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The Siddi
Siddi
(pronounced [sɪd̪d̪iː]), also known as Sidi, Siddhi, Sheedi or Habshi, is an ethnic group inhabiting India
India
and Pakistan. Members are descended from the Bantu peoples
Bantu peoples
of the East African region. Some were merchants, sailors, indentured servants, slaves and mercenaries.[5] The Siddi
Siddi
community is currently estimated at around 50,000–60,000 individuals, with Karnataka, Gujarat
Gujarat
and Hyderabad
Hyderabad
in India
India
and Makran
Makran
and Karachi
Karachi
in Pakistan[6] as the main population centres.[7] Siddis are primarily Muslims, although some are Hindus
Hindus
and others belong to the Catholic Church.[8]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Siddis of India

3.1 Siddis of Hyderabad 3.2 Siddis of Gujarat 3.3 Siddis of Karnataka

4 Siddis of Pakistan

4.1 Siddis or Sheedis in lower Sindh

5 Genetics

5.1 Y DNA 5.2 mtDNA 5.3 Autosomal DNA

6 Famous Siddis or Sheedis 7 Films and books 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] A Siddi
Siddi
girl from the town of Yellapur
Yellapur
in Uttara Karnataka
Karnataka
district, Karnataka, India. There are conflicting hypotheses on the origin of the name Siddi. One theory is that the word derives from sahibi, an Arabic term of respect in North Africa, similar to the word sahib in modern India
India
and Pakistan.[9] A second theory is that the term Siddi
Siddi
is derived from the title borne by the captains of the Arab vessels that first brought Siddi
Siddi
settlers to India. These captains were known as Sayyid.[10] Similarly, another term for Siddis, habshi, is held to be derived from the common name for the captains of the Abyssinian ships that also first delivered Siddi
Siddi
slaves to the subcontinent.[10] Siddis are also sometimes referred to as Afro-Indians.[11][12][13] Siddis were referred to as Zanji by Arabs; in China, various transcriptions of this Arabic word were used, including Xinji (辛吉) and Jinzhi (津芝).[14][15][16][17]

History[edit] Ikhlas Khan, African prime minister of Bijapur, c. 1650 The first Siddis are thought to have arrived in India
India
in 628 AD at the Bharuch
Bharuch
port. Several others followed with the first Arab Islamic invasions of the subcontinent in 712 AD.[18] The latter group are believed to have been soldiers with Muhammad bin Qasim's Arab army, and were called Zanjis. Later the Siddi
Siddi
population was added to via Bantu peoples
Bantu peoples
from Southeast Africa that had been brought to the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
as slaves by the Portuguese.[5] Later most of these migrants became Muslim
Muslim
and a small minority became Hindu.[9]

Flag of the Siddis from Murud-Janjira, an important vassal of the Mughal Empire. Some Siddis escaped slavery to establish communities in forested areas, and some also established the small Siddi
Siddi
principalities of Janjira State
Janjira State
on Janjira Island and Jafarabad State
Jafarabad State
in Kathiawar
Kathiawar
as early as the twelfth century. A former alternative name of Janjira was Habshan (i.e., land of the Habshis). In the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
period prior to the rise of the Mughals in India, Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut was a prominent Siddi
Siddi
slave-turned-nobleman who was a close confidant of Razia Sultana
Razia Sultana
(1205–1240 CE). Although this is disputed, he may also have been her lover.[19]

Siddis of India[edit] Sidis of Madras Harris (1971) provides an historical survey of the eastward dispersal of slaves from Southeast Africa to places like India.[20] Hamilton (1990) argues that Siddis in South India
India
are a significant social group whose histories, experiences, cultures, and expressions are integral to the African Diaspora
African Diaspora
and thus, help better understand the dynamics of dispersed peoples. More recent focused scholarship argues that although Siddis are numerically a minority, their historic presence in India
India
for over five hundred years, as well as their self-perception, and how the broader Indian society relates to them, make them a distinct Bantu/Indian.[21] Historically, Siddis have not existed only within binary relations to the nation state and imperial forces. They did not simply succumb to the ideologies and structures of imperial forces, nor did they simply rebel against imperial rule.[22] The Siddi
Siddi
are recognized as a scheduled tribe in 3 states and 1 union territory: Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka
Karnataka
and Daman and Diu.[23]

