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Medina
Medina
(/məˈdiːnə/; Arabic: المدينة المنورة‎, al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah, "the radiant city"; or المدينة, al-Madīnah (Hejazi pronunciation: [almaˈdiːna]), "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz
Hejaz
region of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Prophet's Mosque"), which is the burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and is the second-holiest city in Islam
Islam
after Mecca. Medina
Medina
was Muhammad's destination of his Hijrah (migration) from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim
Muslim
Empire, under Muhammad's leadership. It served as the power base of Islam
Islam
in its first century where the early Muslim
Muslim
community developed. Medina is home to the three oldest mosques, namely the Quba Mosque, al-Masjid an-Nabawi,[1] and Masjid al-Qiblatayn
Masjid al-Qiblatayn
("the mosque of the two qiblas"). Muslims believe that the chronologically final surahs of the Quran
Quran
were revealed to Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina, and are called Medinan surahs in contrast to the earlier Meccan surahs.[2][3] Just like Mecca, the city center of Medina
Medina
is closed to anyone who is considered a non-Muslim, including members of the Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
movement (however, not the entire city is closed) by the national government.[4][5][6]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Religious significance in Islam 4 History

4.1 Before Islam 4.2 Muhammad's arrival

4.2.1 Battle of Badr 4.2.2 Battle of Uhud 4.2.3 Battle of the Trench

4.3 Capital city of early Islam
Islam
and the caliphate 4.4 World War I
World War I
to Saudi control 4.5 Medina
Medina
today

5 Geography 6 Climate 7 Religion 8 Economy 9 Education 10 Transport

10.1 Air 10.2 Rail 10.3 Road 10.4 Bus

11 Destruction of heritage 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

Etymology[edit] The Arabic
Arabic
word al-Madīnah (المدينة) simply means "the city". Before the advent of Islam, the city was known as Yathrib (pronounced [ˈjaθrib]; يثرب). The word Yathrib has been recorded in Surat al-Ahzab of the Quran.[Quran 33:13] Also called Taybah ([ˈtˤajba]; طيبة). An alternative name is al-Madīnah an-Nabawiyyah (المدينة النبوية) or Madīnat an-Nabī (مدينة النبي, "the city of the prophet"). Overview[edit] As of 2010[update], the city of Medina
Medina
has a population of 1,183,205.[7] Inhabitants during the pre-Islamic era Yathrib also included Jewish tribes. Later the city's name was changed to al-Madīna-tu n-Nabī or al-Madīnatu 'l-Munawwarah (المدينة المنورة "the lighted city" or "the radiant city"). Medina
Medina
is celebrated for containing al-Masjid an-Nabawi and also as the city which gave refuge to him and his followers, and so ranks as the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca.[8] Muhammad
Muhammad
was buried in Medina, under the Green Dome, as were the first two Rashidun caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar, who were buried next to him in what used to be Muhammad's house. Medina
Medina
is 210 miles (340 km) north of Mecca
Mecca
and about 120 miles (190 km) from the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast. It is situated in the most fertile part of all the Hejaz
Hejaz
territory, the streams of the vicinity tending to converge in this locality. An immense plain extends to the south; in every direction the view is bounded by hills and mountains. The historic city formed an oval, surrounded by a strong wall, 30 to 40 feet (9.1 to 12.2 m) high, dating from the 12th century CE, and was flanked with towers, while on a rock, stood a castle. Of its four gates, the Bab-al-Salam, or Egyptian gate, was remarkable for its beauty. Beyond the walls of the city, west and south were suburbs consisting of low houses, yards, gardens and plantations. These suburbs also had walls and gates. Almost all of the historic city has been demolished in the Saudi era. The rebuilt city is centred on the vastly expanded al-Masjid an-Nabawi. The graves of Fatimah
Fatimah
(Muhammad's daughter) and Hasan (Muhammad's grandson), across from the mosque at Jannat al-Baqi, and Abu Bakr (first caliph and the father of Muhammad's wife, Aisha), and of Umar ( Umar
Umar
ibn Al-Khattab), the second caliph, are also here. The mosque dates back to the time of Muhammad, but has been twice reconstructed.[9] Because of the Saudi government's religious policy and concern that historic sites could become the focus for idolatry, much of Medina's Islamic physical heritage has been altered. Religious significance in Islam[edit] Main article: Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina

