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The SHUNGA EMPIRE ( IAST: _Śuṅga_) was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha
Magadha
that controlled vast areas of the Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Shunga , after the fall of the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
. Its capital was Pataliputra
Pataliputra
, but later emperors such as Bhagabhadraalso held court at Besnagar (modern Vidisha
Vidisha
) in eastern Malwa
Malwa
.

Pushyamitra Shungaruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra. There were ten Shunga rulers. The empire is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. They fought the Kalinga , the Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
, the Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom
and possibly the Panchalasand Mathuras .

Art, education, philosophy, and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images, larger stone sculptures, and architectural monuments such as the stupa at Bharhut, and the renowned Great Stupa
Stupa
at Sanchi
Sanchi
. Shunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of learning and art. The script used by the empire was a variant of Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and was used to write Sanskrit
Sanskrit
.

The Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire
played an imperative role in patronizing culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu
Hindu
thought were taking place. Patanjali
Patanjali
's _ Mahābhāṣya_ was composed in this period. Artistry also progressed with the rise of the Mathura
Mathura
art style.

The Kanva dynastysucceeded the Shungas around 73 BCE.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 2 Buddhism
Buddhism

* 2.1 Support given

* 3 Wars of the Shungas

* 3.1 Literary evidence

* 3.1.1 Military expeditions of the Shungas * 3.1.2 Yavanainvasion and capture of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
* 3.1.3 Battle on the Sindhu river

* 3.2 Epigraphic and archaeological evidence

* 3.2.1 Dhanadeva- Ayodhya
Ayodhya
inscription * 3.2.2 Yavanarajya inscription

* 3.3 Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar

* 4 Cultural contributions * 5 Script * 6 List of Shunga Emperors * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links

ORIGINS

The Shunga dynasty was a Brahmin
Brahmin
dynasty, established in 185 BCE, about 50 years after Ashoka
Ashoka
's death, when the emperor Brihadratha Maurya
Maurya
, the last ruler of the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
, was assassinated by his _Senānī_ or commander-in-chief , Pushyamitra Shunga, while he was reviewing the Guard of Honour of his forces. Pushyamitra Shungathen ascended the throne.

Pushyamitra Shungabecame the ruler of Magadha
Magadha
and neighbouring territories. His realm essentially covered the central parts of the old Mauryan Empire
Mauryan Empire
. The Shunga definitely had control of the central city of Ayodhya
Ayodhya
in northern central India, as is proved by the Dhanadeva- Ayodhya
Ayodhya
inscription . However, the city of Mathura
Mathura
further west never seems to have been under the direct control of the Shungas, as no archaeological evidence of a Shunga presence has ever been found in Mathura. On the contrary, according to the Yavanarajya inscription , Mathura
Mathura
was probably under the control of Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
from some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE, and remained so as late as 70 BCE.

Some ancient sources however claim a greater extent for the Shunga Empire: the _ Asokavadana_ account of the _ Divyavadana_ claims that the Shungas sent an army to persecute Buddhist monks as far as Sakala ( Sialkot
Sialkot
) in the Punjab region
Punjab region
in the northwest:

... Pushyamitraequipped a fourfold army, and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama(in Pataliputra
Pataliputra
). ... Pushyamitratherefore destroyed the sangharama , killed the monks there, and departed. ... After some time, he arrived in Sakala , and proclaimed that he would give a ... reward to whoever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk. :293

Also, the _ Malavikagnimitra_ claims that the empire of Pushyamitra extended to the Narmada Riverin the south. They may also have controlled the city of Ujjain
Ujjain
. Meanwhile Kabul
Kabul
and much of the Punjab
Punjab
passed into the hands of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and the Deccan Plateau to the Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
.

Pushyamitradied after ruling for 36 years (187–151 BCE). He was succeeded by son Agnimitra. This prince is the hero of a famous drama by one of India's greatest playwrights, Kālidāsa. Agnimitrawas viceroy of Vidisha
Vidisha
when the story takes place.

The power of the Shungas gradually weakened. It is said that there were ten Shunga emperors. The Shungas were succeeded by the Kanva dynasty around 73 BCE.

