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SICHUAN, formerly romanized SZECHUAN, is a province in southwest China
China
occupying most of the Sichuan Basin between the Himalayas
Himalayas
on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the east. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu
Chengdu
.

In antiquity, Sichuan
Sichuan
was the home of the ancient states of Ba and Shu . Their conquest by Qin strengthened it and paved the way for the First Emperor
First Emperor
's unification of China
China
under the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
. During the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
era, Liu Bei 's Shu was based in Sichuan. The area was devastated in the 17th century by Zhang Xianzhong 's rebellion and the area's subsequent Manchu conquest, but recovered to become one of China's most productive areas by the 19th century. During the Second World War , Chongqing
Chongqing
served as the temporary capital of the Republic of China
China
, making it the focus of Japanese bombing . It was one of the last mainland areas to fall to the Communists during the Chinese Civil War and was divided into four parts from 1949 to 1952, with Chongqing restored two years later. It suffered gravely during the Great Chinese Famine of 1959–61 but remained China's most populous province until Chongqing
Chongqing
Municipality was again separated from it in 1997.

The people of Sichuan
Sichuan
speak a unique form of Mandarin , which took shape during the area's repopulation under the Ming . The family of dialects is now spoken by about 120 million people, which would make it the 10th most spoken language in the world if counted separately. The area's warm damp climate long caused Chinese medicine to advocate spicy dishes ; the native Sichuan pepper was supplemented by Mexican chilis during the Columbian Exchange
Columbian Exchange
to form modern Sichuan cuisine , whose dishes—including Kung Pao chicken and Mapo tofu —have become staples around the world.

CONTENTS

* 1 Names

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory * 2.2 Ba and Shu Kingdoms * 2.3 Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
* 2.4 Han Dynasty * 2.5 Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
* 2.6 Tang Dynasty * 2.7 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
* 2.8 Song Dynasty * 2.9 Ming Dynasty * 2.10 Qing Dynasty * 2.11 Republic of China
China
* 2.12 People\'s Republic of China
China

* 3 Administrative divisions * 4 Geography * 5 Politics

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Foreign trade * 6.2 Minimum wage

* 6.3 Economic and technological development zones

* 6.3.1 Chengdu
Chengdu
Economic and Technological Development Zone * 6.3.2 Chengdu
Chengdu
Export Processing Zone * 6.3.3 Chengdu
Chengdu
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone * 6.3.4 Mianyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

* 7 Transportation

* 7.1 Expressways * 7.2 Rail

* 8 Demographics

* 8.1 Religion

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Languages * 9.2 Cuisine

* 10 Education

* 10.1 Colleges and universities

* 11 Tourism * 12 Notable individuals * 13 Sports * 14 Sister states and regions * 15 See also * 16 Notes * 17 References * 18 External links

NAMES

In Modern Chinese , the name Sichuan
Sichuan
has the meaning "four rivers " and this folk etymology is usually extended to list the provinces' four major rivers: the Jialing , Jinsha , Min , and Tuo . In fact, the name of the province in a contraction of the phrases _Sì Chuānlù_ (四川路, "Four River Circuits ") and _Chuānxiá Sìlù_ (川峡四路, "Four Circuits of Rivers and Gorges"), referring to the division of the existing imperial administrative circuit into four during the Northern Song dynasty
Song dynasty
. In addition to its postal map and Wade-Giles forms, the name has also been irregularly romanized as SZű-CHUAN and SZECHUAN.

In antiquity, the area of modern Sichuan
Sichuan
was known to the Chinese as BA-SHU, in reference to the ancient states of Ba and Shu that once occupied the Sichuan Basin . SHU continues to be used to refer to the Sichuan
Sichuan
region all through its history right up to the present day; a number of states formed in the area used the same name, for example the Shu of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period, and Former Shu and Later Shu of the Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
period.

HISTORY

PREHISTORY

The Sichuan Basin and adjacent areas of the Yangtze
Yangtze
watershed were a cradle of indigenous civilizations dating back to at least the 15th century BC, coinciding with the later years of the Shang in northern China. The region had its own distinct religious beliefs and worldview. Various ores were abundant. The area also formed a stage on the trade routes connecting the Yellow River
Yellow River
watershed with India
India
and the west, the primary means of Eurasian trade before the establishment of the overland and maritime Silk Roads under the Han .

BA AND SHU KINGDOMS

Bronze head from Sanxingdui , dating from the Shu kingdom

The most important native states were those of Ba and Shu.

Ba stretched into Sichuan
Sichuan
from the Han Valley in Shaanxi
Shaanxi
and Hubei down the Jialing River as far as its confluence with the Yangtze
Yangtze
at Chongqing
Chongqing
.

Shu occupied the valley of the Min , including Chengdu
Chengdu
and other areas of western Sichuan. The existence of the early state of Shu was poorly recorded in the main historical records of China. It was, however, referred to in the _ Book of Documents _ as an ally of the Zhou. Accounts of Shu exist mainly as a mixture of mythological stories and historical legends recorded in local annals such as the _ Chronicles of Huayang _ compiled in the Jin dynasty (265–420) , with folk stories such as that of Emperor Duyu (杜宇) who taught the people agriculture and transformed himself into a cuckoo after his death. The existence of a highly developed civilization with an independent bronze industry in Sichuan
Sichuan
eventually came to light with an archaeological discovery in 1986 at a small village named Sanxingdui in Guanghan , Sichuan. This site, believed to be an ancient city of Shu, was initially discovered by a local farmer in 1929 who found jade and stone artefacts. Excavations by archaeologists in the area yielded few significant finds until 1986 when two major sacrificial pits were found with spectacular bronze items as well as artefacts in jade, gold, earthenware, and stone. This and other discoveries in Sichuan
Sichuan
contest the conventional historiography that the local culture and technology of Sichuan
Sichuan
were undeveloped in comparison to the technologically and culturally "advanced" Yellow River valley of north-central China.

