SICHERHEITSDIENST (German: , Security Service), full title
SICHERHEITSDIENST DES REICHSFüHRERS-SS (English: Security Service of
the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS
Following Germany's defeat in World War II, the SD was declared a criminal organisation at the Nuremberg Trials, along with the rest of Heydrich's RSHA (including the Gestapo) both individually and as branches of the SS in the collective. Heydrich's successor, Ernst Kaltenbrunner , was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials , sentenced to death and hanged in 1946.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Growth of SD and SS power * 1.2 The SD and Austria * 1.3 “Case Green” and the Sudetenland * 1.4 Intrigue against Poland
* 2 Tasks and general structure * 3 SD relationship to the Einsatzgruppen
* 4 Organization
* 4.1 Inland-SD * 4.2 Ausland-SD * 4.3 Membership * 4.4 Security forces
* 5 Infiltration * 6 See also
* 7 References
* 7.1 Informational notes * 7.2 Citations * 7.3 Bibliography
The SD was one of the oldest security organizations of the SS and was
first formed in 1931 as the Ic-Dienst, operating out of a single
apartment and reporting directly to
GROWTH OF SD AND SS POWER
Reinhard Heydrich in 1940
Once Hitler was appointed Chancellor by German President Paul von Hindenburg , he quickly made efforts to manipulate the aging president. On 28 February 1933, Hitler convinced Hindenburg to declare a state of emergency which suspended all civil liberties throughout Germany, due at least in part to the Reichstag fire the night before, assuring Hindenburg throughout that he was attempting to stabilize the tumultuous political scene in Germany by taking a "defensive measure against Communist acts of violence endangering the state." Wasting no time, Himmler set the SD in motion as they began creating an extensive card index of the Nazi regime's political opponents, arresting labor organizers, socialists, Jewish leaders, journalists, and communists in the process, sending them to their new prison facility near Munich, Dachau . Himmler's SS and SD made their presence felt at once by helping rid the regime of its known political enemies and its perceived ones, as well. As far as Heydrich and Himmler were concerned, the SD left their mission somewhat vaguely defined so as to "remain an instrument for all eventualities." One of those eventualities would soon arise.
For a while, the SS was in ‘competition’ with the Sturmabteilung (SA) for influence within Germany. Himmler distrusted the SA and came to deplore the ‘rabble-rousing’ brownshirts (despite once having been a member) and what they considered to be the indecent sexual deviants amid its leadership. At least one pretext to secure additional influence for Himmler's SS and Heydrich's SD in "protecting" Hitler and securing his absolute trust in their intelligence collection abilities involved thwarting a plot from Ernst Roehm 's SA using subversive means.
On 20 April 1934
Under pressure from the
Reichswehr (German armed forces) leadership,
whose members viewed the enormous armed forces of the SA as an
existential threat and with the collusion of Göring, Joseph Goebbels
THE SD AND AUSTRIA
During the autumn of 1937, Hitler secured Mussolini’s support to
annex Austria (Mussolini was originally apprehensive of the Nazi
takeover of Austria) and informed his generals of his intentions to
invade both Austria and Czechoslovakia. Getting Mussolini to approve
political intrigue against Austria was a major accomplishment as the
Italian leader had expressed great concern previously in the wake of
an Austrian SS unit’s attempt to stage a coup not more than three
weeks after the Röhm affair, an episode that embarrassed the SS,
enraged Hitler, and which ended in the assassination of Austrian
Throughout the events leading to the Anschluß and even after the Nazis marched into Austria, Heydrich - convinced that only his SD could pull off a peaceful union between the two German-speaking nations - organized demonstrations, conducted clandestine operations, ordered terror attacks, distributed propaganda materials, encouraged the intimidation of opponents, and had his SS and SD personnel round-up prominent anti-Nazis, most of whom ended up in Mauthausen concentration camp . Through the coordinated efforts of the SiPo and Heydrich's SD during the first days of the Anschluß, all forms of possible political, military and economic resistance within Austria were effectively eliminated. Once the annexation was official, the Austrian police was immediately subordinated to Heydrich’s SD, SS and the Gestapo. Machinations by the SD, the Gestapo, and the SS helped to bring Austria fully into Hitler's grasp and on 13 March 1938, he signed into law the union with Austria as tears streamed down his face.