BUDDHISM

Main article: Pushyamitra Shunga See also: Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India
India

Following the Mauryans, the first Brahmin
Brahmin
emperor was Pushyamitra Shunga , and is believed by some historians to have persecuted Buddhists and contributed to a resurgence of Brahmanismthat forced Buddhism
Buddhism
outwards to Kashmir
Kashmir
, Gandhara
Gandhara
and Bactria
Bactria
. Buddhist scripture such as the _ Asokavadana_ account of the _ Divyavadana_ and ancient Tibetan historian Taranathahave written about persecution of Buddhists. Pushyamitrais said to have burned down Buddhist monasteries, destroyed stupas, massacred Buddhist monks and put rewards on their heads, but some consider these stories as probable exaggerations.

Pushyamitrais known to have revived the supremacy of the Bramahnical religion and reestablished animal sacrifices (Yajnas ) that had been prohibited by Ashoka
Ashoka
.

SUPPORT GIVEN

Shunga royal family, West Bengal
West Bengal
, 1st century BCE.

Later Shunga emperors were seen as amenable to Buddhism
Buddhism
and as having contributed to the building of the stupa at Bharhut.

Some writers believe that Brahmanismcompeted in political and spiritual realm with Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Gangetic plains. Buddhism flourished in the realms of the Bactrian kings.

Some Indian scholars are of the opinion that the orthodox Shunga emperors were not intolerant towards Buddhism
Buddhism
and that Buddhism prospered during the time of the Shunga emperors. The existence of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Bengal in the Shunga period can also be inferred from a terracotta tablet that was found at Tamraliptiand is on exhibit at the Asutosh Museum in Kolkata.

* An inscription at Bodh Gaya at the Mahabodhi Templerecords the construction of the temple as follows:

"_The gift of Nagadevi the wife of Emperor Brahmamitra._"

* Another inscription reads:

"_The gift of Kurangi, the mother of living sons and the wife of Emperor Indragnimitra, son of Kosiki. The gift also of Srima of the royal palace shrine_. " Amorous royal couple, Shunga, 1st century BCE, West Bengal
West Bengal
.

Cunningham has regretted the loss of the latter part of these important records. As regards the first coping inscription, he has found traces of eleven Brahmi letters after "_Kuramgiye danam_", the first nine of which read "_rajapasada-cetika sa_". Bloch reads these nine letters as "_raja-pasada-cetikasa_" and translates this expression in relation to the preceding words:

"(the gift of Kurangi, the wife of Indragnimitra and the mother of living sons), "to the caitya (cetika) of the noble temple", taking the word raja before pasada as an epithet on ornans, distinguishing the temple as a particularly large and stately building similar to such expressions as rajahastin 'a noble elephant', rajahamsa `a goose (as distinguished from hamsa 'a duck'), etc."

Cunningham has translated the expression by "the royal palace, the caitya", suggesting that "the mention of the raja-pasada would seem to connect the donor with the king's family." Luders doubtfully suggests "to the king's temple" as a rendering of "raja-pasada-cetikasa."

WARS OF THE SHUNGAS

War and conflict characterized the Shunga period. They are known to have warred with the Kalingas , Satavahanas , the Indo-Greeks, and possibly the Panchalasand Mathuras . Extent of the Shunga Empire

The Shunga Empire's wars with the Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom
figure greatly in the history of this period. From around 180 BCE the Greco-Bactrian ruler Demetrius conquered the Kabul
Kabul
Valley and is theorized to have advanced into the trans-Indus to confront the Shungas. The Indo-Greek Menander I
Menander I
is credited with either joining or leading a campaign to Pataliputra
Pataliputra
with other Indian rulers; however, very little is known about the exact nature and success of the campaign. The net result of these wars remains uncertain. Vedika pillar with Greek warrior . Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga Period, c. 100-80BC. Reddish brown sandstone. Indian Museum
Indian Museum
, Calcutta
Calcutta
(drawing).

LITERARY EVIDENCE

Several works, such as the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Yuga Puranadescribe the conflict between the Sungas and the Indo-Greeks.

Military Expeditions Of The Shungas

Scriptures such as the _ Ashokavadana
Ashokavadana
_ claim that Pushyamitratoppled Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
and killed many Buddhist monks. Then it describes how Pushyamitrasent an army to Pataliputra
Pataliputra
and as far as Sakala (Sialkot ), in the Punjab
Punjab
, to persecute Buddhist monks.