QIN DYNASTY

The rulers of the expansionist Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
, based in present-day Gansu
Gansu
and Shaanxi
Shaanxi
, were the first strategists to realize that the area's military importance matched its commercial and agricultural significance. The Sichuan basin is surrounded by the Henguduan Mountains to the west, the Qin Mountains to the north, and Yungui Plateau to the south. Since the Yangtze
Yangtze
flows through the basin and then through the perilous Three Gorges to eastern and southern China, Sichuan
Sichuan
was a staging area for amphibious military forces and a refuge for political refugees.

Qin armies finished their conquest of the kingdoms of Shu and Ba by 316 BC. Any written records and civil achievements of earlier kingdoms were destroyed. Qin administrators introduced improved agricultural technology. Li Bing , engineered the Dujiangyan irrigation system
Dujiangyan irrigation system
to control the Min River , a major tributary of the Yangtze. This innovative hydraulic system was composed of movable weirs which could be adjusted for high or low water flow according to the season, to either provide irrigation or prevent floods. The increased agricultural output and taxes made the area a source of provisions and men for Qin's unification of China.

HAN DYNASTY

_ A stone-carved gate pillar, or que _, 6 metres (20 ft) in total height, located at the tomb of Gao Yi in Ya'an, Sichuan, built during the Eastern Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(25–220 CE)

Sichuan
Sichuan
was subjected to the autonomous control of kings named by the imperial family of Han Dynasty. Following the declining central government of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
in the second century, the Sichuan basin, surrounded by mountains and easily defensible, became a popular place for upstart generals to found kingdoms that challenged the authority of Yangtze
Yangtze
Valley emperors over China. Warlords in China
China
around 194; Liu Bei\'s takeover of Yi Province meant he seized the positions of Liu Biao and Zhang Lu eventually

THREE KINGDOMS

In 221, during the partition following the fall of the Eastern Han - the era of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
- Liu Bei founded the southwest kingdom of Shu Han (蜀汉; 221–263) in parts of Sichuan, Guizhou
Guizhou
and Yunnan, with Chengdu
Chengdu
as its capital. Shu-Han claimed to be the successor to the Han Dynasty.

In 263, the Jin dynasty of North China, conquered the Kingdom of Shu-Han as its first step on the path to unify China
China
again, under their rule. Salt production becomes a major business in Ziliujing District . During this Six Dynasties period of Chinese disunity, Sichuan
Sichuan
began to be populated by non-Han ethnic minority peoples, owing to the migration of Gelao people from the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau to the Sichuan
Sichuan
basin, where the Han are indigenous.

TANG DYNASTY

The Leshan Giant Buddha
Leshan Giant Buddha
, built during the latter half of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(618–907).

Sichuan
Sichuan
came under the firm control of a Chinese central government during the Sui dynasty , but it was during the subsequent Tang dynasty where Sichuan
Sichuan
regained its previous political and cultural prominence for which it was known during the Han. Chengdu
Chengdu
became nationally known as a supplier of armies and the home of Du Fu , who is sometimes called China's greatest poet. During the An Lushan Rebellion (755–763), Emperor Xuanzong of Tang fled from Chang\'an to Sichuan which became his refuge. The region was torn by constant warfare and economic distress as it was besieged by the Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
.

FIVE DYNASTIES AND TEN KINGDOMS

In the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
period , Sichuan
Sichuan
became the centre of the Shu kingdom with its capital in Chengdu
Chengdu
founded by Wang Jian . In 925 the kingdom was absorbed into Later Tang
Later Tang
but would regain independence under Meng Zhixiang who founded Later Shu in 934. Later Shu would continue until 965 when it was absorbed by the Song .

SONG DYNASTY

During Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(960–1279), Sichuanese were able to protect themselves from Tibetan
Tibetan
attacks with the help of central government. Sichuan
Sichuan
also saw cultural revival like great poets Su Xun (蘇洵), Su Shi , and Su Zhe . Although paper currency was known in the Tang dynasty, in 1023 AD, the first true paper money in human history, termed _jiaozi_ (交子, jiāozǐ), was issued in Chengdu
Chengdu
.

In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Southern Song Dynasty established coordinated defenses against the Mongolian Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
, in Sichuan and Xiangyang . The Southern Song state monopolized the Sichuan
Sichuan
tea industry to pay for warhorses, but this state intervention eventually brought devastation to the local economy. The line of defense was finally broken through after the first use of firearms in history during the six-year Battle of Xiangyang , which ended in 1273. Large number of people in Sichuan
Sichuan
were massacred; in 1162 AD, 2,640,000 families were recorded in Sichuan
Sichuan
, but only 120,000 families left in 1282 AD. .

MING DYNASTY

The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
defeated Ming Yuchen's Xia polity which ruled Sichuan.

During the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
, major architectural works were created in Sichuan. Buddhism
Buddhism
remained influential in the region. Bao\'en Temple is a well-preserved 15th century monastery complex built between 1440 and 1446 during the Zhengtong Emperor
Zhengtong Emperor
's reign (1427–64). Dabei Hall enshrines a thousand-armed wooden image of Guanyin
Guanyin
and Huayan Hall is a repository with a revolving sutra cabinet. The wall paintings, sculptures and other ornamental details are masterpieces of the Ming period.

In the middle of the 17th century, the peasant rebel leader Zhang Xianzhong (1606–1646) from Yan'an, Shanxi
Shanxi
Province, nicknamed _Yellow Tiger_, led his peasant troop from north China
China
to the south, and conquered Sichuan. Upon capturing it, he declared himself emperor of the Daxi Dynasty (大西王朝). In response to the resistance from local elites, he massacred a large number of people in Sichuan. As a result of the massacre as well as years of turmoil during the Ming-Qing transition, the population of Sichuan
Sichuan
fell sharply, requiring a massive resettlement of people from the neighboring Huguang Province (modern Hubei
Hubei
and Hunan) and other provinces during the Qing dynasty. .