Siddis of Hyderabad[edit] In the 18th century, a Siddi
Siddi
community was established in Hyderabad State by the Arab Siddi
Siddi
diaspora, who have frequently served as cavalry guards to the Asif Jahi Nizam of Hyderabad's army. The Asif Jahi rulers patronised them with rewards and the traditional Marfa music gained popularity and would be performed during official celebrations and ceremonies.[24][25][26] The Siddis of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
have traditionally resided in the A.C. Guards (African Cavalry
Cavalry
Guards) area near Masjid Rahmania, known locally as Siddi
Siddi
Risala in the city Hyderabad.

Siddis of Gujarat[edit] See also: Sachin State Siddi
Siddi
Folk Dancers, at Devaliya Naka, Sasan Gir, Gujarat. Supposedly presented as slaves by the Portuguese to the local Prince, Nawab of Junagadh, the Siddis also live around Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife sanctuary.[27] On the way to Deva-dungar is the quaint village of Sirvan, inhabited entirely by Siddis. They were brought 300 years ago from Portuguese colonial territories for the Nawab of Junagadh. Today, they follow very few of their original customs, with a few exceptions like the traditional Dhamal dance.[28] Although Gujarati Siddis have adopted the language and many customs of their surrounding populations, some of their Bantu traditions have been preserved. These include the Goma music and dance form, which is sometimes called Dhamaal (Gujarati: ધમાલ, fun).[29] The term is believed to be derived from the Ngoma drumming and traditional dance forms of the Bantu people inhabiting Central, East and Southern Africa.[30] The Goma also has a spiritual significance and, at the climax of the dance, some dancers are believed to be vehicles for the presence of Siddi
Siddi
saints of the past.[31] Goma music comes from the Kiswahili word "ngoma", which means a drum or drums. It also denotes any dancing occasion where traditional drums are principally used.

Siddis of Karnataka[edit] Main article: Siddis of Karnataka The Siddis of Karnataka
Karnataka
(also spelled Siddhis) are an ethnic group of mainly Bantu descent that has made Karnataka
Karnataka
their home for the last 400 years.[5] There is a 50,000-strong Siddhi population across India, of which more than a third live in Karnataka. In Karnataka, they are concentrated around Yellapur, Haliyal, Ankola, Joida, Mundgod
Mundgod
and Sirsi taluks of Uttara Kannada
Kannada
and in Khanapur
Khanapur
of Belgaum
Belgaum
and Kalaghatagi
Kalaghatagi
of Dharwad district. Many members of the Siddis community of Karnataka
Karnataka
had migrated to Pakistan
Pakistan
after independence and have settled in Karachi, Sindh. It has been reported that these Siddis believe that Barack Obama
Barack Obama
shares their genepool and that they wanted to gift a bottle of honey to him on his visit to India
India
in 2010.[32]

Siddis of Pakistan[edit] In Pakistan, locals of Bantu descent are called "Sheedi". They live primarily along the Makran
Makran
in Balochistan, and lower Sindh.[6] The estimated population of Sheedis in Pakistan
Pakistan
is 250,000.[33] In the city of Karachi, the main Sheedi centre is the area of Lyari and other nearby coastal areas. Technically, the Sheedi are a brotherhood or a subdivision of the Siddi. The Sheedis are divided into four clans, or houses: Kharadar Makan, Hyderabad Makan, Lassi Makan and Belaro Makan.[34] The Sufi saint Pir Mangho is regarded by many as the patron saint of the Sheedis, and the annual Sheedi Mela festival, is the key event in the Sheedi community's cultural calendar.[34] Some glimpses of the rituals at Sidi/Sheedi Festival 2010 include visit to sacred alligators at Mangho pir, playing music and dance.[35] Clearly, the instrument, songs and dance appear to be derived from Africa.[36] In Sindh, the Sheedis have traditionally intermarried only with people such as the Mallahs (fisherpeople), Khaskheli (laborers), Khatri (dyeing community) and Kori (clothmakers). Famous Sheedis include the historic Sindhi army leader Hoshu Sheedi[37] and Urdu
Urdu
poet Noon Meem Danish.[38][39] Sheedis are also well known for their excellence in sports, especially in football and boxing. Qasim Umer is one cricketer who played for Pakistan
Pakistan
in 80s. The musical anthem of the ruling Pakistan
Pakistan
Peoples Party, "Bija Teer", is a Balochi song in the musical style of the Sheedis with Black African style rhythm and drums.[40] Younis Jani is a popular Sheedi singer famous for singing an Urdu
Urdu
version of the reggaeton song "Papi chulo... (te traigo el mmmm...)."[41]

