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Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China
China
occupying most of the Sichuan Basin
Sichuan Basin
and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
between the Jinsha River
Jinsha River
on the west, the Daba Mountains
Daba Mountains
in the north, and the Yungui Plateau
Yungui Plateau
to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu. The population of Sichuan
Sichuan
stands at 81 million. In antiquity, Sichuan
Sichuan
was the home of the ancient states of Ba and Shu. Their conquest by Qin strengthened it and paved the way for the First Emperor's unification of China
China
under the Qin dynasty. During the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
era, Liu Bei's Shu was based in Sichuan. The area was devastated in the 17th century by Zhang Xianzhong's rebellion and the area's subsequent Manchu conquest, but recovered to become one of China's most productive areas by the 19th century. During the Second World War, Chongqing
Chongqing
served as the temporary capital of the Republic of China, making it the focus of Japanese bombing. It was one of the last mainland areas to fall to the Communists during the Chinese Civil War and was divided into four parts from 1949 to 1952, with Chongqing restored two years later. It suffered gravely during the Great Chinese Famine of 1959–61 but remained China's most populous province until Chongqing
Chongqing
Municipality
Municipality
was again separated from it in 1997. The people of Sichuan
Sichuan
speak a unique form of Mandarin, which took shape during the area's repopulation under the Ming. The family of dialects is now spoken by about 120 million people, which would make it the 10th most spoken language in the world if counted separately. The area's warm damp climate long caused Chinese medicine to advocate spicy dishes; the native Sichuan pepper
Sichuan pepper
was supplemented by Mexican chilis during the Columbian Exchange
Columbian Exchange
to form modern Sichuan
Sichuan
cuisine, whose dishes—including Kung Pao chicken
Kung Pao chicken
and Mapo tofu—have become staples around the world[citation needed].

Contents

1 Names 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Ba and Shu Kingdoms 2.3 Qin dynasty 2.4 Han dynasty 2.5 Three Kingdoms 2.6 Tang dynasty 2.7 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 2.8 Song dynasty 2.9 Ming dynasty 2.10 Qing dynasty 2.11 Republic of China 2.12 People's Republic of China

3 Administrative divisions 4 Geography 5 Politics 6 Economy

6.1 Foreign trade 6.2 Minimum wage 6.3 Economic and technological development zones

6.3.1 Chengdu
Chengdu
Economic and Technological Development Zone 6.3.2 Chengdu
Chengdu
Export Processing Zone 6.3.3 Chengdu
Chengdu
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone 6.3.4 Mianyang
Mianyang
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

7 Transportation

7.1 Expressways 7.2 Rail 7.3 Airports

8 Demographics

8.1 Religion

9 Culture

9.1 Languages 9.2 Cuisine

10 Education

10.1 Colleges and universities

11 Tourism 12 Notable individuals 13 Sports 14 Sister states and regions 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 External links

Names[edit] In Modern Chinese, the name Sichuan
Sichuan
means "four rivers", and in folk etymology this is usually taken to mean the province's four major rivers: the Jialing, Jinsha, Min, and Tuo.[4] In fact, the name of the province is a contraction of the phrases Sì Chuānlù (四川路, "Four River Circuits") and Chuānxiá Sìlù (川峡四路, "Four Circuits of Rivers and Gorges"), referring to the division of the existing imperial administrative circuit into four during the Northern Song dynasty.[5] In addition to its postal map and Wade-Giles forms, the name has also been irregularly romanized as Szű-chuan and Szechuan. In antiquity, the area of modern Sichuan
Sichuan
including the now separated Chongqing
Chongqing
Municipality
Municipality
was known to the Chinese as Ba-Shu, in reference to the ancient states of Ba and Shu that once occupied the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin. Shu continues to be used to refer to the Sichuan
Sichuan
region all through its history right up to the present day; a number of states formed in the area used the same name, for example the Shu of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period, and Former Shu
Former Shu
and Later Shu
Later Shu
of the Ten Kingdoms period. History[edit] Prehistory[edit] The Sichuan Basin
Sichuan Basin
and adjacent areas of the Yangtze
Yangtze
watershed were a cradle of indigenous civilizations dating back to at least the 15th century BC, coinciding with the later years of the Shang in northern China. The region had its own distinct religious beliefs and worldview. Various ores were abundant. The area also formed a stage on the trade routes connecting the Yellow River
Yellow River
watershed with India
India
and the west, the primary means of Eurasian trade before the establishment of the overland and maritime Silk Roads under the Han.[citation needed] Ba and Shu Kingdoms[edit]

Bronze head from Sanxingdui, dating from the Shu kingdom

The most important native states were those of Ba and Shu. Ba stretched into Sichuan
Sichuan
from the Han Valley in Shaanxi
Shaanxi
and Hubei down the Jialing River
Jialing River
as far as its confluence with the Yangtze
Yangtze
at Chongqing.[6] Shu occupied the valley of the Min, including Chengdu
Chengdu
and other areas of western Sichuan.[6] The existence of the early state of Shu was poorly recorded in the main historical records of China. It was, however, referred to in the Book of Documents
Book of Documents
as an ally of the Zhou.[7] Accounts of Shu exist mainly as a mixture of mythological stories and historical legends recorded in local annals such as the Chronicles of Huayang compiled in the Jin dynasty (265–420),[8][9] with folk stories such as that of Emperor Duyu (杜宇) who taught the people agriculture and transformed himself into a cuckoo after his death.[10] The existence of a highly developed civilization with an independent bronze industry in Sichuan
Sichuan
eventually came to light with an archaeological discovery in 1986 at a small village named Sanxingdui
Sanxingdui
in Guanghan, Sichuan.[10] This site, believed to be an ancient city of Shu, was initially discovered by a local farmer in 1929 who found jade and stone artefacts. Excavations by archaeologists in the area yielded few significant finds until 1986 when two major sacrificial pits were found with spectacular bronze items as well as artefacts in jade, gold, earthenware, and stone.[11] This and other discoveries in Sichuan
Sichuan
contest the conventional historiography that the local culture and technology of Sichuan
Sichuan
were undeveloped in comparison to the technologically and culturally "advanced" Yellow River valley of north-central China. Qin dynasty[edit] The rulers of the expansionist Qin dynasty, based in present-day Gansu and Shaanxi, were the first strategists to realize that the area's military importance matched its commercial and agricultural significance. The Sichuan basin
Sichuan basin
is surrounded by the Hengduan Mountains to the west, the Qin Mountains
Qin Mountains
to the north, and Yungui Plateau to the south. Since the Yangtze
Yangtze
flows through the basin and then through the perilous Three Gorges to eastern and southern China, Sichuan
Sichuan
was a staging area for amphibious military forces and a haven for political refugees.[citation needed] Qin armies finished their conquest of the kingdoms of Shu and Ba by 316 BC. Any written records and civil achievements of earlier kingdoms were destroyed. Qin administrators introduced improved agricultural technology. Li Bing, engineered the Dujiangyan irrigation system
Dujiangyan irrigation system
to control the Min River, a major tributary of the Yangtze. This innovative hydraulic system was composed of movable weirs which could be adjusted for high or low water flow according to the season, to either provide irrigation or prevent floods. The increased agricultural output and taxes made the area a source of provisions and men for Qin's unification of China. Han dynasty[edit]