QING DYNASTY

See also: Hakka_people § Sichuan
Sichuan

Sichuan
Sichuan
was originally the origin of the Deng lineage until one of them was hired as an official in Guangdong
Guangdong
during the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
but during the Qing plan to increase the population in 1671 they came to Sichuan
Sichuan
again. Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
was born in Sichuan.

During the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, Sichuan
Sichuan
was merged with Shaanxi
Shaanxi
and Shanxi to create "Shenzhuan" during 1680-1731 and 1735-1748. The current borders of Sichuan
Sichuan
(which then included Chongqing
Chongqing
) were established in the early 18th century. In the aftermath of the Sino-Nepalese War on China's southwestern border, the Qing gave Sichuan's provincial government direct control over the minority-inhabited areas of Sichuan west of Kangding , which had previously been handled by an amban .

A landslide dam on the Dadu River caused by an earthquake gave way on 10 June 1786. The resulting flood killed 100,000 people.

REPUBLIC OF CHINA

In the early 20th century, the newly founded Republic of China established Chuanbian Special
Special
Administrative District (川邊特別行政區), which acknowledged the unique culture and economy of the region largely differing from that of mainstream northern China
China
in the Yellow River
Yellow River
region. The Special
Special
District later became the province of Xikang , incorporating the areas inhabited by Yi, Tibetan
Tibetan
and Qiang ethnic minorities to its west, and eastern part of today's Tibet Autonomous Region .

In the 20th century, as Beijing
Beijing
, Shanghai
Shanghai
, Nanjing
Nanjing
, and Wuhan
Wuhan
had all been occupied by the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War , the capital of the Republic of China
China
had been temporary relocated to Chongqing
Chongqing
, then a major city in Sichuan. An enduring legacy of this move is that nearby inland provinces, such as Shaanxi
Shaanxi
, Gansu
Gansu
, and Guizhou
Guizhou
, which previously never had modern Western-style universities , began to be developed in this regard. The difficulty of accessing the region overland from the eastern part of China
China
and the foggy climate hindering the accuracy of Japanese bombing of the Sichuan Basin , made the region the stronghold of Chiang Kai-shek 's Kuomintang government during 1938–45, and led to the Bombing of Chongqing
Chongqing
.

The Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
was soon followed by the resumed Chinese Civil War , and the cities of East China
China
are obtained by the Communists one after another, the Kuomintang government again tried to make Sichuan
Sichuan
its stronghold on the mainland, although it already saw some Communist activity since it was one area on the road of the Long March . Chiang Kai-shek himself flew to Chongqing
Chongqing
from Taiwan
Taiwan
in November 1949 to lead the defense. But the same month Chongqing switched to the Communists, followed by Chengdu
Chengdu
on 10 December. The Kuomintang general Wang Sheng wanted to stay behind with his troops to continue anticommunist guerilla war in Sichuan, but was recalled to Taiwan. Many of his soldiers made their way there as well, via Burma
Burma
.

PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

The People's Republic of China
China
was founded in 1949, and it split Sichuan
Sichuan
into four areas and separated out Chongqing
Chongqing
municipality. Sichuan
Sichuan
was reconstituted in 1952, with Chongqing
Chongqing
added in 1954, while the former Xikang province was split between Tibet in the west and Sichuan
Sichuan
in the east.

The province was deeply affected by the Great Chinese Famine of 1959–1961, during which period some 9.4 million people (13.07% of the population at the time) died.

In 1978, when Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
took power, Sichuan
Sichuan
was one of the first provinces to undergo limited experimentation with market economic enterprise.

From 1955 until 1997 Sichuan
Sichuan
had been China's most populous province, hitting 100 million mark shortly after the 1982 census figure of 99,730,000. This changed in 1997 when the Sub-provincial city of Chongqing
Chongqing
as well as the three surrounding prefectures of Fuling
Fuling
, Wanxian , and Qianjiang were split off into the new Chongqing Municipality . The new municipality was formed to spearhead China's effort to economically develop its western provinces, as well as to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project.

In 1997 when Sichuan
Sichuan
split, the sum of the two parts was recorded to be 114,720,000 people. As of 2010, Sichuan
Sichuan
ranks as both the 3rd largest and 4th most populous province in China.

In May 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9/8.0 hit just 79 kilometres (49 mi) northwest of the provincial capital of Chengdu. Official figures recorded a death toll of nearly 70,000 people, and millions of people were left homeless.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Sichuan and List of township-level divisions of Sichuan
Sichuan

Sichuan
Sichuan
consists of twenty-one prefecture-level divisions : eighteen prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city ) and three autonomous prefectures :