Siddis or Sheedis in lower Sindh[edit] Sawan Qambrani, resident of village Syed Matto Shah, Tehsil Bulri Shah Karim, District Tando Muhammad Khan, Sindh Sheedis are largely populated in different towns and villages in lower Sindh. They are very active in cultural activities and organise annual festivals, like, Habash Festival, with the support of several community organisations. In the local culture, when there is a dance it is not performed by some selected few and watched idly by others but it is participated by all the people present there, ending difference between the performers and the audience.[42] Sheedis in Sindh
Sindh
also proudly call themselves the Qambranis, (Urdu: قمبرانی ‎; Sindhi: قمبراڻي‎), in reverence to Qambar, the freed slave of Ali, the fourth Rashid Caliph.[5][43] Tanzeela Qambrani became the first Sheedi woman to be elected as the member of Provincial Assembly of Sindh
Sindh
in 2018 Pakistani general election.[44][45]

Genetics[edit] Recent advances in genetic analyses have helped shed some light on the ethnogenesis of the Siddi. Genetic genealogy, although a novel tool that uses the genes of modern populations to trace their ethnic and geographic origins, has also helped clarify the possible background of the modern Siddi.

Y DNA[edit] A Y-chromosome study by Shah et al. (2011) tested Siddi
Siddi
individuals in India
India
for paternal lineages. The authors observed the E1b1a1-M2 haplogroup, which is frequent among Bantu peoples, in about 42% and 34% of Siddis from Karnataka
Karnataka
and Gujarat, respectively. Around 14% of Siddis from Karnataka
Karnataka
and 35% of Siddis from Gujarat
Gujarat
also belonged to the Sub-Saharan B-M60. The remaining Siddis had Indian associated or Near Eastern-linked clades, including haplogroups P, H, R1a-M17, J2 and L-M20.[46] Thangaraj (2009) observed similar, mainly Bantu-linked paternal affinities amongst the Siddi.[47] Qamar et al. (2002) analysed Makrani Siddis in Pakistan
Pakistan
and found that they instead predominantly carried Indian-associated or Near Eastern-linked haplogroups. R1a1a-M17 (30.30%), J2 (18.18%) and R2 (18.18%) were their most common male lineages.[48] [48] Only around 12% carried Africa-derived clades, which mainly consisted of the archaic haplogroup B-M60, of which they bore the highest frequency of any Pakistani population Underhill et al. (2009) likewise detected a relatively high frequency of R1a1a-M17 (25%) subclade among Makrani Siddis.[49]

mtDNA[edit] According to an mt DNA
DNA
study by Shah et al. (2011), the maternal ancestry of the Siddi
Siddi
consists of a mixture of Bantu-associated haplogroups and Indian-associated haplogroups, reflecting substantial female gene flow from neighbouring Indian populations. About 53% of the Siddis from Gujarat
Gujarat
and 24% of the Siddis from Karnataka
Karnataka
belonged to various Bantu-derived macro-haplogroup L subclades. The latter mainly consisted of L0 and L2a sublineages associated with Bantu women. The remainder possessed Indian-specific subclades of the Eurasian haplogroups M and N, which points to recent admixture with autochthonous Indian groups.[5]