The Green Dome
Green Dome
of the Prophet's Mosque

Medina's importance as a religious site derives from the presence of al-Masjid an-Nabawi. The mosque was expanded by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I. Mount Uhud
Mount Uhud
is a mountain north of Medina
Medina
which was the site of the second battle between Muslim
Muslim
and Meccan forces. The first mosque built during Muhammad's time is also located in Medina
Medina
and is known as the Quba Mosque. It was destroyed by lightning, probably about 850 CE, and the graves were almost forgotten. In 892, the place was cleared up, the graves located and a fine mosque built, which was destroyed by fire in 1257 CE and almost immediately rebuilt. It was restored by Qaitbay, the Egyptian ruler, in 1487.[9] Masjid al-Qiblatain
Masjid al-Qiblatain
is another mosque also historically important to Muslims. It is where the command was sent to Muhammad
Muhammad
to change the direction of prayer (qibla) from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Mecca
Mecca
according to a Hadith.[10] Like Mecca, the city of Medina
Medina
only permits Muslims to enter, although the haram (area closed to non-Muslims) of Medina
Medina
is much smaller than that of Mecca, with the result that many facilities on the outskirts of Medina
Medina
are open to non-Muslims, whereas in Mecca
Mecca
the area closed to non-Muslims extends well beyond the limits of the built-up area. Both cities' numerous mosques are the destination for large numbers of Muslims on their Umrah
Umrah
(second pilgrimage after Hajj). Hundreds of thousands of Muslims come to Medina
Medina
annually while performing pilgrimage Hajj. Al-Baqi'
Al-Baqi'
is a significant cemetery in Medina
Medina
where several family members of Muhammad, caliphs and scholars are buried. Islamic scriptures emphasise the sacredness of Medina. Medina
Medina
is mentioned several times as being sacred in the Quran, for example ayah; 9:101, 9:129, 59:9, and ayah 63:7. Medinan suras are typically longer than their Mecca
Mecca
counterparts. There is also a book within the hadith of Bukhari titled 'virtues of Medina'.[11] Sahih Bukhari
Sahih Bukhari
says:

Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, " Medina
Medina
is a sanctuary from that place to that. Its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins (bad deeds), then he will incur the curse of God, the angels, and all the people."

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Medina Before Islam[edit] By the fourth century, Arab
Arab
tribes began to encroach from Yemen, and there were three prominent Jewish tribes that inhabited the city into the 7th century AD: the Banu Qaynuqa, the Banu Qurayza, and Banu Nadir.[12] Ibn Khordadbeh later reported that during the Persian Empire's domination in Hejaz, the Banu Qurayza served as tax collectors for the Persian Shah.[13]