“CASE GREEN” AND THE SUDETENLAND
Concomitant to their machinations against Austria, the SD was also involved in subversive activities throughout Czechoslovakia. Focusing on the Sudetenland with its 3 million ethnic Germans and the disharmony there which the Czech government could not seem to remedy, Hitler set Heydrich’s SD in motion there in what came to be known as "Case Green". This SD intelligence operation was akin to their earlier efforts in Austria; however, unlike Austria, the Czechs fielded their own Secret Service against which, Heydrich had to contend. Once "Case Green" (which included military invasion to smash Czechoslovakia) began (as early as 1937), Heydrich’s SD spies began covertly gathering (even going so far as having SD agents use their spouses and children in the cover scheme) every conceivable type of intelligence data possible using a myriad of cameras and photographic equipment, focusing their efforts on important strategic locations like government buildings, police stations, postal services, public utilities, logistical routes, and above all, airfields. The SD activities in this regard can only be described as military espionage.
Hitler worked out a sophisticated plan to acquire the Sudetenland, which included manipulating Slovak nationalists to vie for independence and the suppression of this movement by the Czech government. Under directions from Heydrich, SD operative Alfred Naujocks was once again activated to engage in sabotage activities designed to incite a response from the Slovakians and the Czechs, a mission that ultimately failed. In June 1938, a directive from the head SD office indicated that Hitler issued an order at Jueterbog to his generals to prepare for the invasion of Czechoslovakia.
To hasten a presumed heavy response from the French, British, and Czechs, Hitler then upped the stakes and claimed that the Czechs were slaughtering Sudeten Germans, demanding the unconditional and prompt cession of the Sudetenland to Germany in order to secure the safety of endangered ethnic Germans. It was around this time that early plots from select members of the German General Staff to rid themselves of Hitler arose.
Eventually a diplomatic showdown pitting Hitler against the
governments of Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, and France, whose tepid
reaction to Austria precipitated this crisis to some degree, ensued.
The Sudetenland Crisis came to an end when
Neville Chamberlain and
Hitler signed the
INTRIGUE AGAINST POLAND
Aside from their participation in diminishing the power of the SA and
their scheme to kill Ernst Roehm, the SD took part in international
intrigue, first by activities in Austria, again in Czechoslovakia, and
then by helping provoke the 'reactive' war against Poland. Code-named
Operation Himmler " and part of Hitler's plan to justify an attack
upon Poland, the SD's clandestine activity for this mission included
faking a Polish attack against 'innocent Germans' at a German radio
Gleiwitz . Using concentration camp inmates condemned to
die, the SD fitted them with Polish Army uniforms
Heinz Jost had
acquired from Admiral
Wilhelm Canaris '
intelligence). Leading this mission and personally selected by
Heydrich was SS veteran
TASKS AND GENERAL STRUCTURE
German passport extended by the SD in Norway, March 1945.
The SD was tasked with the detection of actual or potential enemies of the Nazi leadership and the neutralization of this opposition as the action against the SA demonstrated. To fulfill this task, the SD created an organization of agents and informants throughout the Reich and later throughout the occupied territories, all part of the development of an extensive SS state and a totalitarian regime without parallel. The organization consisted of a few hundred full-time agents and several thousand informants. Historian George C. Browder writes that SD regiments were comparable to SS regiments, in that: "SD districts (Bezirke) emerged covering several Party circuits (Kreis) or an entire district (Gau). Below this level, SD sub-districts (Unterbezirke) slowly developed. They were originally to cover a single Kreis, and, in turn, to be composed of wards (Revier), but such an ambitious network never emerged. Eventually, the SD-sub-districts acquired the simple designation of 'outposts' (Aussenstellen) as the lowest level-office in the field structure."
The SD was mainly the information-gathering agency, and the Gestapo,
and to a degree the
Kriminalpolizei (Kripo), was the executive agency
of the political police system. Both the SD and the
Part and parcel to intelligence operations, the SD carefully tracked
foreign opinion and criticism of Nazi policies, censoring when
necessary and likewise publishing hostile political cartoons in the SS
weekly magazine, Das Schwarze Korps. An additional task assigned to
the SD and the
In 1936, the police were divided into the
Ordnungspolizei (Orpo or
Order Police) and the
Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo or Security Police).