Autosomal DNA[edit] Narang et al. (2011) examined the autosomal DNA
DNA
of Siddis in India. According to the researchers, about 58% of the Siddis' ancestry is derived from Bantu peoples. The remainder is associated with local Indo-European-speaking North and Northwest Indian populations, due to recent admixture events.[50] Similarly, Shah et al. (2011) observed that Siddis in Gujarat
Gujarat
derive 66.90%–70.50% of their ancestry from Bantu forebears, while the Siddis in Karnataka
Karnataka
possess 64.80%–74.40% such Southeast African ancestry. The remaining autosomal DNA
DNA
components in the studied Siddi were mainly associated with local South Asian populations. According to the authors, gene flow between the Siddis' Bantu ancestors and local Indian populations was also largely unidirectional. They estimate this admixture episode's time of occurrence at within the past 200 years or eight generations.[5] However, Guha et al. (2012) observed few genetic differences between the Makrani of Pakistan
Pakistan
and adjacent populations. According to the authors, the genome-wide ancestry of the Makrani was essentially the same as that of the neighboring Indo-European speaking Balochi and Dravidian-speaking Brahui.[51]

Famous Siddis or Sheedis[edit] Nawab Ibrahim Mohammad Yakut Khan II of Sachin (1833-1873) Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, confidante of Razia Sultana Yakut Khan, naval admiral Hoshu Sheedi, Sindhi commander Noon Meem Danish, Urdu
Urdu
poet Nawabs of Janjira State Nawabs of Sachin State Juje Siddi, former Indian national football team
Indian national football team
and Salgaocar SC goalkeeper[52] Abdul Rashid Qambrani, Pakistani boxer Malik Ambar, regent of the Ahmadnagar kingdom Abid Brohi, Pakistani Balochi rapper Films and books[edit] From Africa...To Indian Subcontinent: Sidi Music in the Indian Ocean Diaspora (2003) by Amy Catlin-Jairazbhoy, in close collaboration with Nazir Ali
Ali
Jairazbhoy and the Sidi community. Mon petit diable (My Little Devil) (1999) was directed by Gopi Desai. Om Puri, Pooja Batra, Rushabh Patni, Satyajit Sharma. Razia Sultan (1983), an Indian Urdu
Urdu
film directed by Kamal Amrohi, is based on the life of Razia Sultan (played by Hema Malini) (1205–1240), the only female Sultan of Delhi (1236–1240), and her speculated love affair with the Abyssinian slave Jamal-ud-Din Yakut (played by Dharmendra). He was referred to in the movie as a habshee. A Certain Grace: The Sidi, Indians of African Descent by Ketaki Sheth, Photolink, 2013.[53] Shaping Membership, Defining Nation: The Cultural Politics of African Indians in South Asia (2007) by Pashington Obeng. Inside a Lost African Tribe Still Living in India
India
Today (2018) by Asha Stuart See also[edit] Afro-Asians
Afro-Asians
in South Asia Chaush Coolie Habshi dynasty of Bengal List of Scheduled Tribes in India Lyari Malunga Manghopir Urs Murud-Janjira Noon Meem Danish Pir Mangho
Pir Mangho
Urs Pir Mangho Sheedi Mela Sri Lanka Kaffirs Siddis of Karnataka Zanj References[edit]

^ a b The Sidi Project.

^ name="dawn.com">Paracha, Nadeem (26 August 2018), "Smokers’ corner: Sindh's African roots ", Dawn.

^ [1]

^ a b c d "A-11 Individual Scheduled Tribe Primary Census Abstract Data and its Appendix". Census of India
India
2011. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 24 March 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ a b c d e f Shah, Anish M.; et al. (15 July 2011). "Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture". American Journal of Human Genetics. 89 (1): 154–161. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.030. PMC 3135801. PMID 21741027.

^ a b Abbas, Zaffar (13 March 2002). "Pakistan's Sidi keep heritage alive". BBC. Retrieved 26 December 2016. One of the Pakistan's smallest ethnic communities is made up of people of African origin, known as Sidi. The African-Pakistanis live in Karachi
Karachi
and other parts of the Sindh
Sindh
and Baluchistan provinces in abject poverty, but they rarely complain of discrimination. Although this small Muslim community is not on the verge of extinction, their growing concern is how to maintain their distinct African identity in the midst of the dominating South Asian cultures.

^ Kumar Suresh Singh, Rajendra Behari Lal (2003), Gujarat, Anthropological Survey of India
India
(Popular Prakashan), ISBN 978-81-7991-106-8, At present the Siddis are living in the western coast of Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Karnataka states. Their main concentration is in Junagadh district of Rajkot division. They are a scheduled tribe. According to the 1981 census, the population of the Siddi
Siddi
tribe is 54,291. The Siddi
Siddi
speak Gujarati language within their kin circle as well as with the outsiders. Gujarati script is used....