A stone-carved gate pillar, or que, 6 metres (20 ft) in total height, located at the tomb of Gao Yi in Ya'an, Sichuan, built during the Eastern Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(25–220 CE)

Sichuan
Sichuan
was subjected to the autonomous control of kings named by the imperial family of Han dynasty. Following the declining central government of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
in the second century, the Sichuan basin, surrounded by mountains and easily defensible, became a popular place for upstart generals to found kingdoms that challenged the authority of Yangtze
Yangtze
Valley emperors over China.[12]

Warlords in China
China
around 194; Liu Bei's takeover of Yi Province meant he seized the positions of Liu Biao
Liu Biao
and Zhang Lu eventually

Three Kingdoms[edit] In 221, during the partition following the fall of the Eastern Han - the era of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
- Liu Bei
Liu Bei
founded the southwest kingdom of Shu Han
Shu Han
(蜀汉; 221–263) in parts of Sichuan, Guizhou
Guizhou
and Yunnan, with Chengdu
Chengdu
as its capital. Shu-Han
Shu-Han
claimed to be the successor to the Han dynasty.[12] In 263, the Jin dynasty of North China, conquered the Kingdom of Shu-Han
Shu-Han
as its first step on the path to unify China
China
again, under their rule. Salt production becomes a major business in Ziliujing District. During this Six Dynasties
Six Dynasties
period of Chinese disunity, Sichuan
Sichuan
began to be populated by non-Han ethnic minority peoples, owing to the migration of Gelao people
Gelao people
from the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau to the Sichuan
Sichuan
basin, where the Han are indigenous. Tang dynasty[edit]

The Leshan
Leshan
Giant Buddha, built during the latter half of the Tang dynasty (618–907).

Sichuan
Sichuan
came under the firm control of a Chinese central government during the Sui dynasty, but it was during the subsequent Tang dynasty where Sichuan
Sichuan
regained its previous political and cultural prominence for which it was known during the Han. Chengdu
Chengdu
became nationally known as a supplier of armies and the home of Du Fu, who is sometimes called China's greatest poet. During the An Lushan Rebellion
An Lushan Rebellion
(755–763), Emperor Xuanzong of Tang
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang
fled from Chang'an
Chang'an
to Sichuan
Sichuan
which became his refuge. The region was torn by constant warfare and economic distress as it was besieged by the Tibetan Empire.[13] Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms[edit] In the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
period, Sichuan
Sichuan
became the centre of the Shu kingdom with its capital in Chengdu
Chengdu
founded by Wang Jian. In 925 the kingdom was absorbed into Later Tang
Later Tang
but would regain independence under Meng Zhixiang who founded Later Shu
Later Shu
in 934. Later Shu would continue until 965 when it was absorbed by the Song. Song dynasty[edit] During Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(960–1279), Sichuanese were able to protect themselves from Tibetan attacks with the help of central government. Sichuan
Sichuan
also saw cultural revival like great poets Su Xun (蘇洵), Su Shi, and Su Zhe.[13] Although paper currency was known in the Tang dynasty, in 1023 AD, the first true paper money in human history, termed jiaozi (交子, jiāozǐ), was issued in Chengdu.[14][15][16] It was also during the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
did the bulk of the native Ba people if eastern Sichuan
Sichuan
finally assimilated into the Han Chinese ethnicity. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Southern Song dynasty
Song dynasty
established coordinated defenses against the Mongolian Yuan dynasty, in Sichuan and Xiangyang. The Southern Song state monopolized the Sichuan
Sichuan
tea industry to pay for warhorses, but this state intervention eventually brought devastation to the local economy.[17] The line of defense was finally broken through after the first use of firearms in history during the six-year Battle of Xiangyang, which ended in 1273. The Mongols
Mongols
was said to have sacked Chengdu
Chengdu
in 1279 with over a million of its inhabitants claimed to have been killed.[18] The recorded number of families in Sichuan
Sichuan
dropped from the census taken in 1162 AD of 2,640,000 families,[19] to 120,000 families[20] in 1282 AD,[21] as a result of forced population transfer to Mongolia, possible census inaccuracy and other war related causes.[citation needed] One such instance of deportation of Sichuanese civilians to Mongolia the almost immediate aftermath of winning a battle in 1259, more than 80,000 people were taken captive from one city in Sichuan
Sichuan
and moved to Mongolia.[22] Ming dynasty[edit] The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
defeated Ming Yuchen's Xia polity which ruled Sichuan.[23] During the Ming dynasty, major architectural works were created in Sichuan. Buddhism
Buddhism
remained influential in the region. Bao'en Temple is a well-preserved 15th century monastery complex built between 1440 and 1446 during the Zhengtong Emperor's reign (1427–64). Dabei Hall enshrines a thousand-armed wooden image of Guanyin
Guanyin
and Huayan Hall is a repository with a revolving sutra cabinet. The wall paintings, sculptures and other ornamental details are masterpieces of the Ming period.[24] In the middle of the 17th century, the peasant rebel leader Zhang Xianzhong (1606–1646) from Yan'an, Shanxi
Shanxi
Province, nicknamed Yellow Tiger, led his peasant troop from north China
China
to the south, and conquered Sichuan. Upon capturing it, he declared himself emperor of the Daxi dynasty (大西王朝). In response to the resistance from local elites, he massacred a large number of people in Sichuan.[25] As a result of the massacre as well as years of turmoil during the Ming-Qing transition, the population of Sichuan
Sichuan
fell sharply, requiring a massive resettlement of people from the neighboring Huguang Province
Huguang Province
(modern Hubei
Hubei
and Hunan) and other provinces during the Qing dynasty.[26][27][28] Qing dynasty[edit] See also: Hakka_people § Sichuan Sichuan
Sichuan
was originally the origin of the Deng lineage until one of them was hired as an official in Guangdong
Guangdong
during the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
but during the Qing plan to increase the population in 1671 they came to Sichuan
Sichuan
again. Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
was born in Sichuan.[29] During the Qing dynasty, Sichuan
Sichuan
was merged with Shaanxi
Shaanxi
and Shanxi
Shanxi
to create "Shenzhuan" during 1680-1731 and 1735-1748.[13] The current borders of Sichuan
Sichuan
(which then included Chongqing) were established in the early 18th century. In the aftermath of the Sino-Nepalese War
Sino-Nepalese War
on China's southwestern border, the Qing gave Sichuan's provincial government direct control over the minority-inhabited areas of Sichuan west of Kangding, which had previously been handled by an amban.[27] A landslide dam on the Dadu River caused by an earthquake gave way on 10 June 1786. The resulting flood killed 100,000 people.[30] Republic of China[edit]