The Orpo consisted mainly of the Schutzpolizei (Urban police), the
Due to the fact that the
In 1938, the SD was made the intelligence organization for the State
as well as for the Party, supporting the
On 27 September 1939, the
Sicherheitspolizei became a part of the
RSHA under Heydrich. The operational sections of the SD became
(department) Amt III and for foreign intelligence, Amt VI; the Gestapo
became Amt IV and the Kripo became Amt V.
Otto Ohlendorf was named the
Chief of Amt III, the SD-Inland (within Germany); Heinrich Müller was
named the Chief of Amt IV, the Gestapo;
SD RELATIONSHIP TO THE EINSATZGRUPPEN
Main article: Einsatzgruppen
The SD was the overarching agency under which the Einsatzgruppen der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD, also known as the Einsatzgruppen , was subordinated; this was one of the principal reasons for the later war-crimes indictment against the organization by the Allies. The Einsatzgruppen’s part in the Holocaust has been well documented. Its mobile killing units were active in the implementation of the Final Solution in the territories overrun by the Nazi war machine. This SD subsidiary worked closely with the Wehrmacht in persecuting Jews, communists, partisans, and other groups, as well. Starting with the invasion of Poland throughout the campaign in the East, the Einsatzgruppen ruthlessly killed anyone suspected of being an opponent of the regime, either real or imagined. The men of the Einsatzgruppen were recruited from the SD, Gestapo, Kripo, Orpo, and Waffen-SS.
On 31 July 1941, Göring gave written authorisation to SD Chief
Heydrich to ensure the cooperation of administrative leaders of
various government departments in the implementation of a Endlösung
der Judenfrage (
Final Solution to the
Jewish question ) in territories
under German control. An SD headquarter's memorandum indicated that
the SD was tasked to accompany military invasions so as to assist in
control and pacification efforts. The memo explicitly stated: The
SD will, where possible, follow up immediately behind the troops as
they move in and, as in the Reich, will assume responsibility for the
security of political life. Within the Reich, security measures are
the responsibility of the
Correspondingly, SD affiliated units, including the Einsatzgruppen followed German troops into Austria, the Sudetenland, Bohemia, Moravia, Poland, Lithuania, as well as Russia. Since their task included cooperating with military leadership and vice versa, suppression of opposition in the occupied territories was a joint venture. There were territorial disputes and disagreement about how some of these policies were to be implemented. Nonetheless, by June 1941, the SS and the SD task forces were systematically shooting Jewish men of military age, which soon turned to "gunning down" old people, women, and children in the occupied areas.
On 20 January 1942, Heydrich chaired a meeting, now called the
By 1933, the organization was known as the SS SD-Amt and, in 1934, became the official security organization of the entire Nazi Party. Consisting at first of paid agents and a few hundred unpaid informants scattered across Germany, the SD was quickly professionalized under Heydrich, who commissioned National Socialist academics and lawyers to ensure that the SS and the SD in particular, operated "within the framework of National Socialist ideology." Heydrich was given the power to select men for the SD from among any of the SS component commands since Himmler considered the organization of the SD so important. In 1939, the SD was divided into two offices, the Inland-SD and Ausland-SD, and placed under the authority of the RSHA.
The Inland-SD (Office II) was originally headed by SS-Colonel Hermann Behrends until September 1939 and it was within this organization that Adolf Eichmann began working out the details for the Final Solution of the Jewish problem. The Inland SD was responsible for intelligence and security within Germany and was divided into the following sub-offices:
* Department A (Law and Legal Structures) * Department B (Race and Ethnic Matters) * Department C (Cultural and Religious Matters) * Department D (Industry and Commerce) * Department E (High Society)
After 27 September 1939, (Office II) became officially Amt III (department III), the SD-Inland of the RSHA. Otto Ohlendorf was named the Chief of Amt III.