Historic Medina

The situation changed after the arrival from Yemen
Yemen
of two new Arab tribes named Banu Aus (or Banu 'Aws) and Banu Khazraj. At first, these tribes were allied with Jewish rulers, but later they revolted and became independent.[14] Toward the end of the 5th century,[15] the Jewish rulers lost control of the city to Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj. The Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
states that "by calling in outside assistance and treacherously massacring at a banquet the principal Jews", Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj
Banu Khazraj
finally gained the upper hand at Medina.[12] Most modern historians accept the claim of the Muslim
Muslim
sources that after the revolt, the Jewish tribes became clients of the Aus and the Khazraj.[16] However, according to scholar of Islam
Islam
William Montgomery Watt, the clientship of the Jewish tribes is not borne out by the historical accounts of the period prior to 627, and he maintained that the Jewish populace retained a measure of political independence.[14] Early Muslim
Muslim
chronicler Ibn Ishaq tells of a pre-Islamic conflict between the last Yemenite king of the Himyarite Kingdom[17] and the residents of Yathrib. When the king was passing by the oasis, the residents killed his son, and the Yemenite ruler threatened to exterminate the people and cut down the palms. According to Ibn Ishaq, he was stopped from doing so by two rabbis from the Banu Qurayza tribe, who implored the king to spare the oasis because it was the place "to which a prophet of the Quraysh
Quraysh
would migrate in time to come, and it would be his home and resting-place." The Yemenite king thus did not destroy the town and converted to Judaism. He took the rabbis with him, and in Mecca, they reportedly recognised the Ka'ba
Ka'ba
as a temple built by Abraham
Abraham
and advised the king "to do what the people of Mecca
Mecca
did: to circumambulate the temple, to venerate and honour it, to shave his head and to behave with all humility until he had left its precincts." On approaching Yemen, tells ibn Ishaq, the rabbis demonstrated to the local people a miracle by coming out of a fire unscathed and the Yemenites accepted Judaism.[18] Eventually the Banu Aus and the Banu Khazraj
Banu Khazraj
became hostile to each other and by the time of Muhammad's Hijra (emigration) to Medina
Medina
in 622 AD/1 AH, they had been fighting for 120 years and were the sworn enemies of each other.[19] The Banu Nadir
Banu Nadir
and the Banu Qurayza were allied with the Aus, while the Banu Qaynuqa sided with the Khazraj.[20] They fought a total of four wars.[14] Their last and bloodiest battle was the Battle of Bu'ath[14] that was fought a few years before the arrival of Muhammad.[12] The outcome of the battle was inconclusive, and the feud continued. Abd- Allah
Allah
ibn Ubayy, one Khazraj chief, had refused to take part in the battle, which earned him a reputation for equity and peacefulness. Until the arrival of Muhammad, he was the most respected inhabitant of Yathrib. To solve the ongoing feud, concerned residents of the city met secretly with Muhammad
Muhammad
in Al-Aqaba, a place between Makkah and Mina, inviting him and his small band of believers to come to Yathrib, where Muhammad
Muhammad
could serve as disinterested mediator between the factions and his community could practice its faith freely. Muhammad's arrival[edit] Main article: Hijra (Islam) Main article: Constitution of Medina In 622 AD/1 AH, Muhammad
Muhammad
and around 70 Meccan Muhajirun believers left Mecca
Mecca
for sanctuary in Yathrib, an event that transformed the religious and political landscape of the city completely; the longstanding enmity between the Aus and Khazraj tribes was dampened as many of the two Arab
Arab
tribes and some local Jews
Jews
embraced Islam. Muhammad, linked to the Khazraj through his great-grandmother, was agreed on as civic leader. The Muslim
Muslim
converts native to Yathrib of whatever background—pagan Arab
Arab
or Jewish—were called Ansar ("the Patrons" or "the Helpers"). According to Ibn Ishaq, the local pagan Arab
Arab
tribes, the Muslim Muhajirun from Mecca, the local Muslims (Ansar), and the Jewish population of the area signed an agreement, the Constitution of Medina, which committed all parties to mutual co-operation under the leadership of Muhammad. The nature of this document as recorded by Ibn Ishaq and transmitted by Ibn Hisham is the subject of dispute among modern Western historians, many of whom maintain that this "treaty" is possibly a collage of different agreements, oral rather than written, of different dates, and that it is not clear exactly when they were made. Other scholars, however, both Western and Muslim, argue that the text of the agreement—whether a single document originally or several—is possibly one of the oldest Islamic texts we possess.[21] In Yemenite Jewish sources, another treaty was drafted between Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Jewish subjects, known as kitāb ḏimmat al-nabi, written in the 17th year of the Hijra (638 CE), and which gave express liberty unto Jews
Jews
living in Arabia to observe the Sabbath
Sabbath
and to grow-out their side-locks, but were required to pay the jizya (poll-tax) annually for their protection by their patrons.[22] Battle of Badr[edit]

v t e

Campaigns of Muhammad

Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part)

Abwa Buwat Safwan Dul 1st Badr Kudr Sawiq Qaynuqa Thi Bahran Uhud Asad Nadir 2nd Nejd 2nd Badr Jandal Trench Qurayza Lahyan Mustaliq Treaty Khaybar Fadak Qura Dhat Baqra Mecca Hunayn Autas Ta'if Tabouk