^ Shanti Sadiq Ali
Ali
(1996), The African dispersal in the Deccan, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 978-81-250-0485-1, Among the Siddi
Siddi
families in Karnataka
Karnataka
there are Catholics, Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims.... It was a normal procedure for the Portuguese to baptise African slaves.... After living for generations among Hindus
Hindus
they considered themselves to be Hindus.... The Siddi
Siddi
Hindus
Hindus
owe allegiance to Saudmath....

^ a b Albinia, Alice (2012). Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River. UK: Hachette. ISBN 978-0393063226.

^ a b Vijay Prashad (2002), Everybody Was Kung Fu Fighting: Afro-Asian Connections and the Myth of Cultural Purity, Beacon Press, ISBN 978-0-8070-5011-8, ...since the captains of the African and Arab vessels bore the title Sidi (from Sayyid, or the lineage of the prophet Muhammad), the African settlers on the Indian mainland came to be called Siddis...

^ Ali
Ali
Al'Amin Mazrui, Toby Kleban Levine (1986), The Africans: a reader, Praeger, ISBN 978-0-03-006209-4, ...continue to exist in three main communities. These Afro-Indians, known as 'Siddis' ...

^ Joseph E. Harris (1971), The African presence in Asia: consequences of the East African slave trade, Northwestern University Press, ISBN 978-0-8101-0348-1, In fact, it is frequently said that Afro-Indians in western Gujarat
Gujarat
are descendants of escaped slaves....

^ Ruth Simms Hamilton (2007), Routes of Passage: Rethinking the African Diaspora, Michigan State University Press, ISBN 978-0-87013-632-0

^ David Brion Davis, Challenging the Boundaries of Slavery
Slavery
(Harvard University Press, 2006), p. 12.

^ Ci Hai 7(1): 125.

^ Roland Oliver, Africa in the Iron Age: c.500 BC-1400 AD, (Cambridge University Press, 1975), p. 192.

^ F. R. C. Bagley et al., The Last Great Muslim
Muslim
Empires, (Brill: 1997), p. 174.

^ Yatin Pandya, Trupti Rawal (2002), The Ahmedabad Chronicle: Imprints of a Millennium, Vastu Shilpa Foundation for Studies and Research in Environmental Design, The first Muslims in Gujarat
Gujarat
to have arrived are the Siddis via the Bharuch
Bharuch
port in 628 AD ... The major group, though, arrived in 712 AD via Sindh
Sindh
and the north.... With the founding of Ahmedabad in 1411 AD it became the concentrated base of the community....

^ Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach (2006), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-415-96692-4, ...she appointed Jala ad-Din Yaqut, an Abyssinian slave, to the post of master of the stables, a position traditionally reserved for a distinguished Turk. Her partiality for Yaqut has led later historians to speculae whether there had been a sexual relationship between them, but contemporaneous sources do not indicate that this was necessarily the case....

^ Harris, J. E. (1971). The African Presence in Asia: Consequences of the East African Slave Trade.

^ Obeng, P. (2007). Shaping Membership, Defining Nation: The Cultural Politics of African Indians in South India, p. xiii.

^ Obeng P (2003). "Religion and empire: Belief and identity among African Indians in Karnataka, South India". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 71 (1): 99–120. doi:10.1093/jaar/71.1.99.

^ "List of notified Scheduled Tribes" (PDF). Census India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 November 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)

^ "'Marfa' band of the Siddis 'losing' its beat". The Hindu. Hyderabad, India. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.

^ Yimene, Ababu Minda (2004). An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi
Siddi
Identity, Its Maintenance and Change. Cuvillier Verlag. ISBN 978-3-86537-206-2.

^ Ali, Shanti Sadiq (1996). The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-0485-1.

^ "Siddis stray from tradition". Retrieved 5 December 2004.

^ Shekhawat, Rahul Singh (n.d.), "Black Sufis: Preserving the Siddi's and its age old culture in India"

^ Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society, 28, Indian Anthropological Society, 1993, The word goma is derived from the Swahili word for dance, ngoma, which in the East African ... Siddi servants used to perform goma dances with drums....