Japanese bombers bombing a Chinese road in Sichuan
Sichuan
during WW2

In the early 20th century, the newly founded Republic of China established Chuanbian Special
Special
Administrative District (川邊特別行政區), which acknowledged the unique culture and economy of the region largely differing from that of mainstream northern China
China
in the Yellow River
Yellow River
region. The Special
Special
District later became the province of Xikang, incorporating the areas inhabited by Yi, Tibetan and Qiang ethnic minorities to its west, and eastern part of today's Tibet Autonomous Region. In the 20th century, as Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Wuhan
Wuhan
had all been occupied by the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the capital of the Republic of China
China
had been temporary relocated to Chongqing, then a major city in Sichuan. An enduring legacy of this move is that nearby inland provinces, such as Shaanxi, Gansu, and Guizhou, which previously never had modern Western-style universities, began to be developed in this regard.[31] The difficulty of accessing the region overland from the eastern part of China
China
and the foggy climate hindering the accuracy of Japanese bombing of the Sichuan Basin, made the region the stronghold of Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government during 1938–45, and led to the Bombing of Chongqing. The Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
was soon followed by the resumed Chinese Civil War, and the cities of East China
China
are obtained by the Communists one after another, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
government again tried to make Sichuan
Sichuan
its stronghold on the mainland, although it already saw some Communist activity since it was one area on the road of the Long March. Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
himself flew to Chongqing
Chongqing
from Taiwan
Taiwan
in November 1949 to lead the defense. But the same month Chongqing switched to the Communists, followed by Chengdu
Chengdu
on 10 December. The Kuomintang
Kuomintang
general Wang Sheng wanted to stay behind with his troops to continue anticommunist guerilla war in Sichuan, but was recalled to Taiwan. Many of his soldiers made their way there as well, via Burma.[32] People's Republic of China[edit] The People's Republic of China
China
was founded in 1949, and it split Sichuan
Sichuan
into four areas and separated out Chongqing
Chongqing
municipality. Sichuan
Sichuan
was reconstituted in 1952, with Chongqing
Chongqing
added in 1954, while the former Xikang
Xikang
province was split between Tibet in the west and Sichuan
Sichuan
in the east.[13]

Shops in Jundao, a town devastated by the 2008 Sichuan
Sichuan
earthquake

The province was deeply affected by the Great Chinese Famine
Great Chinese Famine
of 1959–1961, during which period some 9.4 million people (13.07% of the population at the time) died.[33] In 1978, when Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
took power, Sichuan
Sichuan
was one of the first provinces to undergo limited experimentation with market economic enterprise. From 1955 until 1997 Sichuan
Sichuan
had been China's most populous province, hitting 100 million mark shortly after the 1982 census figure of 99,730,000.[34] This changed in 1997 when the Sub-provincial city
Sub-provincial city
of Chongqing
Chongqing
as well as the three surrounding prefectures of Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang were split off into the new Chongqing Municipality. The new municipality was formed to spearhead China's effort to economically develop its western provinces, as well as to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam
Three Gorges Dam
project. In 1997 when Sichuan
Sichuan
split, the sum of the two parts was recorded to be 114,720,000 people.[35] As of 2010, Sichuan
Sichuan
ranks as both the 3rd largest and 4th most populous province in China.[36] In May 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 7.9/8.0 hit just 79 kilometres (49 mi) northwest of the provincial capital of Chengdu. Official figures recorded a death toll of nearly 70,000 people, and millions of people were left homeless.[37] Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Sichuan and List of township-level divisions of Sichuan Sichuan
Sichuan
consists of twenty-one prefecture-level divisions: eighteen prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city) and three autonomous prefectures:

Administrative divisions of Sichuan

№ Division code[38] English name Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[39] Population 2010[40] Seat Divisions[41]

Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities

  510000 Sichuan 四川省 Sìchuān Shěng 485,000.00 80,418,200 Chengdu 53 109 4 17

9 510100 Chengdu 成都市 Chéngdū Shì 12,163.16 14,047,625 Wuhou District 11 4

5

17 510300 Zigong 自贡市 Zìgòng Shì 4,373.13 2,678,898 Ziliujing District 4 2

21 510400 Panzhihua 攀枝花市 Pānzhīhuā Shì 7,423.42 1,214,121 Dong District 3 2

19 510500 Luzhou 泸州市 Lúzhōu Shì 12,233.58 4,218,426 Jiangyang District 3 4

10 510600 Deyang 德阳市 Déyáng Shì 5,951.55 3,615,759 Jingyang District 2 1

3

3 510700 Mianyang 绵阳市 Miányáng Shì 20,267.46 4,613,862 Fucheng District 3 4 1 1

4 510800 Guangyuan 广元市 Guǎngyuán Shì 16,313.70 2,484,125 Lizhou District 3 4

11 510900 Suining 遂宁市 Sùiníng Shì 5,323.85 3,252,551 Chuanshan District 2 3

16 511000 Neijiang 内江市 Nèijiāng Shì 5,385.33 3,702,847 Shizhong District 2 2

1

15 511100 Leshan 乐山市 Lèshān Shì 12,827.49 3,235,756 Shizhong District 4 4 2 1

5 511300 Nanchong 南充市 Nánchōng Shì 12,479.96 6,278,622 Shunqing District 3 5

1

13 511400 Meishan 眉山市 Méishān Shì 7,173.82 2,950,548 Dongpo District 2 4

18 511500 Yibin 宜宾市 Yíbīn Shì 13,293.89 4,472,001 Cuiping District 2 8

12 511600 Guang'an 广安市 Guǎng'ān Shì 6,301.41 3,205,476 Guang'an
Guang'an
District 2 3

1

7 511700 Dazhou 达州市 Dázhōu Shì 16,591.00 5,468,092 Tongchuan District 2 4

1

8 511800 Ya'an 雅安市 Yǎ'ān Shì 15,213.28 1,507,264 Yucheng District 2 6

6 511900 Bazhong 巴中市 Bāzhōng Shì 12,301.26 3,283,771 Bazhou District 2 3

14 512000 Ziyang 资阳市 Zīyáng Shì 7,962.56 3,665,064 Yanjiang District 1 2

2 513200 Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture 阿坝藏族羌族自治州 Ābà Zàngzú Qiāngzú Zìzhìzhōu 82,383.32 898,713 Barkam