Main article: Battle of Badr

Battle positions at Badr

The Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
was a key battle in the early days of Islam
Islam
and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraysh
Quraysh
in Mecca. In the spring of 624, Muhammad
Muhammad
received word from his intelligence sources that a trade caravan, commanded by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
and guarded by thirty to forty men, was travelling from Syria
Syria
back to Mecca. Muhammad
Muhammad
gathered an army of 313 men, the largest army the Muslims had put in the field yet. However, many early Muslim
Muslim
sources, including the Quran, indicate that no serious fighting was expected,[23] and the future Caliph
Caliph
Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
stayed behind to care for his sick wife. As the caravan approached Medina, Abu Sufyan began hearing from travellers and riders about Muhammad's planned ambush. He sent a messenger named Damdam to Mecca
Mecca
to warn the Quraysh
Quraysh
and get reinforcements. Alarmed, the Quraysh
Quraysh
assembled an army of 900–1,000 men to rescue the caravan. Many of the Qurayshi nobles, including Amr ibn Hishām, Walid ibn Utba, Shaiba, and Umayyah ibn Khalaf, joined the army. However, some of the army was to later return to Mecca before the battle. The battle started with champions from both armies emerging to engage in combat. The Muslims sent out Ali, Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (Obeida), and Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib. The Muslims dispatched the Meccan champions in a three-on-three mêlée, Hamzah killed his opponent with the very first strike, although Ubaydah was mortally wounded.[24] Now both armies began firing arrows at each other. Two Muslims and an unknown number of Quraysh
Quraysh
were killed. Before the battle started, Muhammad
Muhammad
had given orders for the Muslims to attack with their ranged weapons, and only engage the Quraysh
Quraysh
with melee weapons when they advanced.[25] Now he gave the order to charge, throwing a handful of pebbles at the Meccans in what was probably a traditional Arabian gesture while yelling "Defaced be those faces!"[26][27] The Muslim army yelled "Yā manṣūr amit!"[28] and rushed the Qurayshi lines. The Meccans, although substantially outnumbering the Muslims, promptly broke and ran. The battle itself only lasted a few hours and was over by the early afternoon.[26] The Quran
Quran
describes the force of the Muslim
Muslim
attack in many verses, which refer to thousands of angels descending from Heaven
Heaven
at Badr to slaughter the Quraysh.[27][29] Early Muslim
Muslim
sources take this account literally, and there are several hadith where Muhammad
Muhammad
discusses the Angel
Angel
Jibreel and the role he played in the battle. Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (Obeida) was given the honour of "he who shot the first arrow for Islam" as Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
altered course to flee the attack. In retaliation for this attack Abu Sufyan ibn Harb requested an armed force from Mecca.[30] Throughout the winter and spring of 623 other raiding parties were sent by Muhammad
Muhammad
from Medina. Battle of Uhud[edit] Main article: Battle of Uhud

Mount Uhud

In 625, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, Chieftain of the Quraish of Mecca, who paid tax to the Byzantine empire regularly, once again led a Meccan force against Medina. Muhammad
Muhammad
marched out to meet the force but before reaching the battle, about one third of the troops under Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy withdrew. With a smaller force, the Muslim
Muslim
army had to find a strategy to gain the upper hand. A group of archers were ordered to stay on a hill to keep an eye on the Meccan's cavalry forces and to provide protection at the rear of the Muslim's army. As the battle heated up, the Meccans were forced to somewhat retreat. The battle front was pushed further and further away from the archers, whom, from the start of the battle, had really nothing to do but watch. In their growing impatience to be part of the battle, and seeing that they were somewhat gaining advantage over the Kafirun (Infidels) these archers decided to leave their posts to pursue the retreating Meccans. A small party, however, stayed behind; pleading all along to the rest to not disobey their commanders' orders. But their words were lost among the enthusiastic yodels of their comrades. However, the Meccans' retreat was actually a manufactured manoeuvre that paid off. The hillside position had been a great advantage to the Muslim
Muslim
forces, and they had to be lured off their posts for the Meccans to turn the table over. Seeing that their strategy had actually worked, the Meccans cavalry forces went around the hill and re-appeared behind the pursuing archers. Thus, ambushed in the plain between the hill and the front line, the archers were systematically slaughtered, watched upon by their desperate comrades who stayed behind up in the hill, shooting arrows to thwart the raiders, but to little effect. However, the Meccans did not capitalise on their advantage by invading Medina
Medina
and returned to Mecca. The Medinans suffered heavy losses, and Muhammad
Muhammad
was injured. Battle of the Trench[edit] Main article: Battle of the Trench In 627, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
once more led Meccan forces against Medina. Because the people of Medina
Medina
had dug a trench to further protect the city, this event became known as the Battle of the Trench. After a protracted siege and various skirmishes, the Meccans withdrew again. During the siege, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
had contacted the remaining Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza and formed an agreement with them, to attack the defenders from behind the lines. It was however discovered by the Muslims and thwarted. This was in breach of the Constitution of Medina and after the Meccan withdrawal, Muhammad immediately marched against the Qurayza and laid siege to their strongholds. The Jewish forces eventually surrendered. Some members of the Banu Aus now interceded on behalf of their old allies and Muhammad agreed to the appointment of one of their chiefs, Sa'd ibn Mua'dh, as judge. Sa'ad judged by Jewish Law that all male members of the tribe should be killed and the women and children enslaved as was the law stated in the Old Testament for treason (Deutoronomy).[31] This action was conceived of as a defensive measure to ensure that the Muslim community could be confident of its continued survival in Medina. The historian Robert Mantran argues that from this point of view it was successful — from this point on, the Muslims were no longer primarily concerned with survival but with expansion and conquest.[31] Capital city of early Islam
Islam
and the caliphate[edit]