^ Stuart Sillars (ed.) (2017). The Shakespearean International Yearbook: Volume 13. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 978-1351963497. Retrieved 16 February 2018.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)

^ Shihan de S. Jayasuriya, Richard Pankhurst (2003), The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean, Africa World Press, ISBN 978-0-86543-980-1, At the climax, when large numbers of people are simultaneously possessed, the presence of Sidi saints among the living is experienced through the bodies chosen by the saints as vehicle. This happens during dancing sessions called damal or goma ...

^ Anil Budur Lulla, A Bottle of Honey for Our Brother Prez Archived 31 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Short Takes section, Open Magazine, 30 October 2010.

^ Paracha, Nadeem (26 August 2018), "Smokers’ corner: Sindh's African roots ", Dawn.

^ a b Sheedi Mela begins with ritual aplomb[dead link], The News International, 7 July 2008.

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 June 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), BBC Urdu, 18 June 2010

^ "Manghopir urs a living tribute to Sheedi culture", Dawn 16 July 2007.

^ "‘ Hoshu Sheedi
Hoshu Sheedi
Day’ on March 23", Dawn, 21 March 2007.

^ "A poet in New York", Dawn, 9 December 2007.

^ Afro-Asia in Pakistan
Pakistan
Archived 13 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Hasan Mujtaba, Samar Magazine, Issue 13: Winter/Spring, 2000.

^ YouTube – teer bija

^ YouTube – Younis Jani – Papi Chulo

^ Bhurgari, M. Hashim (24 October 2009). "Sheedi basha hum basha: black people dance away sorrows". Dawn. Retrieved 16 October 2012.

^ "'Sheedis have been hurt most by attitudes'". Dawn. 23 June 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2013. Sindhi Sheedis call themselves Qambrani, out of reverence for Hazrat Qambar, a servant of Hazrat Ali
Ali
(AS).

^ Tanzeela Qambrani: First Sheedi woman to become member of Sindh Assembly

^ Tanzeela to be first Sheedi woman to enter Sindh
Sindh
Assembly

^ Shah, AM; Tamang, R; Moorjani, P; Rani, DS; Govindaraj, P; Kulkarni, G; Bhattacharya, T; Mustak, MS; Bhaskar, LV; Reddy, AG; Gadhvi, D; Gai, PB; Chaubey, G; Patterson, N; Reich, D; Tyler-Smith, C; Singh, L; Thangaraj, K (2011). "Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 89: 154–61. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.030. PMC 3135801. PMID 21741027.

^ Mishra, Rakesh K. (2009). Chromosomes To Genome. I. K. International Pvt Ltd. p. 183. ISBN 978-9380026213.

^ a b Qamar, R; Ayub, Q; Mohyuddin, A; et al. (May 2002). "Y-Chromosomal DNA
DNA
Variation in Pakistan". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 70 (5): 1107–24. doi:10.1086/339929. PMC 447589. PMID 11898125.

^ Underhill, PA; Myres, NM; Rootsi, S; Metspalu, M; Zhivotovsky, LA; King, RJ; Lin, AA; Chow, CE; Semino, O; Battaglia, V; Kutuev, I; Järve, M; Chaubey, G; Ayub, Q; Mohyuddin, A; Mehdi, SQ; Sengupta, S; Rogaev, EI; Khusnutdinova, EK; Pshenichnov, A; Balanovsky, O; Balanovska, E; Jeran, N; Augustin, DH; Baldovic, M; Herrera, RJ; Thangaraj, K; Singh, V; Singh, L; Majumder, P; Rudan, P; Primorac, D; Villems, R; Kivisild, T (2010). "Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 18 (4): 479–84. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2009.194. PMC 2987245. PMID 19888303.

^ Narang, Ankita; et al. (15 July 2011). "Recent Admixture in an Indian Population of African Ancestry". American Journal of Human Genetics. 89 (1): 111–120. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.06.004. PMC 3135806. PMID 21737057.

^ Guha, Saurav; et al. (25 January 2012). "Implications for health and disease in the genetic signature of the Ashkenazi Jewish population". Genome Biology. 13 (R2): R2. doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-r2. PMC 3334583. PMID 22277159. Retrieved 5 January 2014.