YavanaInvasion And Capture Of Pataliputra

The Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
, called Yavanasin Indian sources, either led by Demetrius I or Menander I
Menander I
, then invaded India, possibly receiving the help of Buddhists. Menander in particular is described as a convert to Buddhism
Buddhism
in the _ Milindapanha_.

The Hindu
Hindu
text of the _ Yuga Purana_, which describes Indian historical events in the form of a prophecy, relates the attack of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
on the capital Pataliputra
Pataliputra
, a magnificent fortified city with 570 towers and 64 gates according to Megasthenes
Megasthenes
, and describes the ultimate destruction of the city's walls: "Then, after having approached Saketatogether with the Panchalasand the Mathuras , the Yavanas, valiant in battle, will reach Kusumadhvaja . Then, once Puspapura has been reached and its celebrated mud cast down, all the realm will be in disorder." (_Yuga Purana_, Paragraph 47–48, 2002 edition)

Western sources also suggest that this new offensive of the Greeks into India
India
led them as far as the capital Pataliputra
Pataliputra
:

Those who came after Alexander went to the Ganges
Ganges
and Pataliputra
Pataliputra
—  Strabo
Strabo
, 15.698

Battle On The Sindhu River

An account of a direct battle between the Greeks and the Shunga is also found in the _ Mālavikāgnimitram_, a play by Kālidāsawhich describes a battle between a squadron of Greek cavalrymen and Vasumitra, the grandson of Pushyamitra, accompanied by a hundred soldiers on the "Sindhu river", in which the Indians defeated the Greeks and Pushyamitrasuccessfully completed the AshvamedhaYagna. This river may be the Indus river
Indus river
in the northwest, but such expansion by the Sungas is unlikely, and it is more probable that the river mentioned in the text is the Sindh Riveror the Kali Sindh Riverin the Ganges
Ganges
Basin .

EPIGRAPHIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

Dhanadeva- Ayodhya
Ayodhya
Inscription

Ultimately, Shunga rule seems to have extended to the area of Ayodhya. Sunga inscriptions are known as far as Ayodhya
Ayodhya
in northern central India; in particular, the Dhanadeva- Ayodhya
Ayodhya
inscription refers to a local king Dhanadeva, who claimed to be the sixth descendant of Pushyamitra Shunga. The inscription also records that Pushyamitraperformed two Ashvamedhas (victory sacrifices) in Ayodhya.

Yavanarajya Inscription

_ The Yavanarajya inscription_, dated to "year 116 of Yavana hegemony", probably 70 or 69 BCE, was discovered in Mathura
Mathura
. Mathura Museum .

The Greeks seem to have maintained control of Mathura. The Yavanarajya inscription, also called the "Maghera inscription", discovered in Mathura
Mathura
, suggests that the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
were in control of Mathura
Mathura
during the 1st century BCE. The inscription is important in that it mentions the date of its dedication as "The last day of year 116 of Yavanahegemony (_Yavanarajya_)". It is considered that this inscription is attesting the control of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE in Mathura, a fact that is also confirmed by numismatic and literary evidence. Moreover, it doesn't seem that the Sungas ever ruled in Mathura
Mathura
or Surasenasince no Sunga coins or inscriptions have been found there.

The _ Anushasana Parva_ of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
affirms that the city of Mathura
Mathura
was under the joint control of the Yavanasand the Kambojas
Kambojas
.

Later however, it seems the city of Mathura
Mathura
was retaken from them, if not by the Shungas themselves, then probably by other indigenous rulers: the Arjunayanas (area of Mathura) and Yaudheyas mention military victories on their coins ("Victory of the Arjunayanas", "Victory of the Yaudheyas"), and during the 1st century BCE, the Trigartas, Audumbarasand finally the Kunindas also started to mint their own coins, thus affirming independence from the Indo-Greeks, although the style of their coins was often derived from that of the Indo-Greeks.

HELIODORUS PILLAR

Very little can be said with great certainty. However, what does appear clear is that the two realms appeared to have established normalized diplomatic relations in the succeeding reigns of their respective rulers. The Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and the Shungas seem to have reconciled and exchanged diplomatic missions around 110 BCE, as indicated by the Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
, which records the dispatch of a Greek ambassador named Heliodorus
Heliodorus
, from the court of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas, to the court of the Shunga emperor Bhagabhadraat the site of Vidisha
Vidisha
in central India
India
.

CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS

A relief from Bharhut.