Old depiction of Medina
Medina
during Ottoman times

In the ten years following the hijra, Medina
Medina
formed the base from which Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Muslim
Muslim
army attacked and were attacked, and it was from here that he marched on Mecca, entering it without battle in 629 AD/8 AH, all parties acquiescing to his leadership. Afterwards, however, despite Muhammad's tribal connection to Mecca
Mecca
and the ongoing importance of the Meccan kaaba for Islamic pilgrimage (hajj), Muhammad returned to Medina, which remained for some years the most important city of Islam
Islam
and the capital of the early caliphate. Yathrib was renamed Medina
Medina
from Madinat al-Nabi ("city of the Prophet" in Arabic) in honour of Muhammad's prophethood and death there. (Alternatively, Lucien Gubbay suggests the name Medina
Medina
could also have been a derivative from the Aramaic word Medinta, which the Jewish inhabitants could have used for the city.[32]) Under the first three caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman, Medina
Medina
was the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim
Muslim
Empire. During the period of Uthman, the third caliph, a party of Arabs from Egypt, disgruntled at his political decisions, attacked Medina
Medina
in 656 AD/35 AH and murdered him in his own home. Ali, the fourth caliph, changed the capital of the caliphate from Medina
Medina
to Kufa
Kufa
in Iraq. After that, Medina's importance dwindled, becoming more a place of religious importance than of political power. In 1256 AD Medina
Medina
was threatened by a lava flow from the Harrat Rahat volcanic area.[33][34] After the fragmentation of the caliphate, the city became subject to various rulers, including the Mamluks of Cairo
Cairo
in the 13th century and finally, in 1517, the Ottoman Empire.[35] World War I
World War I
to Saudi control[edit] In the beginning of the 20th century, during World War I, Medina witnessed one of the longest sieges in history. Medina
Medina
was a city of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Local rule was in the hands of the Hashemite
Hashemite
clan as Sharifs or Emirs of Mecca. Fakhri Pasha
Fakhri Pasha
was the Ottoman governor of Medina. Ali
Ali
bin Hussein, the Sharif of Mecca
Mecca
and leader of the Hashemite
Hashemite
clan, revolted against the Caliph
Caliph
in Constantinople
Constantinople
(Istanbul) and sided with Great Britain. The city of Medina
Medina
was besieged by the Sharif's forces, and Fakhri Pasha tenaciously held on during the Siege of Medina
Siege of Medina
from 1916 till 10 January 1919. He refused to surrender and held on another 72 days after the Armistice of Moudros, until he was arrested by his own men.[36] In anticipation of the plunder and destruction to follow, Fakhri Pasha
Fakhri Pasha
secretly sent the Sacred Relics of Medina
Medina
to Istanbul.[37] As of 1920, the British described Medina
Medina
as "much more self-supporting than Mecca."[38] After the First World War, the Hashemite
Hashemite
Sayyid Hussein bin Ali
Ali
was proclaimed King of an independent Hejaz. Soon after, in 1924, he was defeated by Ibn Saud, who integrated Medina
Medina
and the whole of the Hejaz
Hejaz
into the modern kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medina
Medina
today[edit]

Modern city of Medina

Today, Medina
Medina
("Madinah" officially in Saudi documents), in addition to being the second most important Islamic pilgrimage destination after Mecca, is an important regional capital of the western Saudi Arabian province of Al Madinah. In addition to the sacred core of the old city, which is off limits to non-Muslims, Medina
Medina
is a modern, multi-ethnic city inhabited by Saudi Arabs and an increasing number of Muslim
Muslim
and non- Muslim
Muslim
expatriate workers: other Arab
Arab
nationalities (Egyptians, Jordanians, Lebanese, etc.), South Asians (Bangladeshis, Indians, Pakistanis, etc.), and Filipinos. Geography[edit] The soil surrounding Medina
Medina
consists of mostly basalt, while the hills, especially noticeable to the south of the city, are volcanic ash which dates to the first geological period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era. Al Madinah Al Munawarah is located at Eastern Part of Al Hijaz Region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
on longitude 39º 36' E and latitude 24º 28' N. Madinah is located in the north-western part of the Kingdom, to the east of the Red Sea, which lies only 250 kilometres (160 miles) away from it. It is surrounded by a number of mountains: Al-Hujaj, or Pilgrims' Mountain to the west, Salaa to the north-west, Al-E'er or Caravan Mountain to the south and Uhad to the north. Madinah is situated on a flat mountain plateau at the junction of the three valleys of Al-Aql, Al-Aqiq, and Al-Himdh. For this reason, there are large green areas amidst a dry mountainous region. The city is 620 metres (2,030 feet) above sea level. Its western and southwestern parts have many volcanic rocks. Madinah lies at the meeting-point of longitude 39º36' east and latitude 24º28' north. It covers an area of about 50 square kilometres (19 square miles). Al Madinah Al Munawwarah is a desert oasis surrounded with mountains and stony areas from all sides. It was mentioned in several references and sources. It was known as Yathrib in Writings of ancient Maeniand, this is obvious evidence that the population structure of this desert oasis is a combination of north Arabs and South Arabs, who settled there and built their civilisation during the thousand years before Christ. Climate[edit] Medina
Medina
has a hot desert climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
BWh). Summers are extremely hot with daytime temperatures averaging about 43 °C (109 °F) with nights about 29 °C (84 °F). Temperatures above 45 °C (113 °F) are not unusual between June and September. Winters are milder, with temperatures from 12 °C (54 °F) at night to 25 °C (77 °F) in the day. There is very little rainfall, which falls almost entirely between November and May.