The Ausland-SD (Office III) was the civilian foreign intelligence agency of the Third Reich and was "nominally commanded by Heydrich, but his chief of staff was SS-Colonel Heinz Jost ." Jost ran the department until March 1942. Jost was fired from his position as Chief of Ausland-SD which, as of September 1939, had officially become known as Amt VI (department VI) of the RSHA. Jost's place was taken by Brigadeführer Walter Schellenberg , a deputy of Heydrich. After the July 20 Plot in 1944, the Ausland-SD took over the functions of the Abwehr (military intelligence). The Ausland-SD was divided into the following sections:
* Department A (Organization and Administration) * Department B (Espionage in the West) * Department C (Espionage in the Soviet Union and Japan) * Department D (Espionage in the American sphere) * Department E (Espionage in Eastern Europe) * Department F (Technical Matters)
Given the nature of the intelligence operations assigned to the SD,
there were clear delineations between what constituted a full member
(Mitglieder) of the SD and those who were considered "associates"
(Mitarbeiter) with a further subset for clerical support personnel
(typists, file clerks, etc.) who were connoted as V-persons
(Vertrauensleute). All SD personnel, whether simply associates or
full members were required to swear an oath of secrecy, had to meet
all the requirements for SS membership, were assigned SD code numbers
(Chiffre Nummer) and if they were "above the level of V-person" they
had to carry "an SD identification card." The vast majority of early
SD members were relatively young, but the officers were typically
older by comparison; nevertheless, the average age of an SD member was
approximately 2 years older than the average
According to historian George C. Browder, "SD men represented no
pathological or psychically susceptible group. Few were wild or
extreme Nazi fanatics. In those respects they were 'ordinary men'. Yet
in most other respects, they were an extraordinary mix of men, drawn
together by a unique mix of missions." Along with members of the
Gestapo, SD personnel were "regarded with a mixture of fear and
foreboding," and people wanted as little to do with them as possible.
Belonging to the security apparatus of the
Third Reich obviously had
its advantages but it was also fraught with occupationally related
social disadvantages as well, and if post-war descriptions of the SD
by historians are any indication, membership therein implied being a
part of a "ubiquitous secret society" which was "sinister" and a
"messenger of terror" not just for the German population, but within
the "ranks of the
SD personnel during a łapanka (random arrest) in occupied Poland
The SD and the SiPo were the main sources of officers for the security forces in occupied territories. SD-SiPo led battalions were typically placed under the command of the SS and Police Leaders , reporting directly to the RSHA in Berlin. The SD also maintained a presence at all concentration camps and supplied personnel, on an as-needed basis, to such special action troops as the Einsatzgruppen . In fact, all members of the Einsatzgruppen wore the SD sleeve diamond on their uniforms.
The SD-SiPo was the primary agency, in conjunction with the
Ordnungspolizei , assigned to maintain order and security in the
Jewish ghettos established by the Germans on the territory of occupied
Eastern Europe. On 7 December 1941, the same day that the American
naval station at Pearl Harbor was bombed by the Japanese, the first
extermination camp was opened at Chelmno near Lodz by the SD and SiPo
commander in occupied
According to the book Piercing the Reich, the SD was infiltrated in
1944 by a former Russian national who was working for the Americans.
The agent's parents had fled the Russian Revolution , and he had been
raised in Berlin, and then moved to Paris. He was recruited by Albert
Jolis of the
Office of Strategic Services
How extensive the SD’s knowledge was about the early plots to kill Hitler by key members of the military remains a contested subject and a veritable unknown. According to British historian John Wheeler-Bennett , “in view of the wholesale destruction of Gestapo archives it is improbable that this knowledge will ever be forthcoming. That the authorities were aware of serious 'defeatism' is certain, but it is doubtful whether they suspected anyone of outright treason.”