While there is much debate on the religious politics of the Shunga dynasty, it is recognized for a number of contributions. Art, education, philosophy, and other learning flowered during this period. Most notably, Patanjali's Yoga
Yoga
Sutras and Mahabhashya were composed in this period. It is also noted for its subsequent mention in the Malavikaagnimitra. This work was composed by Kalidasa in the later Gupta period, and romanticized the love of Malavika and King Agnimitra, with a background of court intrigue.

Artistry on the subcontinent also progressed with the rise of the Mathura
Mathura
school, which is considered the indigenous counterpart to the more Hellenistic Gandhara
Gandhara
school of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

During the historical Shunga period (185 to 73 BCE), Buddhist activity also managed to survive somewhat in central India
India
(Madhya Pradesh ) as suggested by some architectural expansions that were done at the stupas of Sanchi
Sanchi
and Barhut, originally started under Emperor Ashoka. It remains uncertain whether these works were due to the weakness of the control of the Shungas in these areas, or a sign of tolerance on their part.

The last of the Shunga emperors was Devabhuti(83–73 BCE). He was assassinated by his minister (Vasudeva Kanva) and is said to have been overfond of the company of women. The Shunga dynasty was then replaced by the subsequent Kanvas .

*

Shunga Yakshi, 2nd–1st century BCE. *

Shunga masculine figurine (molded plate). 2nd–1st century BCE. *

Shunga woman with child. 2nd–1st century BCE. *

Shunga Yaksha. 2nd–1st century BCE. *

Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE. *

Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE. *

Baluster
Baluster
-holding yakṣa , Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
, Shunga period (2nd–1st century BCE). Guimet Museum. *

Yaksha
Yaksha
reliefs. Bharhut, 2nd century BCE.

SCRIPT

The script used by the Shunga was a variant of Brahmi , and was used to write the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. The script is thought to be an intermediary between the Maurya
Maurya
and the Kalinga Brahmi scripts.

*

Bronze coin of the Shunga period, Eastern India. 2nd–1st century BCE. *

Another Shunga coin *

A copper coin of 1/4 karshapana of Ujjain
Ujjain
in Malwa
Malwa
of the Sunga dynasty (185-73 BC). OBV: symbols REV: symbols DIMENSIONS: 15 x 12.5 mm WEIGHT: 2 g.

OUTLINE OF SOUTH ASIAN HISTORY

Palaeolithic (2,500,000–250,000 BCE)

Madrasian Culture (2,500,000 BCE)

Riwatian Culture (1,900,000 BCE)

SoanianCulture (500,000–250,000 BCE)

Neolithic (10,800–3300 BCE)

BhirranaCulture (7570–6200 BCE)

Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
Culture (7000–3300 BCE)

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
(3500–1500 BCE)

Jorwe
Jorwe
Culture (3500–2000 BCE)

Ahar-Banas Culture (3000–1500 BCE)

Pandu Culture (1600–1500 BCE)

Bronze Age (3000–1300 BCE)

Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
(3300–1300 BCE)

– Early Harappan Culture (3300–2600 BCE)

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Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BCE)

Ochre Coloured Pottery culture
Ochre Coloured Pottery culture
(2000–1600 BCE)

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Iron Age (1300–230 BCE)

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Janapadas
Janapadas
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Painted Grey Ware culture
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Northern Black Polished Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
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Pradyota Dynasty (799–684 BCE)

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Maurya Empire
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KunindaKingdom (200 BCE–300 CE)

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Shunga Empire (185–73 BCE)

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Vijayanagara Empire
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Garhwal Kingdom
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Maratha Empire
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Kingdom (1729–1947 CE)

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Sikh Empire
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India
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India
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India
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India
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British Raj
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Kingdom of Tambapanni
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Kingdom of Upatissa Nuwara
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Anuradhapura Kingdom
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Kingdom of Dambadeniya
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Kingdom of Yapahuwa (1272–1293 CE)

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Kurunegala
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Gampola
(1341–1347 CE)

Kingdom of Raigama (1347–1415 CE)

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Kingdom of Kotte
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Kingdom of Sitawaka (1521–1594 CE)

Kingdom of Kandy (1469–1815 CE)

Portuguese Ceylon (1505–1658 CE)

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Dutch Ceylon
(1656–1796 CE)

British Ceylon
British Ceylon
(1815–1948 CE)