12

1

1 513300 Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture 甘孜藏族自治州 Gānzī Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu 147,681.37 1,091,872 Kangding

17

1

20 513400 Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture 凉山彝族自治州 Liángshān Yízú Zìzhìzhōu 60,422.67 4,532,809 Xichang

15 1 1

  Sub-provincial cities

The twenty-one prefecture-level divisions of Sichuan
Sichuan
are subdivided into 183 county-level divisions (53 districts, 17 county-level cities, 109 counties, and 4 autonomous counties). Geography[edit] Sichuan
Sichuan
consists of two geographically very distinct parts. The eastern part of the province is mostly within the fertile Sichuan basin (which is shared by Sichuan
Sichuan
with Chongqing
Chongqing
Municipality). The western Sichuan
Sichuan
consists of the numerous mountain ranges forming the easternmost part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which are known generically as Hengduan Mountains. One of these ranges, Daxue Mountains, contains the highest point of the province Gongga Shan, at 7,556 m (24,790 ft) above sea level. The mountains are formed by the collision of the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
with the Yangtze
Yangtze
Plate. Faults here include the Longmenshan Fault
Longmenshan Fault
which ruptured during the 2008 Sichuan
Sichuan
earthquake. Other mountain ranges surround the Sichuan Basin from north, east, and south. Among them are the Daba Mountains, in the province's northeast. The Yangtze
Yangtze
River and its tributaries flows through the mountains of western Sichuan
Sichuan
and the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin; thus, the province is upstream of the great cities that stand along the Yangtze
Yangtze
River further to the east, such as Chongqing, Wuhan, Nanjing
Nanjing
and Shanghai. One of the major tributaries of the Yangtze
Yangtze
within the province is the Min River of central Sichuan, which joins the Yangtze
Yangtze
at Yibin. Sichuan's 4 main rivers, as Sichuan
Sichuan
means literally, are Jialing Jiang, Tuo Jiang, Yalong Jiang, and Jinsha Jiang. Due to great differences in terrain, the climate of the province is highly variable. In general it has strong monsoonal influences, with rainfall heavily concentrated in the summer. Under the Köppen climate classification, the Sichuan Basin
Sichuan Basin
(including Chengdu) in the eastern half of the province experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa or Cfa), with long, hot, wet summers and short, mild to cool, dry and cloudy winters. Consequently, it has China's lowest sunshine totals. The western region has mountainous areas producing a cooler but sunnier climate. Having cool to very cold winters and mild summers, temperatures generally decrease with greater elevation. However, due to high altitude and its inland location, many areas such as Garze County and Zoige County in Sichuan
Sichuan
exhibit a subarctic climate (Köppen Dwc)- featuring extremely cold winters down to −30 °C and even cold summer nights. The region is geologically active with landslides and earthquakes. Average elevation ranges from 2,000 to 3,500 meters; average temperatures range from 0 to 15 °C.[42] The southern part of the province, including Panzhihua
Panzhihua
and Xichang, has a sunny climate with short, very mild winters and very warm to hot summers. Sichuan
Sichuan
borders Qinghai
Qinghai
to the northwest, Gansu
Gansu
to the north, Shaanxi to the northeast, Chongqing
Chongqing
to the east, Guizhou
Guizhou
to the southeast, Yunnan
Yunnan
to the south, and the Tibet Autonomous Region
Tibet Autonomous Region
to the west.

Larix potaninii
Larix potaninii
in autumn colour.

Jiuzhaigou
Jiuzhaigou
Valley

Garzê Prefecture

Zitong County

Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Sichuan and List of current Chinese provincial leaders The politics of Sichuan
Sichuan
is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The governor of Sichuan
Sichuan
is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Sichuan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Sichuan
Sichuan
Communist Party of China's Party Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the " Sichuan
Sichuan
CPC Party Chief". Economy[edit]

The capital of Sichuan, Chengdu.