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF SICHUAN

№ DIVISION CODE ENGLISH NAME CHINESE PINYIN AREA IN KM2 POPULATION 2010 SEAT DIVISIONS

DISTRICTS COUNTIES AUT. COUNTIES CL CITIES

510000 SICHUAN 四川省 Sìchuān Shěng 485,000.00 80,418,200 Chengdu
Chengdu
51 112 4 16

9 510100 CHENGDU 成都市 Chéngdū Shì 12,163.16 14,047,625 Wuhou District 10 5

5

17 510300 ZIGONG 自贡市 Zìgòng Shì 4,373.13 2,678,898 Ziliujing District 4 2

21 510400 PANZHIHUA 攀枝花市 Pānzhīhuā Shì 7,423.42 1,214,121 Dong District 3 2

19 510500 LUZHOU 泸州市 Lúzhōu Shì 12,233.58 4,218,426 Jiangyang District 3 4

10 510600 DEYANG 德阳市 Déyáng Shì 5,951.55 3,615,759 Jingyang District 1 2

3

3 510700 MIANYANG 绵阳市 Miányáng Shì 20,267.46 4,613,862 Fucheng District 3 4 1 1

4 510800 GUANGYUAN 广元市 Guǎngyuán Shì 16,313.70 2,484,125 Lizhou District 3 4

11 510900 SUINING 遂宁市 Sùiníng Shì 5,323.85 3,252,551 Chuanshan District 2 3

16 511000 NEIJIANG 内江市 Nèijiāng Shì 5,385.33 3,702,847 Shizhong District 2 3

15 511100 LESHAN 乐山市 Lèshān Shì 12,827.49 3,235,756 Shizhong District 4 4 2 1

5 511300 NANCHONG 南充市 Nánchōng Shì 12,479.96 6,278,622 Shunqing District 3 5

1

13 511400 MEISHAN 眉山市 Méishān Shì 7,173.82 2,950,548 Dongpo District 2 4

18 511500 YIBIN 宜宾市 Yíbīn Shì 13,293.89 4,472,001 Cuiping District 2 8

12 511600 GUANG\\'AN 广安市 Guǎng'ān Shì 6,301.41 3,205,476 Guang\'an District 2 3

1

7 511700 DAZHOU 达州市 Dázhōu Shì 16,591.00 5,468,092 Tongchuan District 2 4

1

8 511800 YA\\'AN 雅安市 Yǎ'ān Shì 15,213.28 1,507,264 Yucheng District 2 6

6 511900 BAZHONG 巴中市 Bāzhōng Shì 12,301.26 3,283,771 Bazhou District 2 3

14 512000 ZIYANG 资阳市 Zīyáng Shì 7,962.56 3,665,064 Yanjiang District 1 2

2 513200 Aba Tibetan
Tibetan
and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture 阿坝藏族羌族自治州 Ābà Zàngzú Qiāngzú Zìzhìzhōu 82,383.32 898,713 Barkam

12

1

1 513300 Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture 甘孜藏族自治州 Gānzī Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu 147,681.37 1,091,872 Kangding

17

1

20 513400 Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture 凉山彝族自治州 Liángshān Yízú Zìzhìzhōu 60,422.67 4,532,809 Xichang

15 1 1

Sub-provincial cities

The twenty-one prefecture-level divisions of Sichuan
Sichuan
are subdivided into 183 county-level divisions (49 districts , 15 county-level cities , 115 counties , and 4 autonomous counties ).

GEOGRAPHY

Sichuan
Sichuan
consists of two geographically very distinct parts. The eastern part of the province is mostly within the fertile Sichuan basin (which is shared by Sichuan
Sichuan
with Chongqing
Chongqing
Municipality). The western Sichuan
Sichuan
consists of the numerous mountain ranges forming the easternmost part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau , which are known generically as Hengduan Mountains . One of these ranges, Daxue Mountains , contains the highest point of the province Gongga Shan , at 7,556 m (24,790 ft) above sea level. The mountains are formed by the collision of the Tibetan
Tibetan
Plateau with the Yangtze
Yangtze
Plate . Faults here include the Longmenshan Fault which ruptured during the 2008 Sichuan
Sichuan
earthquake. Other mountain ranges surround the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin from north, east, and south. Among them are the Daba Mountains , in the province's northeast.

The Yangtze
Yangtze
River and its tributaries flows through the mountains of western Sichuan
Sichuan
and the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin; thus, the province is upstream of the great cities that stand along the Yangtze
Yangtze
River further to the east, such as Chongqing
Chongqing
, Wuhan
Wuhan
, Nanjing
Nanjing
and Shanghai
Shanghai
. One of the major tributaries of the Yangtze
Yangtze
within the province is the Min River of central Sichuan, which joins the Yangtze
Yangtze
at Yibin . Sichuan's 4 main rivers, as Sichuan
Sichuan
means literally, are Jialing Jiang, Tuo Jiang, Yalong Jiang, and Jinsha Jiang.

Due to great differences in terrain, the climate of the province is highly variable. In general it has strong monsoonal influences, with rainfall heavily concentrated in the summer. Under the Köppen climate classification , the Sichuan Basin (including Chengdu
Chengdu
) in the eastern half of the province experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cwa_ or _Cfa_), with long, hot, humid summers and short, mild to cool, dry and cloudy winters. Consequently, it has China's lowest sunshine totals. The western region has mountainous areas producing a cooler but sunnier climate. Having cool to very cold winters and mild summers, temperatures generally decrease with greater elevation. However, due to high altitude and its inland location, many areas such as Garze County and Zoige County in Sichuan
Sichuan
exhibit a subarctic climate (Köppen _Dwc_)- featuring extremely cold winters down to −30 °C and even cold summer nights. The region is geologically active with landslides and earthquakes. Average elevation ranges from 2,000 to 3,500 meters; average temperatures range from 0 to 15 °C. The southern part of the province, including Panzhihua and Xichang, has a sunny climate with short, very mild winters and very warm to hot summers.

Sichuan
Sichuan
borders Qinghai
Qinghai
to the northwest, Gansu
Gansu
to the north, Shaanxi to the northeast, Chongqing
Chongqing
to the east, Guizhou
Guizhou
to the southeast, Yunnan
Yunnan
to the south, and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the west.

*

_ Larix potaninii _ in autumn colour. *

Jiuzhaigou Valley
Jiuzhaigou Valley
*

Garzê Prefecture *

Zitong County

POLITICS

Main articles: Politics of Sichuan and List of current Chinese provincial leaders

The politics of Sichuan
Sichuan
is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China
China
.

The governor of Sichuan
Sichuan
is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Sichuan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Sichuan
Sichuan
Communist Party of China's Party Committee Secretary , colloquially termed the " Sichuan
Sichuan
CPC Party Chief".

ECONOMY

The capital of Sichuan, Chengdu.

