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(i)

Kingdom of Hejaz
Kingdom of Hejaz
British Empire
British Empire
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire

COMMANDERS AND LEADERS

Faisal I of Iraq
Faisal I of Iraq
Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I of Jordan
Ali of Hejaz
Ali of Hejaz
Fahreddin Pasha

STRENGTH

30,000 (1916) 50,000 (1918) 3,000 (1916) 11,000 (1918)

CASUALTIES AND LOSSES

Heavy 8,000 evacuated to Egypt
Egypt

* v * t * e

Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt

* Mecca
Mecca
* Medina * Taif * Yanbu * Aqaba * Wadi Musa * al-Samna * Megiddo * Damascus
Damascus
* Aleppo

MEDINA, an Islamic holy city in Arabia
Arabia
, underwent a long siege during World War I
World War I
. Medina
Medina
was at the time part of the Ottoman Empire . In the war, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
sided with the Central Powers
Central Powers
. Sharif Hussain of Mecca
Mecca
revolted against the caliph and the Ottoman Empire which, under the leadership of the nationalistic Young Turks
Young Turks
, had ignored the wishes of the Caliph
Caliph
and sided with the Central Powers . Hussain instead sided with the British Empire
British Empire
. T. E. Lawrence
T. E. Lawrence
was instrumental in this revolt. Hussain occupied Mecca
Mecca
and besieged Medina. It was one of the longest sieges in history that lasted till even after the end of war. Fahreddin Pasha was the defender of Medina. Some celebrated him as "the Lion of the Desert" despite the suffering of those who remained in Medina. The siege lasted two years and seven months.

CONTENTS

* 1 Events * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links

EVENTS

In June 1916 Sharif Hussain, the Hashemite
Hashemite
ruler of Mecca
Mecca
revolted against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
which, under the rule of the Young Turks
Young Turks
, had by that time begun movement towards ethnic nationalism and was marginalizing the office of the Caliph
Caliph
. Hussain wanted to move north and create an Arab
Arab
state from Yemen
Yemen
to Damascus
Damascus
and establish a Hashemite
Hashemite
Caliphate. Medina
Medina
was, at the time, deemed important in that regard and was connected to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
through a railway line. Hussain's forces besieged Medina, beginning in 1916 and lasting till January 1919.

With British support, an initial attack led by Hussein's son Feisal was launched against Medina
Medina
in October 1916; however, the Arabs were repulsed with heavy losses by the Turks, who were heavily-entrenched and armed with artillery, which the Arabs lacked. As the Arab
Arab
Revolt slowly spread northwards along the Red Sea
Red Sea
(ultimately culminating in the seizure of Aqaba ), British and Arab
Arab
strategy for capturing Medina changed, and Faisal and his advisers was determined that the Arabs would gain an advantage by leaving Medina
Medina
unoccupied; this would force the Turks to retain troops to defend Medina, and to protect the Hejaz Railway , the only means of supplying the city.

For this purpose, Nuri as-Said
Nuri as-Said
set about creating military training camps in Mecca
Mecca
under the direction of General \'Aziz \'Ali al-Misri . Using a mix of Bedouin volunteers, Arab
Arab
officers and Arab
Arab
Ottoman deserters who wanted to join the Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
, 'Aziz 'Ali created three infantry brigades, a mounted brigade, an engineering unit, and three different artillery groups made up of a patchwork of varying cannon and heavy caliber machine guns. Of his total force of 30,000, 'Aziz 'Ali proposed that it be divided into three armies:

* The Eastern Army under the command of Prince Abdullah bin Hussein would be in charge of surrounding Medina
Medina
from the east. * The Southern Army, commanded by Prince Ali bin Hussein , would ensure a cordon was formed around Medina
Medina
from the south. * The Northern Army, commanded by Prince Faisal , would form a cordon around Medina
Medina
from the north.

These armies had a mixture of British and French officers attached to them who provided technical military advice. One of these officers was T. E. Lawrence
T. E. Lawrence
.

The defending commander of the Ottoman garrison in Medina
Medina
Fahreddin Pasha was besieged by Arab
Arab
forces but tenaciously he defended the holy city. Fahreddin Pasha not only had to defend Medina
Medina
but also protect the single-track narrow gauge Hejaz Railway
Hejaz Railway
from sabotage attacks by T. E. Lawrence
T. E. Lawrence
and his Arab
Arab
forces , on which his entire logistics depended. Turkish garrisons of the isolated small train stations withstood the continuous night attacks and secured the tracks against increasing number of sabotages (around 130 major attacks in 1917 and hundreds in 1918 including exploding more than 300 bombs on 30 April 1918). Fahreddin Pasha

With the resignation of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from the war with the Armistice of Mudros
Armistice of Mudros
between Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Entente on 30 October 1918, it was expected that Fahreddin Pasha would also surrender. He refused and did not surrender even after the end of the war despite pleas from the Ottoman Sultan. He held the city until 72 days after the end of the war. After the Armistice of Moudros
Armistice of Moudros
the closest Ottoman unit was 1300 km (808 miles) away from Medina.

Eventually, his men faced starvation due to a lack of supplies and the remaining garrison including Fahreddin Pasha surrendered on 10 January 1919. Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I of Jordan
and his troops entered Medina
Medina
on 13 January 1919. After the surrender, the Arab
Arab
troops looted the city for 12 days. Overall 4,850 houses which were locked and put under seal by Fahreddin Pasha were opened forcefully and looted.

About 8,000 (519 officers and 7,545 soldiers) men of the Turkish garrison were evacuated to Egypt
Egypt
after their surrender. Besides the evacuated some died of disease and others dispersed on their own to various areas. The weapons and ammunition of the garrison were left to the besiegers.

SEE ALSO

* Abdullah I of Jordan
Abdullah I of Jordan
* Damascus
Damascus
Protocol * Battle of Mecca
Mecca
1916 * Fahreddin Pasha * Campaigns of the Arabian Revolt * Middle Eastern theatre of World War I
Middle Eastern theatre of World War I

NOTES

* ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
(1916-1918), The Encyclopedia of World War I, ABC-CLIO, 2005, ISBN 1-85109-420-2 , page 117. * ^ Mehmet Bahadir Dördüncü, Mecca-Medina: the Yıldız albums of Sultan Abdülhamid II, Tughra Books, 2006, ISBN 1-59784-054-8 , page 29 * ^ Polly a. Mohs, Military Intelligence and the Arab
Arab
Revolt: The first modern intelligence war, Routledge, ISBN 1-134-19254-1 , page 40 * ^ A B C D E F G Süleyman Beyoğlu , The end broken point of Turkish - Arabian relations: The evacuation of Medine, Atatürk Atatürk Research Centre Journal (Number 78, Edition: XXVI, November 2010) (in Turkish) * ^ Gingeras, Ryan (2016). Fall of the Sultanate: The Great War and the End of the Ottoman Empire, 1908-1922. OUP. p. 215 ISBN 0199676070 . * ^ Avi Shlaim. Lion of Jordan. page 4: Penguin Books, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-14-101728-0 . * ^ A B Mesut Uyar, Edward J. Erickson: A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Atatürk, ABC-CLIO, 2009, ISBN 0275988767 , page 253. * ^ Başbakan Erdoğan\'ın sır konuşması, Sabah, 24.03.2012 (in Turkish) * ^ Francis E. Peters: Mecca: A Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land, Princeton University Press, 1994, ISBN 069103267X , page 374.

REFERENCES

* "Medina". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2007. Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2010. (Sourced through the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
)

EXTERNAL LINKS