Sichuan
Sichuan
has been historically known as the "Province of Abundance". It is one of the major agricultural production bases of China. Grain, including rice and wheat, is the major product with output that ranked first in China
China
in 1999. Commercial crops include citrus fruits, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, peaches and grapes. Sichuan
Sichuan
also had the largest output of pork among all the provinces and the second largest output of silkworm cocoons in 1999. Sichuan
Sichuan
is rich in mineral resources. It has more than 132 kinds of proven underground mineral resources including vanadium, titanium, and lithium being the largest in China. The Panxi region alone possesses 13.3% of the reserves of iron, 93% of titanium, 69% of vanadium, and 83% of the cobalt of the whole country.[43] Sichuan
Sichuan
also possesses China's largest proven natural gas reserves, the majority of which is transported to more developed eastern regions.[36] Sichuan
Sichuan
is one of the major industrial centers of China. In addition to heavy industries such as coal, energy, iron and steel, the province has also established a light industrial sector comprising building materials, wood processing, food and silk processing. Chengdu
Chengdu
and Mianyang
Mianyang
are the production centers for textiles and electronics products. Deyang, Panzhihua, and Yibin
Yibin
are the production centers for machinery, metallurgical industries, and wine, respectively. Sichuan's wine production accounted for 21.9% of the country's total production in 2000. Great strides have been made in developing Sichuan
Sichuan
into a modern hi-tech industrial base, by encouraging both domestic and foreign investments in electronics and information technology (such as software), machinery and metallurgy (including automobiles), hydropower, pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries. The auto industry is an important and key sector of the machinery industry in Sichuan. Most of the auto manufacturing companies are located in Chengdu, Mianyang, Nanchong, and Luzhou.[44] Other important industries in Sichuan
Sichuan
include aerospace and defense (military) industries. A number of China's rockets (Long March rockets) and satellites were launched from the Xichang
Xichang
Satellite Launch Center, located in the city of Xichang. Sichuan's beautiful landscapes and rich historical relics have also made the province a major center for tourism. The Three Gorges Dam, the largest dam ever constructed, is being built on the Yangtze
Yangtze
River in nearby Hubei
Hubei
province to control flooding in the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin, neighboring Yunnan
Yunnan
province, and downstream. The plan is hailed by some as China's efforts to shift towards alternative energy sources and to further develop its industrial and commercial bases, but others have criticised it for its potentially harmful effects, such as massive resettlement of residents in the reservoir areas, loss of archeological sites, and ecological damages. Sichuan's nominal GDP for 2011 was 2.15 trillion yuan (US$340 billion), equivalent to 17,380 RMB (US$2,545) per capita.[45] In 2008, the per capita net income of rural residents was 4,121 yuan (US$593), up 16.2% from 2007. The per capita disposable income of the urbanites averaged 12,633 yuan (US$1,819), up 13.8% from 2007.[46][47] Foreign trade[edit] According to the Sichuan
Sichuan
Department of Commerce, the province's total foreign trade was US$22.04 billion in 2008, with an annual increase of 53.3 percent. Exports were US$13.1 billion, an annual increase of 52.3 percent, while imports were US$8.93 billion, an annual increase of 54.7 percent. These achievements were accomplished because of significant changes in China's foreign trade policy, acceleration of the yuan's appreciation, increase of commercial incentives and increase in production costs. The 18 cities and counties witnessed a steady rate of increase. Chengdu, Suining, Nanchong, Dazhou, Ya'an, Abazhou, and Liangshan all saw an increase of more than 40 percent while Leshan, Neijiang, Luzhou, Meishan, Ziyang, and Yibin
Yibin
saw an increase of more than 20 percent. Foreign trade in Zigong, Panzhihua, Guang'an, Bazhong
Bazhong
and Ganzi remained constant. Minimum wage[edit] The Sichuan
Sichuan
government raised the minimum wage in the province by 12.5 percent at the end of December 2007. The monthly minimum wage went up from 400 to 450 yuan, with a minimum of 4.9 yuan per hour for part-time work, effective 26 December 2007. The government also reduced the four-tier minimum wage structure to three. The top tier mandates a minimum of 650 yuan per month, or 7.1 yuan per hour. National law allows each province to set minimum wages independently, but with a floor of 450 yuan per month. Economic and technological development zones[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
Economic and Technological Development Zone[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
Economic and Technological Development Zone (Chinese: 成都经济技术开发区; pinyin: Chéngdū jīngjì jìshù kāifā qū) was approved as state-level development zone in February 2000. The zone now has a developed area of 10.25 km2 (3.96 sq mi) and has a planned area of 26 km2 (10 sq mi). Chengdu
Chengdu
Economic and Technological Development Zone (CETDZ) lies 13.6 km (8.5 mi) east of Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province and the hub of transportation and communication in southwest China. The zone has attracted investors and developers from more than 20 countries to carry out their projects there. Industries encouraged in the zone include mechanical, electronic, new building materials, medicine and food processing.[48] Chengdu
Chengdu
Export Processing Zone[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
Export Processing Zone ((Chinese: 成都出口加工区; pinyin: Chéngdū chūkǒu jiāgōng qū)) was ratified by the State Council as one of the first 15 export processing zones in the country in April 2000. In 2002, the state ratified the establishment of the Sichuan
Sichuan
Chengdu
Chengdu
Export Processing West Zone with a planned area of 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi), located inside the west region of the Chengdu
Chengdu
Hi-tech Zone.[49] Chengdu
Chengdu
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone[edit] Established in 1988, Chengdu
Chengdu
Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone (Chinese: 成都高新技术产业开发区; pinyin: Chéngdū Gāoxīn Jìshù Chǎnyè Kāifā Qū) was approved as one of the first national hi-tech development zones in 1991. In 2000, it was open to APEC and has been recognized as a national advanced hi-tech development zone in successive assessment activities held by China's Ministry of Science and Technology. It ranks 5th among the 53 national hi-tech development zones in China
China
in terms of comprehensive strength. Chengdu
Chengdu
Hi-tech Development Zone covers an area of 82.5 km2 (31.9 sq mi), consisting of the South Park and the West Park. By relying on the city sub-center, which is under construction, the South Park is focusing on creating a modernized industrial park of science and technology with scientific and technological innovation, incubation R&D, modern service industry and Headquarters economy playing leading roles. Priority has been given to the development of software industry. Located on both sides of the "Chengdu-Dujiangyan-Jiuzhaigou" golden tourism channel, the West Park aims at building a comprehensive industrial park targeting at industrial clustering with complete supportive functions. The West Park gives priority to three major industries i.e. electronic information, biomedicine and precision machinery.[50]

Hongzhaobi, South Renmin Road, Chengdu

South Renmin Road, Chengdu

Hongxing Road, Chengdu

Zongfu Road, Shudu Ave., Chengdu

Nijia Qiao, South Renmin Road, Chengdu

Jin River, Shangri-la Hotel Chengdu

Mianyang
Mianyang
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone[edit] Mianyang
Mianyang
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1992, with a planned area of 43 km2 (17 sq mi). The zone is situated 96 kilometers away from Chengdu, and is 8 km (5.0 mi) away from Mianyang
Mianyang
Airport. Since its establishment, the zone accumulated 177.4 billion yuan of industrial output, 46.2 billion yuan of gross domestic product, fiscal revenue 6.768 billion yuan. There are more than 136 high-tech enterprises in the zone and they accounted for more than 90% of the total industrial output. The zone is a leader in the electronic information industry, biological medicine, new materials and production of motor vehicles and parts.[51] Transportation[edit] For millennia, Sichuan's rugged and riverine landscape presented enormous challenges to the development of transportation infrastructure, and the lack of roads out of the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin contributed to the region's isolation. Since the 1950s, numerous highways and railways have been built through the Qinling in the north and the Bashan in the east. Dozens of bridges across the Yangtze
Yangtze
and its tributaries to the south and west have brought greater connectivity with Yunnan
Yunnan
and Tibet. Expressways[edit] On 3 November 2007, the Sichuan
Sichuan
Transportation Bureau announced that the Sui-Yu Expressway was completed after three years of construction. After completion of the Chongqing
Chongqing
section of the road, the 36.64 km (22.77 mi) expressway connected Cheng-Nan Expressway and formed the shortest expressway from Chengdu
Chengdu
to Chongqing. The new expressway is 50 km (31 mi) shorter than the pre-existing road between Chengdu
Chengdu
and Chongqing; thus journey time between the two cities was reduced by an hour, now taking two and a half hours. The Sui-Yu Expressway is a four lane overpass with a speed limit of 80 km/h (50 mph). The total investment was 1.045 billion yuan. Rail[edit] Major railways in Sichuan
Sichuan
include the Baoji–Chengdu, Chengdu–Chongqing, Chengdu–Kunming, Neijiang–Kunming, Suining- Chongqing
Chongqing
and Chengdu– Dazhou
Dazhou
Railways. A high-speed rail line connects Chengdu
Chengdu
and Dujiangyan. Airports[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
Shuangliu International Airport is the 4th-busiest airport in mainland China. It was among world's top 30 busiest airport in 2015, and the busiest in western and central China. It was also the fifth-busiest airport in terms of cargo traffic in China
China
for 2013. Chengdu
Chengdu
airport is the hub of Sichuan
Sichuan
Airlines, Chengdu
Chengdu
Airlines, Shenzhen Airlines, Tibet Airlines, China
China
Southern Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, Lucky Air
Lucky Air
and Air China,and Chengdu
Chengdu
airport is also a 72-hour transit visa-free airport for foraigners in many countries. Demographics[edit]

The Yi are the largest ethnic minority group in Sichuan.