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* ^ How much the SD knew about schemes to subvert Hitler remains unknown. * ^ Following the Sudetenland Crisis, the SD then took part in operations against Poland. * ^ For more on the creation of this organization, see: Browder, George C. Foundations of the Nazi Police State: The Formation of Sipo and SD. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 2004, . * ^ At the end of March 1941, Hitler communicated his intention to 200 senior Wehrmacht officers about his decision to eradicate political criminals in the occupied regions, a task many of them were only too happy to hand-over to Himmler’s Einsatzgruppen and SiPo. * ^ Victor Klemperer, one of the few Jews who survived the Nazi regime through his marriage to a German, claims that the real enemy of the Nazis was always the Jew, no matter who or what actually stood before them. * ^ From September 1939, the Einsatzgruppen came under the overall command of the RSHA. See: Nuremberg Trial, Vol. 20, Day 194. * ^ Twenty-four Einsatzgruppen commanders (men with the SD sleeve diamond on their uniforms) were tried after the war, becoming infamous for their brutality. * ^ So severe were the interior policies of the Nazis under the watchful eye of the Inland-SD, that when slave labor was brought into Germany to supplement the workforce during the war, German citizens who showed any kindness to foreign workers by giving them food or clothing were often punished. * ^ The SD also maintained local offices in Germany's cities and larger towns. The small offices were known as SD-Unterabschnitte, and the larger offices were referred to as SD-Abschnitte. All SD offices answered to a local commander known as the Inspektor des Sicherheitspolizei und SD who, in turn, was under the dual command of the RSHA and local SS and Police Leaders . * ^ Many leading men in the SD had broad-ranging responsibilities across the network of interlocking Nazi agencies charged with the Reich's security; Werner Best proves a telling example in this regard, as he was not only an SD functionary, he was also an "Einsatzgruppen-organizer," the head of the military government in France, and "the Reich Plenipotentiary in Denmark."
* ^ Gellately 1992 , p. 44 fn. * ^ A B Weale 2012 , pp. 140–144. * ^ Buchheim 1968 , pp. 166–167. * ^ "Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression" (1946) . * ^ Weale 2012 , pp. 410–411. * ^ Gerwarth 2011 , pp. 56, 57. * ^ Longerich 2012 , p. 125. * ^ Gellately 1992 , p. 65. * ^ Shirer 1990 , pp. 191–194. * ^ Distel & Jakusch 1978 , p. 46. * ^ Browder 1996 , p. 127. * ^ Blandford 2001 , pp. 47–51. * ^ Höhne 2001 , pp. 93–131. * ^ Williams 2001 , p. 61. * ^ Blandford 2001 , pp. 60–63. * ^ Williams 2001 , p. 129. * ^ Blandford 2001 , pp. 67–78. * ^ Delarue 2008 , p. 113. * ^ Kulva 1984 , pp. 582–600. * ^ Kershaw 2000 , pp. 521–522. * ^ Reitlinger 1989 , pp. 65–66. * ^ Beller 2007 , p. 228. * ^ Blandford 2001 , p. 81. * ^ Dederichs 2006 , p. 82. * ^ Blandford 2001 , p. 135. * ^ Blandford 2001 , pp. 134–140. * ^ Langerbein 2003 , p. 22. * ^ Blandford 2001 , p. 141. * ^ Fest 2002 , p. 548. * ^ Blandford 2001 , pp. 141–142. * ^ Blandford 2001 , p. 144. * ^ Blandford 2001 , pp. 144–145. * ^ Höhne 2001 , pp. 281–282. * ^ Reitlinger 1989 , p. 116. * ^ Fest 2002 , pp. 554–557. * ^ Shirer 1990 , pp. 366–384. * ^ Kershaw 2001 , pp. 121–125. * ^ Höhne 2001 , p. 283. * ^ Breitman 1991 , p. 222. * ^ Weinberg 2005 , p. 748. * ^ Williams 2003 , p. 9. * ^ Shirer 1990 , pp. 518–520. * ^ Benz 2007 , p. 170. * ^ Bracher 1970 , pp. 350–362. * ^ Browder 1996 , p. 109. * ^ Buchheim 1968 , pp. 166–187. * ^ Koonz 2005 , p. 238. * ^ Wall 1997 , pp. 183–187. * ^ Frei 1993 , p. 103. * ^ Ingrao 2013 , pp. 107–108. * ^ Ingrao 2013 , pp. 107–116. * ^ Koonz 2005 , p. 