Sichuan
Sichuan
has been historically known as the "Province of Abundance". It is one of the major agricultural production bases of China. Grain, including rice and wheat, is the major product with output that ranked first in China
China
in 1999. Commercial crops include citrus fruits, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, peaches and grapes. Sichuan
Sichuan
also had the largest output of pork among all the provinces and the second largest output of silkworm cocoons in 1999. Sichuan
Sichuan
is rich in mineral resources. It has more than 132 kinds of proven underground mineral resources including vanadium, titanium, and lithium being the largest in China. The Panxi region alone possesses 13.3% of the reserves of iron, 93% of titanium, 69% of vanadium, and 83% of the cobalt of the whole country. Sichuan
Sichuan
also possesses China's largest proven natural gas reserves, the majority of which is transported to more developed eastern regions.

Sichuan
Sichuan
is one of the major industrial centers of China. In addition to heavy industries such as coal, energy, iron and steel, the province has also established a light industrial sector comprising building materials, wood processing, food and silk processing. Chengdu
Chengdu
and Mianyang are the production centers for textiles and electronics products. Deyang , Panzhihua , and Yibin are the production centers for machinery, metallurgical industries, and wine, respectively. Sichuan's wine production accounted for 21.9% of the country's total production in 2000.

Great strides have been made in developing Sichuan
Sichuan
into a modern hi-tech industrial base, by encouraging both domestic and foreign investments in electronics and information technology (such as software), machinery and metallurgy (including automobiles), hydropower, pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries.

The auto industry is an important and key sector of the machinery industry in Sichuan. Most of the auto manufacturing companies are located in Chengdu, Mianyang, Nanchong , and Luzhou .

Other important industries in Sichuan
Sichuan
include aerospace and defense (military) industries. A number of China's rockets ( Long March
Long March
rockets ) and satellites were launched from the Xichang Satellite
Satellite
Launch Center , located in the city of Xichang .

Sichuan's beautiful landscapes and rich historical relics have also made the province a major center for tourism.

The Three Gorges Dam , the largest dam ever constructed, is being built on the Yangtze
Yangtze
River in nearby Hubei
Hubei
province to control flooding in the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin, neighboring Yunnan
Yunnan
province, and downstream. The plan is hailed by some as China's efforts to shift towards alternative energy sources and to further develop its industrial and commercial bases, but others have criticised it for its potentially harmful effects, such as massive resettlement of residents in the reservoir areas, loss of archeological sites, and ecological damages.

Sichuan's nominal GDP for 2011 was 2.15 trillion yuan (US$340 billion), equivalent to 17,380 RMB (US$2,545) per capita. In 2008, the per capita net income of rural residents was 4,121 yuan (US$593), up 16.2% from 2007. The per capita disposable income of the urbanites averaged 12,633 yuan (US$1,819), up 13.8% from 2007.

FOREIGN TRADE

According to the Sichuan
Sichuan
Department of Commerce, the province's total foreign trade was US$22.04 billion in 2008, with an annual increase of 53.3 percent. Exports were US$13.1 billion, an annual increase of 52.3 percent, while imports were US$8.93 billion, an annual increase of 54.7 percent. These achievements were accomplished because of significant changes in China's foreign trade policy, acceleration of the yuan's appreciation, increase of commercial incentives and increase in production costs. The 18 cities and counties witnessed a steady rate of increase. Chengdu, Suining, Nanchong, Dazhou, Ya'an, Abazhou, and Liangshan all saw an increase of more than 40 percent while Leshan, Neijiang, Luzhou, Meishan, Ziyang, and Yibin saw an increase of more than 20 percent. Foreign trade in Zigong, Panzhihua, Guang'an, Bazhong and Ganzi remained constant.

MINIMUM WAGE

The Sichuan
Sichuan
government raised the minimum wage in the province by 12.5 percent at the end of December 2007. The monthly minimum wage went up from 400 to 450 yuan, with a minimum of 4.9 yuan per hour for part-time work, effective 26 December 2007. The government also reduced the four-tier minimum wage structure to three. The top tier mandates a minimum of 650 yuan per month, or 7.1 yuan per hour. National law allows each province to set minimum wages independently, but with a floor of 450 yuan per month.

ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ZONES

Chengdu
Chengdu
Economic And Technological Development Zone

Chengdu
Chengdu
Economic and Technological Development Zone (Chinese: 成都经济技术开发区; pinyin: _Chéngdū jīngjì jìshù kāifā qū_) was approved as state-level development zone in February 2000. The zone now has a developed area of 10.25 km2 (3.96 sq mi) and has a planned area of 26 km2 (10 sq mi). Chengdu
Chengdu
Economic and Technological Development Zone (CETDZ) lies 13.6 km (8.5 mi) east of Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province and the hub of transportation and communication in southwest China. The zone has attracted investors and developers from more than 20 countries to carry out their projects there. Industries encouraged in the zone include mechanical, electronic, new building materials, medicine and food processing.

Chengdu
Chengdu
Export Processing Zone

Chengdu
Chengdu
Export Processing Zone ((Chinese: 成都出口加工区; pinyin: _Chéngdū chūkǒu jiāgōng qū_)) was ratified by the State Council as one of the first 15 export processing zones in the country in April 2000. In 2002, the state ratified the establishment of the Sichuan
Sichuan
Chengdu
Chengdu
Export Processing West Zone with a planned area of 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi), located inside the west region of the Chengdu Hi-tech Zone.

Chengdu
Chengdu
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Established in 1988, Chengdu
Chengdu
Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone (Chinese: 成都高新技术产业开发区; pinyin: _Chéngdū Gāoxīn Jìshù Chǎnyè Kāifā Qū_) was approved as one of the first national hi-tech development zones in 1991. In 2000, it was open to APEC and has been recognized as a national advanced hi-tech development zone in successive assessment activities held by China's Ministry of Science and Technology. It ranks 5th among the 53 national hi-tech development zones in China
China
in terms of comprehensive strength.