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1912[52] 48,130,000 —    

1928[53] 47,992,000 −0.3%

1936–37[54] 52,706,000 +9.8%

1947[55] 47,437,000 −10.0%

1954[56] 62,303,999 +31.3%

1964[57] 67,956,490 +9.1%

1982[58] 99,713,310 +46.7%

1990[59] 107,218,173 +7.5%

2000[60] 82,348,296 −23.2%

2010[61] 80,418,200 −2.3%

Chongqing
Chongqing
was part of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province until 1939 and 1954 to 1997. Xikang
Xikang
Province dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Sichuan
Sichuan
Province.

The majority of the province's population is Han Chinese
Han Chinese
(95% of provincial population), who are found scattered throughout the region with the exception of the far western areas. Thus, significant minorities of Tibetan, Yi, Qiang and Nakhi people
Nakhi people
reside in the western portion that are impacted by inclement weather and natural disasters, environmentally fragile, and impoverished. Sichuan's capital of Chengdu
Chengdu
is home to a large community of Tibetans, with 30,000 permanent Tibetan residents and up to 200,000 Tibetan floating population.[62] The Eastern Lipo, included with either the Yi or the Lisu people, as well as the A-Hmao, also are among the ethnic groups of the provinces. Sichuan
Sichuan
was China's most populous province before Chongqing
Chongqing
became a directly-controlled municipality; it is currently the fourth most populous, after Guangdong, Shandong
Shandong
and Henan. As of 1832, Sichuan
Sichuan
was the most populous of the 18 provinces in China, with an estimated population at that time of 21 million.[63] It was the third most populous sub-national entity in the world, after Uttar Pradesh, India and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
until 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was dissolved. It is also one of the only six to ever reach 100 million people (Uttar Pradesh, Russian RSFSR, Maharashtra, Sichuan, Bihar
Bihar
and Punjab). It is currently 10th. Religion[edit]

Religion in Sichuan[64][note 1]    Chinese religion
Chinese religion
(also including Confucians, Taoists and sects other than Yiguandao), or not religious people (71.31%)   Buddhism[note 2] (15%)    Chinese ancestral religion
Chinese ancestral religion
(10.6%)   Yiguandao[66] (2.4%)    Christianity
Christianity
(0.68%)   Islam[note 3] (0.1%)

The predominant religions in Sichuan
Sichuan
are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 10.6% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 0.68% of the population identifies as Christian.[64] According to the Japanese publication Tokyo Sentaku in 1999 there were 2 million members of Yiguandao
Yiguandao
(Tiandao) in Sichuan, equal to 2.4% of the province's population.[66] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; the vast majority of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims. Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is widespread, especially in areas inhabited by ethnic Tibetans. Sichuan is one of the cradles of the early Heavenly Masters' Taoist religious movements.

Religious sites in Sichuan

View of the Temple of the Yellow Dragon (Chinese Buddhism) in Huanglong.

Statues of buddhas at Litang Monastery of the Tibetan tradition.

A pavilion of the Shangqing Temple (Taoist) in Qingchengshan, Chengdu.

Golden Temple of Mount Emei
Mount Emei
(Chinese Buddhism).

Culture[edit] Main article: Bashu culture Further information: Sichuanese people The Sichuanese people
Sichuanese people
(Sichuanese: 巴蜀人 Ba1su2ren2; IPA: [pa55su21zən21]; alternatively 川人, 川渝人, 四川人 or 巴蜀民系) are a subgroup of Han Chinese
Han Chinese
living in mostly Sichuan province and Chongqing
Chongqing
municipality of China. Beginning from the 9th century BC, Shu (on the Chengdu
Chengdu
Plain) and Ba (which had its first capital at Enshi City
Enshi City
in Hubei
Hubei
and controlled part of the Han Valley) emerged as cultural and administrative centers where two rival kingdoms were established. Although eventually the Qin dynasty destroyed the kingdoms of Shu and Ba, the Qin government accelerated the technological and agricultural advancements of Sichuan
Sichuan
making it comparable to that of the Yellow River
Yellow River
Valley. The now-extinct Ba-Shu language was derived from Qin-era settlers and represents the earliest documented division from what is now called Middle Chinese. During the Yuan and Ming dynasties, the population of the area was reduced through wars and the bubonic plague and settlers arrived from the area of modern Hubei, replacing the earlier common Chinese with a new standard. The Li Bai
Li Bai
Memorial, located in Jiangyou, is a museum in memory of Li Bai, a Chinese poet of Tang China
China
(618–907) built at the place where he grew up. Building was begun in 1962 on the occasion of 1200th anniversary of his death, completed in 1981 and opened to the public in October 1982. The memorial is built in the style of the classic Tang garden. In 2003, Sichuan
Sichuan
had "88 art performing troupes, 185 culture centers, 133 libraries and 52 museums". Companies based in Sichuan
Sichuan
also produced 23 television series and one film.[68] Languages[edit] Main articles: Sichuanese Mandarin
Sichuanese Mandarin
and Ba-Shu Chinese

Locations of present-day Sichuanese speakers

The Sichuanese once spoke their own variety of Spoken Chinese called Ba-Shu Chinese, or Old Sichuanese before it became extinct during the Ming dynasty. Now most of them speak Sichuanese Mandarin. The Minjiang dialects is thought by some linguists to be a bona fide descendant of Old Sichuanese, but there is no conclusive evidence whether Minjiang dialects are derived from Old Sichuanese or Southwestern Mandarin. The language of Sichuan
Sichuan
are primarily members of three subfamilies of the Sino-Tibetan languages. The most widely used variety of Chinese spoken in Sichuan
Sichuan
is Sichuanese Mandarin, which is the lingua franca in Sichuan, Chongqing and parts of Tibet Autonomous Region. Although Sichuanese is generally classified as a dialect of Mandarin Chinese, it is highly divergent in phonology, vocabulary, and even grammar from Standard Chinese.[69] Minjiang dialect
Minjiang dialect
is especially difficult for speakers of other Mandarin dialects to understand.[70][71][72][73] Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
and Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in western Sichuan
Sichuan
are populated by Tibetans and Qiang people. Tibetans speak the Khams and Amdo Tibetan, which are Tibetic languages, as well as various Qiangic languages. The Qiang speak Qiangic languages
Qiangic languages
and often Tibetic languages
Tibetic languages
as well. The Yi people of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture
Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture
in southern Sichuan
Sichuan
speak the Nuosu language, which is one of the Lolo-Burmese languages; Yi is written using the Yi script, a syllabary standardized in 1974. The Southwest University for Nationalities has one of China's most prominent Tibetology
Tibetology
departments, and the Southwest Minorities Publishing House prints literature in minority languages.[74] In the minority inhabited regions of Sichuan, there is bi-lingual signage and public school instruction in non-Mandarin minority languages. Cuisine[edit] Main article: Sichuan
Sichuan
cuisine Sichuan
Sichuan
is well known for its spicy cuisine and use of Sichuan
Sichuan
peppers due to its more humid climate. The Sichuanese are proud of their cuisine, known as one of the Four Great Traditions of Chinese cuisine. The cuisine here is of "one dish, one shape, hundreds of dishes, hundreds of tastes", as the saying goes, to describe its acclaimed diversity. The most prominent traits of Sichuanese cuisine are described by four words: spicy, hot, fresh and fragrant.[75] Sichuan cuisine is popular in the whole nation of China, so are Sichuan
Sichuan
chefs. Two well-known Sichuan
Sichuan
chefs are Chen Kenmin and his son Chen Kenichi, who was Iron Chef
Iron Chef
Chinese on the Japanese television series "Iron Chef". Another famous Sichuan cuisine
Sichuan cuisine
is hotpot. Hot pot
Hot pot
is a Chinese soup containing a variety of East Asian foodstuffs and ingredients, prepared with a simmering pot of soup stock at the dining table. While the hot pot is kept simmering, ingredients are placed into the pot and are cooked at the table. Typical hot pot dishes include thinly sliced meat, leaf vegetables, mushrooms, wontons, egg dumplings, tofu, and seafood. The cooked food is usually eaten with a dipping sauce.

