showed definite promise and eventually became the BMW 003.


Monowitz

The company had a work camp near
Monowitz Monowitz (also known as Monowitz-Buna, Buna and Auschwitz III) was a Nazi concentration camp and labor camp (''Arbeitslager'') run by Nazi Germany in Occupation of Poland (1939–1945), occupied Poland from 1942–1945, during World War II and th ...
producing parts for the aircraft, and known as
Bobrek concentration camp Bobrek was a subcamp of Monowitz concentration camp located in or near Bobrek, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, and was part of the Auschwitz concentration camp, Auschwitz concentration camp complex. It was built by Siemens-Schuckert and held ap ...
. It employed ostarbeiter slave workers as well as
Auschwitz The Auschwitz concentration camp () was a complex of over 40 concentration In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or ...

Auschwitz
prisoners in its factory. The main factory to which Brobrek was attached was a site designed to make synthetic rubber and gasoline, and it was owned by IG Farben, one of the largest chemical combines in Germany during the war. It was one of numerous
Auschwitz The Auschwitz concentration camp () was a complex of over 40 concentration In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or ...

Auschwitz
sub-camps established by large German companies to supply armaments to the armed forces, and other companies included Krupp, Rheinmetal and AEG. They were all making not just small side arms such as pistols and machine guns but also large weapons like artillery as well as U-boat and aircraft parts.


List of products


Aircraft

* Siemens-Schuckert D.I * Siemens-Schuckert D.II *
Siemens-Schuckert D.III
Siemens-Schuckert D.III
*
Siemens-Schuckert D.IV
Siemens-Schuckert D.IV
* Siemens-Schuckert D.VI * Siemens-Schuckert Dr.II * Siemens-Schuckert DDr.I * Siemens-Schuckert E.I * Siemens-Schuckert R.I * Siemens-Schuckert R.II * Siemens-Schuckert R.III * Siemens-Schuckert R.IV * Siemens-Schuckert R.V * Siemens-Schuckert R.VI * Siemens-Schuckert R.VII * Siemens-Schuckert R.VIII * Siemens-Schuckert Forssman


Engines

* Siemens-Halske Sh.I * Siemens-Halske Sh.II * Siemens-Halske Sh.III * Siemens-Halske Sh 4 * Siemens-Halske Sh 5 * Siemens-Halske Sh 6 * Siemens-Halske Sh 11 * Siemens-Halske Sh 12 * Siemens-Halske Sh 13 * Siemens-Halske Sh 14 * Siemens-Halske Sh 15 * Siemens-Bramo Sh 20 * Siemens-Bramo Sh 21 * Siemens Bramo SAM 22B * Siemens Bramo 314 * Siemens Bramo 322 * Siemens Bramo 323 Fafnir * Siemens Bramo 109-003


Trains

* Siemens-Schuckert Orenstein & Koppel


Notes


References


External links

* {{Authority control Defunct aircraft manufacturers of Germany Defunct aircraft engine manufacturers of Germany Siemens Technology companies established in 1903 Manufacturing companies disestablished in 1966 Manufacturing companies established in 1903 1966 disestablishments in West Germany 1966 mergers and acquisitions German companies established in 1903 Siemens-Schuckert aircraft,