Chengdu
Chengdu
Hi-tech Development Zone covers an area of 82.5 km2 (31.9 sq mi), consisting of the South Park and the West Park. By relying on the city sub-center, which is under construction, the South Park is focusing on creating a modernized industrial park of science and technology with scientific and technological innovation, incubation R">

Hongzhaobi, South Renmin Road, Chengdu
Chengdu
*

South Renmin Road, Chengdu
Chengdu
*

Hongxing Road, Chengdu
Chengdu
*

Zongfu Road, Shudu Ave., Chengdu
Chengdu
*

Nijia Qiao, South Renmin Road, Chengdu
Chengdu
*

Jin River, Shangri-la Hotel Chengdu
Chengdu

Mianyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Mianyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1992, with a planned area of 43 km2 (17 sq mi). The zone is situated 96 kilometers away from Chengdu, and is 8 km (5.0 mi) away from Mianyang Airport. Since its establishment, the zone accumulated 177.4 billion yuan of industrial output, 46.2 billion yuan of gross domestic product, fiscal revenue 6.768 billion yuan. There are more than 136 high-tech enterprises in the zone and they accounted for more than 90% of the total industrial output.

The zone is a leader in the electronic information industry, biological medicine, new materials and production of motor vehicles and parts.

TRANSPORTATION

For millennia, Sichuan's rugged and riverine landscape presented enormous challenges to the development of transportation infrastructure, and the lack of roads out of the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin contributed to the region's isolation. Since the 1950s, numerous highways and railways have been built through the Qinling in the north and the Bashan in the east. Dozens of bridges across the Yangtze
Yangtze
and its tributaries to the south and west have brought greater connectivity with Yunnan
Yunnan
and Tibet.

EXPRESSWAYS

On 3 November 2007, the Sichuan
Sichuan
Transportation Bureau announced that the Sui-Yu Expressway was completed after three years of construction. After completion of the Chongqing
Chongqing
section of the road, the 36.64 km (22.77 mi) expressway connected Cheng-Nan Expressway and formed the shortest expressway from Chengdu
Chengdu
to Chongqing
Chongqing
. The new expressway is 50 km (31 mi) shorter than the pre-existing road between Chengdu
Chengdu
and Chongqing; thus journey time between the two cities was reduced by an hour, now taking two and a half hours. The Sui-Yu Expressway is a four lane overpass with a speed limit of 80 km/h (50 mph). The total investment was 1.045 billion yuan .

RAIL

Major railways in Sichuan
Sichuan
include the Baoji– Chengdu
Chengdu
, Chengdu– Chongqing
Chongqing
, Chengdu–Kunming , Neijiang–Kunming , Suining- Chongqing
Chongqing
and Chengdu– Dazhou Railways. A high-speed rail line connects Chengdu
Chengdu
and Dujiangyan .

DEMOGRAPHICS

The Yi are the largest ethnic minority group in Sichuan.

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1912 48,130,000 —

1928 47,992,000 −0.3%

1936–37 52,706,000 +9.8%

1947 47,437,000 −10.0%

1954 62,303,999 +31.3%

1964 67,956,490 +9.1%

1982 99,713,310 +46.7%

1990 107,218,173 +7.5%

2000 82,348,296 −23.2%

2010 80,418,200 −2.3%

Chongqing
Chongqing
was part of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province until 1939 and 1954 to 1997. Xikang Province dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Sichuan
Sichuan
Province.

The majority of the province's population is Han Chinese , who are found scattered throughout the region with the exception of the far western areas. Thus, significant minorities of Tibetan
Tibetan
, Yi , Qiang and Nakhi people reside in the western portion that are impacted by inclement weather and natural disasters, environmentally fragile, and impoverished. Sichuan's capital of Chengdu
Chengdu
is home to a large community of Tibetans, with 30,000 permanent Tibetan
Tibetan
residents and up to 200,000 Tibetan
Tibetan
floating population . The Eastern Lipo , included with either the Yi or the Lisu people , as well as the A-Hmao , also are among the ethnic groups of the provinces.

Sichuan
Sichuan
was China's most populous province before Chongqing
Chongqing
became a directly-controlled municipality; it is currently the fourth most populous, after Guangdong, Shandong
Shandong
and Henan. As of 1832, Sichuan
Sichuan
was the most populous of the 18 provinces in China, with an estimated population at that time of 21 million. It was the third most populous sub-national entity in the world, after Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, India
India
and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic until 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was dissolved. It is also one of the only six to ever reach 100 million people (Uttar Pradesh, Russian RSFSR, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, Sichuan, Bihar
Bihar
and Punjab
Punjab
). It is currently 10th .

RELIGION

Religion in Sichuan
Sichuan
Chinese religion
Chinese religion
(also including Confucians , Taoists and sects other than Yiguandao), or not religious people (71.31%) Buddhism
Buddhism
(15%) Chinese ancestral religion
Chinese ancestral religion
(10.6%) Yiguandao
Yiguandao
(2.4%) Christianity
Christianity
(0.68%) Islam
Islam
(0.1%)

The predominant religions in Sichuan
Sichuan
are Chinese folk religions , Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 10.6% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors , while 0.68% of the population identifies as Christian. According to the Japanese publication _Tokyo Sentaku_ in 1999 there were 2 million members of Yiguandao
Yiguandao
(Tiandao) in Sichuan, equal to 2.4% of the province's population.

The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; the vast majority of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities , Buddhism, Confucianism , Taoism, folk religious sects , and small minorities of Muslims . Tibetan
Tibetan
Buddhism is widespread, especially in areas inhabited by ethnic Tibetans. Sichuan
Sichuan
is one of the cradles of the early Heavenly Masters\' Taoist religious movements .

* Religious sites in Sichuan

*

View of the Temple of the Yellow Dragon (Chinese Buddhism) in Huanglong . *

Statues of buddhas at Litang Monastery of the Tibetan
Tibetan
tradition. *

A pavilion of the Shangqing Temple (Taoist) in Qingchengshan, Chengdu . *

Golden Temple of Mount Emei (Chinese Buddhism).