^ GOALKEEPERS Goa
Goa
Football Association

^ "Sidi lights". Mint. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Siddi
Siddi
people.

"Karnataka's Indian-African Tribe", The Wall Street Journal, 26 March 2012. Alice Albinia, Empires of the Indus, W. W. Norton & Company, 2010, 52–78. Shanti Sadiq Ali, The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times, Orient Blackswan, 1996. Ababu Minda Yimene, An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi Identity, Its Maintenance and Change, Cuvillier Verlag, 2004, p. 201. Omar H. Ali, The African Diaspora
African Diaspora
in India, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library. Abdulaziz Y. Lodhi, "Bantu origins of the Sidis of India", in Pambazuka News, 29 October 2008. " Siddi
Siddi
Jana Vikas Sanga", 5 February 2011. Indians of African Origin "Black, Indian, and a Hindu", African Connection. "Habshis and Siddis – Africans and African descendants in South Asia", ColorQ World. The Global African Community/Great Habshis in Ethiopian/Indian History History of the Ethiopian Diaspora Shihan de Silva Jayasuriya, "South Asia's Africans: A Forgotten People", History Workshop, 5 February 2011. Zaffar Abbas, "Pakistan's Sidi keep heritage alive", BBC News, 13 March 2002. Andrew Whitehead, "The lost Africans of India", BBC News, 27 November 2000. BBC "In pictures: India's African communities", BBC News. https://web.archive.org/web/20070115035750/http://travel.expressindia.com/story/20499.html vteAfrican diasporaBy geographyAmericas1Anglophone Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize British dependencies Anguilla Bermuda Cayman Islands Turks and Caicos Islands Canada Nova Scotia Dominica Grenada Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Black Carib Guyana Jamaica Coromantee Jamaican Maroons Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Trinidad and Tobago Dougla Merikins United States Black Hispanic Black Indians Black Seminoles Creoles of Color Gullah African immigrants Francophone Canada French Guiana Aluku Ndyuka Saramaka Haiti Marron Marabou Hispanophone Argentina Bolivia Colombia Raizal Chile Costa Rica Cuba Arará Cape Verdean Lucumí Ganga-Longoba Dominican Republic Samaná Americans Cocolo Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Mexico Mascogos Nicaragua Panama Cimarrón Paraguay Peru Puerto Rico Arará Uruguay Venezuela Lusophone Brazil Kalunga Macombo Quilombo Batavophone Aruba Curaçao Suriname Kwinti Ndyuka Paramaccan Saramaka Other Garifuna Miskito Miskito Sambu Europe Abkhazia Belgium France Paris Germany Ireland Italy Netherlands Portugal Romania Russia Spain Ukraine United Kingdom Liverpool Scotland Middle East Iran Iraq Israel Jordan Syria Turkey West Bank Yemen Asiaand Oceania Australia China Guangzhou Hong Kong India
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vte Ethnic groups in Pakistan Balti Baloch Brahui Burusho Hazaras Kalash Kashmiris Kho Muhajirs Pashtuns Punjabis Shina Siddi Sindhis Tajik Wakhis