Climate data for Medina
Medina
(1985–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 33.2 (91.8) 36.6 (97.9) 40.0 (104) 43.0 (109.4) 46.0 (114.8) 47.0 (116.6) 49.0 (120.2) 48.4 (119.1) 46.4 (115.5) 42.8 (109) 36.8 (98.2) 32.2 (90) 49.0 (120.2)

Average high °C (°F) 24.2 (75.6) 26.6 (79.9) 30.6 (87.1) 35.3 (95.5) 39.6 (103.3) 42.9 (109.2) 42.9 (109.2) 43.7 (110.7) 42.3 (108.1) 37.3 (99.1) 30.6 (87.1) 26.0 (78.8) 35.2 (95.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 17.9 (64.2) 20.2 (68.4) 23.9 (75) 28.5 (83.3) 33.0 (91.4) 36.3 (97.3) 36.5 (97.7) 37.1 (98.8) 35.6 (96.1) 30.4 (86.7) 24.2 (75.6) 19.8 (67.6) 28.6 (83.5)

Average low °C (°F) 11.6 (52.9) 13.4 (56.1) 16.8 (62.2) 21.2 (70.2) 25.5 (77.9) 28.4 (83.1) 29.1 (84.4) 29.9 (85.8) 27.9 (82.2) 22.9 (73.2) 17.7 (63.9) 13.6 (56.5) 21.5 (70.7)

Record low °C (°F) 1.0 (33.8) 3.0 (37.4) 7.0 (44.6) 11.5 (52.7) 14.0 (57.2) 21.7 (71.1) 22.0 (71.6) 23.0 (73.4) 18.2 (64.8) 11.6 (52.9) 9.0 (48.2) 3.0 (37.4) 1.0 (33.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 6.3 (0.248) 3.1 (0.122) 9.8 (0.386) 9.6 (0.378) 5.1 (0.201) 0.1 (0.004) 1.1 (0.043) 4.0 (0.157) 0.4 (0.016) 2.5 (0.098) 10.4 (0.409) 7.8 (0.307) 60.2 (2.37)

Average rainy days 2.6 1.4 3.2 4.1 2.9 0.1 0.4 1.5 0.6 2.0 3.3 2.5 24.6

Average relative humidity (%) 38 31 25 22 17 12 14 16 14 19 32 38 23

Source: Jeddah
Jeddah
Regional Climate Center[39]

Religion[edit] As with most cities in Saudi Arabia, Islam
Islam
is the religion adhered by the majority of the population of Medina. Sunnis of different schools (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali) constitute the majority while there is a significant Shia minority in and around Medina, such as the Nakhawila. Outside the city centre (reserved for Muslims only), there are significant numbers of non- Muslim
Muslim
migrant workers and expats.

Masjid Nabawi at sunset

Economy[edit]

Panel representing the Mosque
Mosque
of Medina. Found in İznik, Turkey, 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted.

Historically, Medina
Medina
is known for growing dates. As of 1920, 139 varieties of dates were being grown in the area.[40] Medina
Medina
also was known for growing many types of vegetables.[41] The Medina
Medina
Knowledge Economic City project, a city focused on knowledge-based industries, has been planned and is expected to boost development and increase the number of jobs in Medina.[42] The city is served by the Prince Mohammad Bin Abdulaziz Airport
Prince Mohammad Bin Abdulaziz Airport
which opened in 1974. It handles on average 20–25 flights a day, although this number triples during the Hajj
Hajj
season and school holidays. With the increasing number of pilgrim visiting each year, many hotels are being constructed. Education[edit] Universities include:

Islamic University of Madinah Taibah University

Transport[edit] Air[edit]

Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz Airport

Medina
Medina
is served by Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz Airport
Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz Airport
(IATA: MED, ICAO: OEMA) located about 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) from the city centre. This airport handles mostly domestic destinations and it has limited international services to regional destinations such as Cairo, Bahrain, Doha, Dubai, Istanbul
Istanbul
and Kuwait. Rail[edit] A high speed inter-city rail line (Haramain High Speed Rail Project also known as the "Western Railway"), is under construction in Saudi Arabia. It will link along 444 kilometres (276 miles), the Muslim
Muslim
holy city of Medina
Medina
and Mecca
Mecca
via King Abdullah Economic City, Rabigh, Jeddah
Jeddah
and King Abdulaziz International Airport.[43] A three-line metro is also planned.[44] Road[edit] Major roads that connect city of Medina
Medina
to other parts of the country are:

Highway 15 (Saudi Arabia) – connects Medina
Medina
to Mecca, Abha, Khamis Mushait and Tabuk. Highway 60 (Saudi Arabia) – connects Medina
Medina
to Buraidah

Bus[edit] Medina
Medina
Bus Transport finds the route to nearest Bus station/stop and al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Prophet's Mosque").[45] Destruction of heritage[edit] See also: Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to shirk (idolatry). As a consequence, under Saudi rule, Medina
Medina
has suffered from considerable destruction of its physical heritage including the loss of many buildings over a thousand years old.[46] Critics have described this as "Saudi vandalism" and claim that in Medina
Medina
and Mecca
Mecca
over the last 50 years, 300 historic sites linked to Muhammad, his family or companions have been lost.[47] In Medina, examples of historic sites which have been destroyed include the Salman al-Farsi Mosque, the Raj'at ash-Shams Mosque, the Jannatul Baqee cemetery, and the house of Muhammed.[48] See also[edit]

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
portal Islam
Islam
portal

Haramain High Speed Rail Project Hejazi Accent Jeddah Masjid al-Qiblatain Nakhawila Quba Masjid Siege of Medina List of expeditions of Muhammad
Muhammad
in Medina

References[edit]

^ "Masjid Quba' – Hajj". Saudi Arabia: Hajinformation.com. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ Historical value of the Qur'ân and the Ḥadith A.M. Khan ^ What Everyone Should Know About the Qur'an Ahmed Al-Laithy ^ Esposito, John L. (2011). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 25. Mecca, like Medina, is closed to non-Muslims  ^ Sandra Mackey's account of her attempt to enter Mecca
Mecca
in Mackey, Sandra (1987). The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 63–64. ISBN 0-393-32417-6.  ^ Cuddihy, Kathy (2001). An A To Z Of Places And Things Saudi. Stacey International. p. 148. ISBN 1-900988-40-2.  ^ "The population of Medina
Medina
2016" (PDF).  ^ However, an article in Aramco World[dead link] by John Anthony states: "To the perhaps parochial Muslims of North Africa in fact the sanctity of Kairouan
Kairouan
is second only to Mecca
Mecca
among all cities of the world." Saudi Aramco's bimonthly magazine's goal is to broaden knowledge of the cultures, history and geography of the Arab
Arab
and Muslim
Muslim
worlds and their connections with the West; pages 30–36 of the January/February 1967 print edition The Fourth Holy City ^ a b 1954 Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 18, pp.587, 588 ^ "Place Pilgrims Visit During or After Performing Hajj
Hajj
/ Umrah". Dawntravels.com. Retrieved 2 September 2014.  ^ hadith found in 'Virtues of Madinah' of Sahih Bukhari searchtruth.com ^ a b c Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
Medina ^ Peters 193 ^ a b c d "Al-Medina." Encyclopaedia of Islam ^ for date see "J. Q. R." vii. 175, note ^ See e.g., Peters 193; "Qurayza", Encyclopaedia Judaica ^ Muslim
Muslim
sources usually referred to Himyar kings by the dynastic title of "Tubba". ^ Guillaume 7–9, Peters 49–50 ^ Subhani, The Message: The Events of the First Year of Migration Archived 24 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ For alliances, see Guillaume 253 ^ Firestone 118. For opinions disputing the early date of the Constitution of Medina, see e.g., Peters 116; "Muhammad", "Encyclopaedia of Islam"; "Kurayza, Banu", "Encyclopaedia of Islam". ^ Shelomo Dov Goitein, The Yemenites – History, Communal Organization, Spiritual Life (Selected Studies), editor: Menahem Ben-Sasson, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1983, pp. 288–299. ISBN 965-235-011-7 ^ Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 287 Archived 21 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 14, Number 2659 Archived 20 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 14, Number 2658 Archived 20 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Armstrong, p. 176. ^ a b Lings, p. 148. ^ "O thou whom God
God
hath made victorious, slay!" ^ Quran: Al-i-Imran
Al-i-Imran
3:123–125 (Yusuf Ali). " Allah
Allah
had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude.§ Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allah
Allah
should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down?§ "Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught.§" ^ The Biography of Mahomet, and Rise of Islam. Chapter Fourth. Extension of Islam
Islam
and Early Converts, from the assumption by Mahomet of the prophetical office to the date of the first Emigration to Abyssinia by William Muir Archived 7 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Robert Mantran, L'expansion musulmane Presses Universitaires de France 1995, p. 86. ^ "The Jews
Jews
of Arabia". dangoor.com.  ^ "Harrat Rahat". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.  ^ Bosworth,C. Edmund: Historic Cities of the Islamic World, p. 385 – "Half-a-century later, in 654/1256, Medina
Medina
was threatened by a volcanic eruption. After a series of earthquakes, a stream of lava appeared, but fortunately flowed to the east of the town and then northwards." ^ Somel, Selcuk Aksin (13 February 2003). "Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire". Scarecrow Press – via Google Books.  ^ Peters, Francis (1994). Mecca: A Literary History of the Muslim
Muslim
Holy Land. PP376-377. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03267-X ^ Mohmed Reda Bhacker (1992). Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: Roots of British Domination. Routledge Chapman & Hall. P63: Following the plunder of Medina
Medina
in 1810 'when the Prophet's tomb was opened and its jewels and relics sold and distributed among the Wahhabi soldiery'. P122: the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II was at last moved to act against such outrage. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 103.  ^ "Climate Data for Saudi Arabia". Jeddah
Jeddah
Regional Climate Center. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2015.  ^ Prothero, G. W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 83.  ^ Prothero, G. W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 86.  ^ Economic cities a rise Archived 24 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "High speed stations for a high speed railway". Railway Gazette International. 23 April 2009.  ^ "Madinah metro design contract". Railway Gazette International. 13 March 2015.  ^ "النقل الترددي في المدينة المنورة – النقل الترددي يقل 300 ألف مصل إلى المسجد النبوي خلال 15 يوما". mss.gov.sa.  ^ Howden, Daniel (6 August 2005). "The destruction of Mecca: Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage". The Independent. Retrieved 17 January 2011.  ^ Islamic heritage lost as Makkah modernises, Center for Islamic Pluralism ^ History of the Cemetery of Jannat al-Baqi
Jannat al-Baqi
retrieved 17 January 2011