CULTURE

Further information: Sichuanese people

The _ Sichuanese people_ ( Sichuanese : 巴蜀人 Ba1su2ren2; IPA
IPA
: ; alternatively 川人, 川渝人, 四川人 or 巴蜀民系) are a subgroup of Han Chinese living in mostly Sichuan
Sichuan
province and Chongqing
Chongqing
municipality of China
China
. Beginning from the 9th century BC, Shu (on the Chengdu
Chengdu
Plain ) and Ba (which had its first capital at Enshi City in Hubei
Hubei
and controlled part of the Han Valley ) emerged as cultural and administrative centers where two rival kingdoms were established. Although eventually the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
destroyed the kingdoms of Shu and Ba, the Qin government accelerated the technological and agricultural advancements of Sichuan
Sichuan
making it comparable to that of the Yellow River
Yellow River
Valley. The now-extinct Ba-Shu language was derived from Qin-era settlers and represents the earliest documented division from what is now called Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
.

During the Yuan and Ming dynasties, the population of the area was reduced through wars and the bubonic plague and settlers arrived from the area of modern Hubei, replacing the earlier common Chinese with a new standard.

The Li Bai
Li Bai
Memorial, located in Jiangyou , is a museum in memory of Li Bai, a Chinese poet of Tang China
China
(618–907) built at the place where he grew up. Building was begun in 1962 on the occasion of 1200th anniversary of his death, completed in 1981 and opened to the public in October 1982. The memorial is built in the style of the classic Tang garden.

In 2003, Sichuan
Sichuan
had "88 art performing troupes, 185 culture centers, 133 libraries and 52 museums". Companies based in Sichuan
Sichuan
also produced 23 television series and one film.

LANGUAGES

Main articles: Sichuanese Mandarin and Ba-Shu Chinese Locations of present-day Sichuanese speakers

The Sichuanese once spoke their own variety of Spoken Chinese called Ba-Shu Chinese, or Old Sichuanese before it became extinct during the Ming dynasty. Now most of them speak Sichuanese Mandarin. The Minjiang dialects is thought by some linguists to be a bona fide descendant of Old Sichuanese, but there is no conclusive evidence whether Minjiang dialects are derived from Old Sichuanese or Southwestern Mandarin.

The language of Sichuan
Sichuan
are primarily members of three subfamilies of the Sino- Tibetan
Tibetan
languages .

The most widely used variety of Chinese spoken in Sichuan
Sichuan
is Sichuanese Mandarin , which is the lingua franca in Sichuan, Chongqing and parts of Tibet Autonomous Region . Although Sichuanese is generally classified as a dialect of Mandarin Chinese , it is highly divergent in phonology, vocabulary, and even grammar from Standard Chinese . Minjiang dialect is especially difficult for speakers of other Mandarin dialects to understand.

Garzê Tibetan
Tibetan
Autonomous Prefecture and Ngawa Tibetan
Tibetan
and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in western Sichuan
Sichuan
are populated by Tibetans and Qiang people . Tibetans speak the Khams and Amdo Tibetan
Tibetan
, which are Tibetic languages , as well as various Qiangic languages . The Qiang speak Qiangic languages and often Tibetic languages as well. The Yi people of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture in southern Sichuan
Sichuan
speak the Nuosu language , which is one of the Lolo-Burmese languages ; Yi is written using the Yi script
Yi script
, a syllabary standardized in 1974. The Southwest University for Nationalities has one of China's most prominent Tibetology departments, and the Southwest Minorities Publishing House prints literature in minority languages. In the minority inhabited regions of Sichuan, there is bi-lingual signage and public school instruction in non-Mandarin minority languages.

CUISINE

Main article: Sichuan cuisine

Sichuan
Sichuan
is well known for its spicy cuisine and use of Sichuan peppers due to its more arid climate. The Sichuanese are proud of their cuisine, known as one of the Four Great Traditions of Chinese cuisine . The cuisine here is of "one dish, one shape, hundreds of dishes, hundreds of tastes", as the saying goes, to describe its acclaimed diversity. The most prominent traits of Sichuanese cuisine are described by four words: spicy, hot, fresh and fragrant. Sichuan cuisine is popular in the whole nation of China, so are Sichuan
Sichuan
chefs. Two well-known Sichuan
Sichuan
chefs are Chen Kenmin and his son Chen Kenichi , who was Iron Chef
Iron Chef
Chinese on the Japanese television series "Iron Chef ".

*

Kung Pao chicken , one of the best known dishes of Sichuan cuisine

*

Mapo doufu *

Hot pot
Hot pot
in Mala style *

Dandan noodles *

Mixed sauce noodles (杂酱面)

EDUCATION

Sichuan
Sichuan
Education Department

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

See also: List of universities and colleges in Sichuan

* Chengdu
Chengdu
University of Technology * Sichuan Normal University (Chengdu) * Sichuan University (Chengdu)

* West China
China
Medical Center of Sichuan University

* Southwest Jiaotong University (Chengdu) * Southwest University for Nationalities (Chengdu) * Southwestern University of Finance and Economics (Chengdu) * University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
China
(Chengdu) * Southwest Petroleum University (Chengdu)

TOURISM

Giant pandas eating bamboo in Chengdu
Chengdu
, Sichuan
Sichuan

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites in Sichaun include:

* Dazu Rock Carvings
Dazu Rock Carvings
, listed as property of the Chongqing municipality * Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area * Jiuzhaigou Valley
Jiuzhaigou Valley
Scenic and Historic Interest Area * Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha
Leshan Giant Buddha
Scenic Area * Mount Qincheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System
Dujiangyan Irrigation System
* Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries

As of July 2013, the world's largest building the New Century Global Center is located in the city of Chendgu. At 328 feet (100 m) high, 1,640 feet (500 m) long, and 1,312 feet (400 m) wide, the Center houses retail outlets, a 14-theater cinema, offices, hotels, the Paradise Island waterpark, an artificial beach, a 164 yards (150 m)-long LED screen, skating rink, pirate ship, fake Mediterranean village, 24-hour artificial sun, and 15,000-spot parking area.