Kung Pao chicken, one of the best known dishes of Sichuan
Sichuan
cuisine

Mapo doufu

Hot pot
Hot pot
in Mala style

Dandan noodles

Mixed sauce noodles (杂酱面)

Education[edit]

Sichuan
Sichuan
Education Department

Colleges and universities[edit] See also: List of universities and colleges in Sichuan

Sichuan University
Sichuan University
(Chengdu)

West China
China
Medical Center of Sichuan
Sichuan
University

Southwest Jiaotong University
Southwest Jiaotong University
(Chengdu) Southwest University for Nationalities (Chengdu) Southwestern University of Finance and Economics
Southwestern University of Finance and Economics
(Chengdu) University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
China
(Chengdu) Southwest Petroleum University
Southwest Petroleum University
( Nanchong
Nanchong
and Chengdu) Chengdu
Chengdu
University of Technology Chengdu
Chengdu
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Sichuan Agricultural University
Sichuan Agricultural University
(Ya'an, Chengdu, Dujiangyan) China
China
West Normal University (Nanchong) Sichuan Normal University
Sichuan Normal University
(Chengdu) Southwest University of Science and Technology
Southwest University of Science and Technology
(Mianyang) Sichuan
Sichuan
Police College (Luzhou) North Sichuan Medical College
North Sichuan Medical College
(Nanchong) Sichuan University
Sichuan University
of Science and Engineering ( Zigong
Zigong
and Yibin) Chengdu
Chengdu
University Xihua University
Xihua University
(Chengdu) Xichang
Xichang
University(Xichang) Aba Teachers University (Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture) Civil Aviation Flight University of China
China
(Guanghan)

Tourism[edit]

Giant pandas eating bamboo in Chengdu, Sichuan

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites in Sichuan
Sichuan
province and Chongqing municipality include:

Dazu Rock Carvings
Dazu Rock Carvings
and Wulong Karst
Wulong Karst
( Chongqing
Chongqing
municipality) Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area Jiuzhaigou Valley
Jiuzhaigou Valley
Scenic and Historic Interest Area Mount Emei
Mount Emei
Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha
Leshan Giant Buddha
Scenic Area Mount Qincheng
Mount Qincheng
and the Dujiangyan
Dujiangyan
Irrigation System Sichuan
Sichuan
Giant Panda Sanctuaries

As of July 2013, the world's largest building the New Century Global Center is located in the city of Chendgu. At 328 feet (100 m) high, 1,640 feet (500 m) long, and 1,312 feet (400 m) wide, the Center houses retail outlets, a 14-theater cinema, offices, hotels, the Paradise Island waterpark, an artificial beach, a 164 yards (150 m)-long LED screen, skating rink, pirate ship, fake Mediterranean village, 24-hour artificial sun, and 15,000-spot parking area.[76] Notable individuals[edit]

Li Bai
Li Bai
(701–762), poet of the Tang dynasty Guifeng Zongmi
Guifeng Zongmi
(圭峰宗密; 780–841), Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
Buddhist scholar-monk, fifth patriarch of the Huayan (華嚴) school as well as a patriarch of the Heze lineage of Southern Chan Ouyang Xiu
Ouyang Xiu
(1007–22 September 1072), Confucian historian, essayist, calligrapher, poet, and official bureaucrat of the Song dynasty Su Xun (蘇洵), poet and prose-writer of the Song dynasty Su Shi
Su Shi
(8 January 1037 – 24 August 1101), Confucian bureaucrat official, poet, artist, calligrapher, pharmacologist, gastronome, and official bureaucrat of the Song dynasty Su Zhe (1039–1112), poet and essayist, Confucian bureaucratic official of the Song dynasty Ba Jin
Ba Jin
(25 November 1904 – 17 October 2005), novelist and writer Deng Xiaoping, Chinese Paramount Leader during the 1980s, his former residence is now a museum. Chen Kenmin (27 June 1912 – 12 May 1990), chef who specialized in Szechwan cuisine. Father of well-known Iron Chef, Chen Kenichi. Li Ching-Yuen
Li Ching-Yuen
(李清雲; died 6 May 1933), herbalist, martial artist and tactical advisor, also known for extreme longevity claim.

Sports[edit] Professional sports teams in Sichuan
Sichuan
include:

Chinese Basketball Association

Sichuan
Sichuan
Blue Whales

Chinese Football Association Super League

Chengdu
Chengdu
Blades

Chinese Volleyball League

Sichuan
Sichuan
Volleyball Team

China
China
Table Tennis Super League

Sichuan
Sichuan
Quan-Xing Table-Tennis Team

Sister states and regions[edit]

Washington, United States
United States
(1982) Michigan, United States
United States
(1982) Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan
Japan
(1984) Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan
Japan
(1985) South P'yŏngan, North Korea
North Korea
(1985) Midi-Pyrénées, France
France
(1987) North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Germany
(1988) Leicestershire, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1988) Piedmont, Italy
Italy
(1990) Pernambuco, Brazil
Brazil
(1992) Tolna County, Hungary
Hungary
(1993) Valencian Community, Spain
Spain
(1994) Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium
Belgium
(1995) Barinas State, Venezuela
Venezuela
(2001) Friesland, Netherlands
Netherlands
(2001) Almaty Province, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(2001) Mpumalanga, South Africa
South Africa
(2002) Suphan Buri, Thailand
Thailand
(2010) Victoria, Australia
Australia
(2015)

See also[edit]

Sichuan
Sichuan
Cuisine Sichuan
Sichuan
Airlines Sichuan
Sichuan
Giant Panda Sanctuaries 2008 Sichuan
Sichuan
earthquake Eight Immortals from Sichuan List of prisons in Sichuan Major national historical and cultural sites in Sichuan Qutang Gorge The Good Person of Sezuan

Notes[edit]

^ Some of the data collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007 have been reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[64] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China
China
(deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) were not reported by Wang and come from different sources. ^ Based on a 2006 survey of the distribution of Buddhist institutions in China,[65] assuming that the percentage of institutions per capita is consistent with the percentage of Buddhists (which has been proved so by data on other regions), the Buddhist religion would account for between 10% and 20% (≈15%) of the population of Sichuan. ^ As of 2010 there are 11,200 Muslims in Sichuan.[67]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Sichuan
Sichuan
(category)

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sichuan.