vteIndian Muslim
Muslim
communitiesMajority Arab Arain Arghon Ansari Awan Baghban Balti Behna Bhatiara Bhishti Bisati Chhipa Chaush Dakhini Muslims (Hyderabadi) Dard Dhobi Ghosi Gujjar Iraqi (Tamimi) Jat Khanzada Kashmiri Kunjra Malkana Manihar Mappila Meo Mughal Pathans Purigpa Qassab Muslim
Muslim
Rajput Garha Garha Rangrez Shaikh Sayyid Salmani Siddi Teli Minority Assamese Bengali Bhili Dogra Gondi Gujarati Konkani Nawayath Marathi Marwari Meitei Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Labbay Goan Muslims Alavi Bohra Bihari Muslims Abdal Ansari Bisati Chamail Churihar Chik Gaddi Idrisi Khanzada Kulhaiya Lal Begi Malkana Malik of Bihar Mirasi Mirshikar Mughal Muker Muslim
Muslim
Chhipi Pasi Nat Pamaria Pathans Rayeen Sai Sapera Sayyid Syed (Mallick) Shaikh of Bihar Shershahabadia Thakurai Teli Gujarat Abdal Alavi Bohra Ansari Arabs Attarwala Bafan Baloch Banjara Behlim Bhadala Bharbhunja Bhishti Chhipa Chunara Chundrigar Dawoodi Bohra Dhobi Dhuldhoya Doodwala Faqir Galiara Ghanchi Ghanchi-Pinjara Halaypotra Hingorja Hingora Jats of Kutch Juneja Kadia Kagzi Ker Khalifa Khaskheli Khoja Machiyar Makrani Malik of Gujarat Mandali Makwana Manka Mansoori Memon Meta Qureshi Miyana Molesalam Momna Mughal Multani Multani Lohar Mutwa Nagori Nayak Node Panar Parmar Patani Bohra Patni Jamat Pathans Salaat Samma Sandhai Muslims Sanghar Shaikhs of Gujarat Shaikhda Sayyid
Sayyid
of Gujarat Siddi Sipahi Soomra Sulaymani
Sulaymani
Bohra Sunni Bohra Tai Turk Jamat Vora Patel Vyapari Wagher Karnataka Baghban Beary Chaush Chhaparband Kodava Maaple Konkani Muslims Nawayath Pinjara Siddi Assadi Kerala Mappilas Pusalans Ossans Tangals (the Sayyids) Vattakkolis (the Bhatkalis) or Navayats Labbais Nahas Marakkars Keyis Koyas Dakhnis or Pathans Ravuthars Bohras (Daudi Bohras) Madhya Pradesh Chhipa Ansari Banjara Dawoodi Bohra Dhobi Mughal Muslim
Muslim
Chhipi Pathans Shaikh Sayyid Maharashtra Attar Baghban Bhishti Chaush Chhipa Chhaparband Dawoodi Bohra Dhawad Faqir Garodi Gavandi Kachar Kagzi Konkani Muslims Momin Muslim
Muslim
Raj Gond Qassab Saiqalgar Tadvi Bhil Rajasthan Ansari Bhutta Chhipa Cheetah Chadwa Dawoodi Bohra Deshwali Gaddi Ghosi Hela Mehtar Hiranbaz Kandera Khadem Khanzada Langha Manganiar Merat Meo Mughal Pathans Pinjara Qaimkhani Rangrez Rath Shaikhs of Rajasthan Silawat Sindhi-Sipahi Singiwala Sorgar Tamil Nadu Kayalar Labbay Marakkar Pathans Rowther Mappila Uttar Pradesh Ansari Atishbaz Bachgoti Khanzada Baghban Baluch Bandhmati Banjara Barhai Behlim Banu Israil Behna Bhand Bharbhunja Bhale Sultan Khanzada Bhatti Khanzada Bhatiara Bhishti Bhumihar Musalman Bisati Chik Dakhini Dafali Dhagi Dharhi Dhobi Musalmaan Dogar Fareedi Faqir Gaddi Gautam Khanzada Ghosi Goriya Gujjar
Gujjar
Musalmaan Halalkhor Halwai Idrisi Iraqi (Tamimi) Jhojha Kabaria Kakorvi Shaikh Kamangar Kamboh Kasgar Kayastha Musalman Khanzada Khokhar Khanzada Khumra Kingharia Kunjra Lal Begi Lalkhani Rajput Madari Mandarkia Malkana Manihar Meo Milki Mirasi Mughal Mujavir Muker Muslim
Muslim
Chhipi Muley Jat Nagar Muslims Nalband Nanbai Naqqal Panchpiria Pankhiya Pathans Putliwale Qalandar Qassab Qaum-e-Punjaban Qidwai Rai Bhatt Raj Garha Garha Rajput Musalmaan Ramaiya Rangrez Rayeen Rohilla Sadaat Amroha Sadaat-e-Bara Sadaat-e-Bilgram Sai Salmani Sayyid
Sayyid
of Uttar Pradesh Shaikh of Uttar Pradesh Shaikh Ja'fri Shaikhzada Siddiqui Teli Musalmaan Turk Tyagi Musalmaan West Bengal Abdal Dawoodi Bohra Bedia Faqir Ghosi Iraqi (Tamimi) Kahar Kan Kela Lodha Malla Nashya Patu

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