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Medina External links[edit]

Media related to Medina
Medina
at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Category: Medina
Medina
at Wikimedia Commons Medina
Medina
travel guide from Wikivoyage  "Medina". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah
Umrah
al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Main Saudi Arabian cities by population

1,000,000 and more

Dammam Hofuf Jeddah Khamis Mushait Mecca Medina Riyadh Ta'if

300,000-999,999

Abha Al-Kharj Buraydah Ha'il Hafar Al-Batin Jubail Khobar Najran Qatif Tabuk

<299,999

Al Bahah Al Lith Al Majma'ah Al Qunfudhah Arar Abqaiq Bareq Bisha Dhahran Diriyah Duba Al Jawf Jizan Khafji Ras Tanura Unaizah Yanbu' al Bahr

Source: cdsi.gov.sa

v t e

Al Madinah Region

Capital: Medina

Abu Dhiba Abū Shayţānah Abyar 'Ali Ad Dulu` Al `Awali Al `Uqul Al `Uyun Al Akhal Al Bardiyah Al Biqa` Al Bustan Al Faqirah Al Furaysh Al Hafirah Al jafr Al Hamra' Al Jabriyah Al Jissah Al Kharma' Al Madiq Al Malbanah Al Mufrihat Al Multasa Al Musayjid Al Wuday As Sadayir As Safra' As Sidr As Sudayrah As Sumariyah As Suwayriqiyah Ash Shufayyah Asira Badr Hunayn Baq`a' Barka Bartiyah Bi'r al Mashi Birkah Far` Fara` Fiji Harthiyah Hasa Haylat Radi al Baham Husayniyah Jadidah Khayf Fadil Madinat Yanbu` as Sina`iyah Madsus Mafraq Mahattat al Hafah Maqrah Maqshush Masahili Mawarah Milhah Nujayl Qaba' Qiran Rayyis Sabil Sha`tha' Sidi Hamzah Sultanah Suq Suwayq Suqubiya Suwadah Wasitah Yanbu` al Bahr `Ajmiyah `Alya' `Urwah `Ushash `Ushayrah

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157115328 GND: 4038240-0 BNF: cb11969226h (d

.