NOTABLE INDIVIDUALS

* Li Bai
Li Bai
(701–762), poet of the Tang Dynasty * Guifeng Zongmi (圭峰宗密; 780–841), Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
Buddhist scholar-monk, fifth patriarch of the Huayan (華嚴) school as well as a patriarch of the Heze lineage of Southern Chan * Ouyang Xiu (1007–22 September 1072), Confucian historian, essayist, calligrapher, poet, and official bureaucrat of the Song Dynasty * Su Xun (蘇洵), poet and prose-writer of the Song Dynasty * Su Shi
Su Shi
(8 January 1037 – 24 August 1101), Confucian bureaucrat official, poet, artist, calligrapher, pharmacologist, gastronome, and official bureaucrat of the Song Dynasty * Su Zhe (1039–1112), poet and essayist, Confucian bureaucratic official of the Song Dynasty * Ba Jin
Ba Jin
(25 November 1904 – 17 October 2005), novelist and writer * Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
, Chinese Paramount Leader during the 1980s, his former residence is now a museum. * Chen Kenmin (27 June 1912 – 12 May 1990), chef who specialized in Szechwan cuisine . Father of well-known Iron Chef
Iron Chef
, Chen Kenichi . * Li Ching-Yuen (李清雲; died 6 May 1933), herbalist , martial artist and tactical advisor, also known for extreme longevity claim .

SPORTS

Professional sports teams in Sichuan
Sichuan
include:

* Chinese Basketball Association

* Sichuan Blue Whales

* Chinese Football Association Super League

* Chengdu
Chengdu
Blades

* Chinese Volleyball League

* Sichuan
Sichuan
Volleyball Team

* China
China
Table Tennis Super League

* Sichuan
Sichuan
Quan-Xing Table-Tennis Team

SISTER STATES AND REGIONS

* Washington , United States
United States
(1982) * Michigan
Michigan
, United States
United States
(1982) * Hiroshima Prefecture
Hiroshima Prefecture
, Japan
Japan
(1984) * Yamanashi Prefecture , Japan
Japan
(1985) * South P\'yŏngan , North Korea
North Korea
(1985) * Midi-Pyrénées , France
France
(1987) * North Rhine-Westphalia , Germany
Germany
(1988) * Leicestershire
Leicestershire
, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1988) * Piedmont
Piedmont
, Italy
Italy
(1990) * Pernambuco
Pernambuco
, Brazil
Brazil
(1992) * Tolna County , Hungary
Hungary
(1993) * Valencian Community
Valencian Community
, Spain
Spain
(1994) * Brussels-Capital Region
Brussels-Capital Region
, Belgium
Belgium
(1995) * Barinas State , Venezuela
Venezuela
(2001) * Friesland
Friesland
, Netherlands
Netherlands
(2001) * Almaty Province , Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(2001) * Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
, South Africa
South Africa
(2002) * Suphan Buri , Thailand
Thailand
(2010) * Victoria , Australia
Australia
(2015)

SEE ALSO

* 2013 Ya\'an, Sichuan
Sichuan
earthquake * Eight Immortals from Sichuan * List of prisons in Sichuan * Major national historical and cultural sites in Sichuan
Sichuan
* Qutang Gorge * _The Good Person of Sezuan _

NOTES

* ^ Some of the data collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007 have been reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines ). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China
China
(deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) were not reported by Wang and come from different sources. * ^ Based on a 2006 survey of the distribution of Buddhist institutions in China, assuming that the percentage of institutions per capita is consistent with the percentage of Buddhists (which has been proved so by data on other regions), the Buddhist religion would account for between 10% and 20% (≈15%) of the population of Sichuan. * ^ As of 2010 there are 11,200 Muslims in Sichuan.

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EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: SICHUAN _ (category)

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for SICHUAN _.

* Official website * Economic profile for Sichuan
Sichuan
at HKTDC * _ Geographic data related to Sichuan
Sichuan
at OpenStreetMap
OpenStreetMap

‹ The template below (Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

Qinghai
Qinghai
Gansu
Gansu
Shaanxi
Shaanxi

Tibet

Chongqing
Chongqing

SICHUAN

Yunnan
Yunnan
Guizhou
Guizhou

* v * t * e

Sichuan
Sichuan
topics

Chengdu
Chengdu
(capital )

GENERAL

* Politics * Economy * Education

HISTORY

STATES AND KINGDOMS

* Sanxingdui * Ba ">EVENTS

* Sichuan-Mongol War * Huguang Filling Sichuan
Sichuan
* Railway Protection Movement * Home Front Period

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities * Sichuan Basin * Chengdu
Chengdu
Plain * Regions (West * East * North * South ) * Rivers ( Sichuan
Sichuan
* Min * Jialing * Tuo * Yalong ) * Mountain ranges (Daba * Longmen * Qionglai * Hengduan )

CULTURE

* Sichuanese cuisine * Sichuanese opera * Sichuanese beverages * Chuanzhu * Sichuanese music * Sichuanese architecture * Sichuanese gardens

PEOPLE

* Sichuanese * Hakka * Xiang * Tibetan
Tibetan
* Qiang * Yi

LANGUAGES

* Sichuanese (lingua franca) * Ba-Shu (extinct) * Hakka * Xiang * Sichuanese Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
* Kham * Jiarongic * Qiangic * Nuosu

VISITOR ATTRACTIONS

* Jiuzhaigou Valley
Jiuzhaigou Valley
* Huanglong * Mount Emei * Leshan Giant Buddha
Leshan Giant Buddha
* Mount Qingcheng