190. * ^ Williams 2001 , p. 77. * ^ Longerich 2010 , pp. 68–69. * ^ Johnson 1999 , pp. 106–107. * ^ Gellately 1992 , pp. 66–67. * ^ Gellately 1992 , p. 67. * ^ Wall 1997 , p. 77. * ^ Blandford 2001 , pp. 11–25. * ^ Gerwarth 2011 , p. 163. * ^ Buchheim 1968 , p. 172–187. * ^ McNab 2009 , pp. 113, 123–124. * ^ Höhne 2001 , pp. 354–356. * ^ Klemperer 2000 , pp. 176–177. * ^ Longerich 2010 , p. 185. * ^ Browning 2004 , p. 315. * ^ Buchheim 1968 , pp. 176–177. * ^ Fritz 2011 , pp. 94–98. * ^ Wette 2007 , pp. 96–97. * ^ Müller 2012 , p. 153. * ^ Buchheim 1968 , pp. 178–187. * ^ Frei 2008 , p. 155. * ^ Kershaw 2008 , pp. 696–697. * ^ Wright 1968 , p. 127. * ^ Weale 2012 , p. 149. * ^ Rhodes 2003 , p. 274. * ^ Mayer 2012 , p. 162. * ^ Weale 2012 , p. 130. * ^ Browder 1996 , p. 116. * ^ Weale 2012 , p. 135. * ^ Weale 2012 , pp. 135, 141. * ^ Stephenson 2008 , pp. 102–103. * ^ Weale 2012 , p. 136. * ^ Doerries 2007 , pp. 21, 80. * ^ Browder 1996 , p. 131. * ^ Browder 1996 , pp. 133–134. * ^ Kater 1983 , pp. 141, 261. * ^ Ziegler 1989 , pp. 59–79. * ^ Browder 1996 , pp. 136–138. * ^ Dederichs 2006 , p. 53. * ^ Browder 1996 , p. 174. * ^ Gellately 1992 , p. 143. * ^ Höhne 2001 , p. 210. * ^ Reitlinger 1989 , pp. 116–117. * ^ Dams -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em;">
* Beller, Steven (2007). A Concise History of Austria. Cambridge and
New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52147-886-1 .
* Benz, Wolfgang (2007). A Concise History of the Third Reich.
Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN
* Blandford, Edmund L. (2001). SS Intelligence: The Nazi Secret
Service. Edison, NJ: Castle Books. ISBN 978-0-78581-398-9 .
* Bracher, Karl-Dietrich (1970). The German Dictatorship: The
Origins, Structure, and Effects of National Socialism. New York:
Praeger Publishers. ASIN B001JZ4T16 .
* Breitman, Richard (1991). The Architect of Genocide: Himmler and
the Final Solution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-39456-841-6
* Browder, George C. (1990). Foundations of the Nazi Police State:
The Formation of Sipo and SD. The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN
* Browder, George C (1996). Hitler’s Enforcers: The
* v * t * e
* Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS * SS Main Office * Head Operational Office * Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) * Economics and Administration Office * Office of Race and Settlement (RuSHA) * Main Office for Ethnic Germans (VOMI) * Office of the Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement (RKFDV)
* Courts Office * Personnel Office * Education Office
POLICE AND SECURITY SERVICES
* Regular uniform police (Orpo) * Schutzpolizei (Schupo) * Criminal police (Kripo) * Secret State police (Gestapo) * State Security police (SiPo) * SS Security Service (SD)
* Einsatzgruppen * Schutzmannschaft * Belarusian Auxiliary Police * Latvian Police Battalions * Ypatingasis būrys * Lithuanian Security Police * Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions * Rollkommando Hamann * Arajs Kommando * Ukrainian Auxiliary Police * Ukrainian collaboration * Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz * Trawnikis * Estonian Auxiliary Police * Police Regiment Centre
FOREIGN SS UNITS
* Germanic-SS * Germaansche SS in Nederland * Germaansche SS in Vlaanderen * Germanske SS Norge * Schalburg Corps * Britisches Freikorps * S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A. * Finnish Volunteer Battalion of the Waffen-SS
* SS Sword of Honour * SS Honour Ring * SS Honor Dagger
RANKS, UNIFORMS AND INSIGNIA
* v * t * e
Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos
Commanders of Einsatzgruppen
* Horst Böhme
Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski
* Walter Blume
* Fritz Dietrich
Gustav Adolf Nosske
* GND :