Official website Economic profile for Sichuan
Sichuan
at HKTDC Geographic data related to Sichuan
Sichuan
at OpenStreetMap

Places adjacent to Sichuan

Qinghai Gansu Shaanxi

Tibet

Sichuan

Chongqing

Yunnan Guizhou

v t e

Sichuan
Sichuan
topics

Chengdu
Chengdu
(capital)

General

Politics Economy Education

History

States and kingdoms

Sanxingdui Ba & Shu Chengjia Shu Han Cheng Han Western Shu Former Shu Later Shu Great Shu Great Xia Great Xi

Events

Sichuan-Mongol War Huguang Filling Sichuan Railway Protection Movement Home Front Period

Geography

Cities Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin Chengdu
Chengdu
Plain Regions (West East North South) Rivers (Sichuan Min Jialing Tuo Yalong) Mountain ranges (Daba Longmen Qionglai Hengduan)

Culture

Bashu culture Sichuanese cuisine Sichuanese beverages Mengding Ganlu tea Panda tea Sichuanese opera Sichuanese music Chuanzhu Sichuanese architecture Sichuanese garden

People

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Languages

Sichuanese (lingua franca) Ba-Shu (extinct) Hakka Xiang Sichuanese Standard Chinese Kham Jiarongic Qiangic Nuosu

Visitor attractions

Jiuzhaigou
Jiuzhaigou
Valley Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area Mount Emei Leshan
Leshan
Giant Buddha Mount Qingcheng Dujiangyan
Dujiangyan
Irrigation System Sichuan
Sichuan
Giant Panda Sanctuaries Mount Gongga Sanxingdui
Sanxingdui
& Jinsha

Category Commons

see also Greater Sichuan Chongqing

v t e

County-level divisions of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province

Chengdu
Chengdu
(capital)

Sub-provincial city

Chengdu

Qingyang District Jinjiang District Jinniu District Wuhou District Chenghua District Longquanyi District Qingbaijiang District Xindu District Wenjiang District Shuangliu District Pidu District Dujiangyan
Dujiangyan
City Pengzhou
Pengzhou
City Qionglai City Chongzhou
Chongzhou
City Jianyang City Jintang County Dayi County Pujiang County Xinjin County

Prefecture-level cities

Zigong

Ziliujing District Da'an District Gongjing District Yantan District Rong County Fushun County

Panzhihua

Dong District Xi District Renhe District Miyi County Yanbian County

Luzhou

Jiangyang District Naxi District Longmatan District Lu County Hejiang County Xuyong County Gulin County

Deyang

Jingyang District Luojiang District Shifang
Shifang
City Guanghan
Guanghan
City Mianzhu
Mianzhu
City Zhongjiang County

Mianyang

Fucheng District Youxian District Anzhou District Jiangyou
Jiangyou
City Santai County Yanting County Zitong County Pingwu County Beichuan Autonomous County

Guangyuan

Lizhou District Zhaohua District Chaotian District Wangcang County Qingchuan County Jiange County Cangxi County

Suining

Chuanshan District Anju District Pengxi County Shehong County Daying County

Neijiang

Shizhong District Dongxing District Longchang
Longchang
City Weiyuan County Zizhong County

Leshan

Shizhong District Shawan District Wutongqiao District Jinkouhe District Emeishan City Qianwei County Jingyan County Jiajiang County Muchuan County Ebian Autonomous County Mabian Autonomous County

Nanchong

Shunqing District Gaoping District Jialing District Langzhong
Langzhong
City Nanbu County Xichong County Yingshan County Yilong County Peng'an County

Meishan

Dongpo District Pengshan District Renshou County Hongya County Danleng County Qingshen County

Yibin

Cuiping District Nanxi District Yibin
Yibin
County Jiang'an County Changning County Gao County Junlian County Gong County Xingwen County Pingshan County

Guang'an

Guang'an
Guang'an
District Qianfeng District Huaying
Huaying
City Yuechi County Wusheng County Linshui County

Dazhou

Tongchuan District Dachuan District Wanyuan
Wanyuan
City Xuanhan County Kaijiang County Dazhu County Qu County

Ya'an

Yucheng District Mingshan District Yingjing County Hanyuan County Shimian County Tianquan County Lushan County Baoxing County

Bazhong

Bazhou District Enyang District Tongjiang County Nanjiang County Pingchang County

Ziyang

Yanjiang District Lezhi County Anyue County

Autonomous prefectures

Aba

Barkam
Barkam
City Wenchuan County Li County Mao County Songpan County Jiuzhaigou
Jiuzhaigou
County Jinchuan County Xiaojin County Heishui County Zamtang County Ngawa County Zoigê County Hongyuan County

Ganzi

Kangding
Kangding
City Luding County Danba County Jiulong County Yajiang County Dawu County Luhuo County Garzê County Xinlong County Dêgê County Baiyü County Sêrxü County Sêrtar County Litang County Batang County Xiangcheng County Daocheng County Dêrong County

Liangshan

Xichang
Xichang
City Yanyuan County Dechang County Huili County Huidong County Ningnan County Puge County Butuo County Jinyang County Zhaojue County Xide County Mianning County Yuexi County Ganluo County Meigu County Leibo County Mili Autonomous County

Special
Special
jurisdictions

Wolong Special
Special
Administrative Region

v t e

Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China

Provinces

Anhui Fujian Gansu Guangdong Guizhou Hainan Hebei Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangsu Jiangxi Jilin Liaoning Qinghai Shaanxi Shandong Shanxi Sichuan Yunnan Zhejiang

Autonomous regions

Guangxi Inner Mongolia Ningxia Tibet Xinjiang

Municipalities

Beijing Chongqing Shanghai Tianjin

Special
Special
administrative regions

Hong Kong Macau

Other

Taiwan¹

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134813396 GND: 4058820-8 BNF: cb11952945t (d

.