National histories

* Afghanistan * Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Bhutan * India
India
* Maldives * Nepal
Nepal
* Pakistan * Sri Lanka

Regional histories

* Assam * Balochistan * Bengal * Bihar * Gujarat * Himachal Pradesh * Kabul
Kabul
* Kashmir
Kashmir
* Khyber Pakhtunkhwa * Rajasthan * Maharashtra * Uttar Pradesh * Punjab
Punjab
* Odisha * Sindh * South India
India
* Tamil Nadu * Tibet

Specialised histories

* Coinage * Dynasties * Economy * Indology * Language * Literature * Maritime * Military * Partition of India
India
* Pakistan studies
Pakistan studies
* Science font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;">

* v * t * e

LIST OF SHUNGA EMPERORS

EMPEROR REIGN

Pushyamitra Shunga 185–149 BCE

Agnimitra 149–141 BCE

Vasujyeshtha 141–131 BCE

Vasumitra 131–124 BCE

Bhadraka (aka Ardraka or Odruka) 124–122 BCE

Pulindaka 122–119 BCE

Ghosha (aka Ghoshavasu) ?

Vajramitra ?

Bhagabhadra(aka Bhagavata) ?

Devabhuti 83–73 BCE

SEE ALSO

* History of Buddhism
Buddhism
* History of India
India
* Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
* List of Brahmin
Brahmin
dynasties and states

NOTES

_ The Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
was built in Vidisha
Vidisha
under the Sungas, at the instigation of Heliodorus
Heliodorus
, ambassador of the Indo-Greekking Antialcidas. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda
Garuda
. Established circa 100 BCE.

* ^ Stadtner, Donald (1975). "A Śuṅga Capital from Vidiśā". Artibus Asiae_. 37 (1/2): 101–104. JSTOR
JSTOR
3250214 . doi :10.2307/3250214 . * ^ Between the Empires: Society in India
India
300 BCE to 400 CE By Patrick Olivelle,Oxford University Press,Page 147-152 * ^ " Pushyamitrais said in the Puranas
Puranas
to have been the _senānī_ or army-commander of the last Maurya
Maurya
emperor Brihadratha" The Yuga Purana, Mitchener, 2002. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ancient Indian History and Civilization, Sailendra Nath Sen, New Age International, 1999, p.169 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.8-10 * ^ John S. Strong(1989). _The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna_. Motilal Banarsidass
Motilal Banarsidass
. ISBN 978-81-208-0616-0 . Retrieved 30 October 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sarvastivada pg 38–39 * ^ A Journey Through India\'s Past Chandra Mauli Mani, Northern Book Centre, 2005, p.38 * ^ A Journey Through India\'s Past Chandra Mauli Mani, Northern Book Centre, 2005, p.38 * ^ Akira Hirakawa, Paul Groner, "A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana", Motilal Banarsidass
Motilal Banarsidass
Publ., 1996, ISBN 81-208-0955-6 pg 223 * ^ (Barua, B.M., '_Old Buddhist Shrines at Bodh-Gaya Inscriptions_) * ^ "Bodh Gaya from 500 BCE to 500 CE". _buddhanet.net_. * ^ A Journey Through India\'s Past Chandra Mauli Mani, Northern Book Centre, 2005, p.38 * ^ D.N. Jha,"Early India: A Concise History"p.150, plate 17 * ^ John S. Strong(1989). _The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna_. Motilal Banarsidass
Motilal Banarsidass
. ISBN 978-81-208-0616-0 . Retrieved 30 October 2012. * ^ Buddhism
Buddhism
in India: From the Sixth Century B.C. to the Third Century A.D. Ashok Kumar Anand, Gyan Books, 1996, p.96 * ^ " Pushyamitraequipped a fourfold army, and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama(in Pataliputra
Pataliputra
). ... Pushyamitratherefore destroyed the sangharama , killed the monks there, and departed. ... After some time, he arrived in Sakala , and proclaimed that he would give a ... reward to whoever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk." John S. Strong(1989). _The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna_. Motilal Banarsidass . ISBN 978-81-208-0616-0 . Retrieved 30 October 2012. * ^ A Journey Through India\'s Past Chandra Mauli Mani, Northern Book Centre, 2005, p.39 * ^ "For any scholar engaged in the study of the presence of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
or Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
before the Christian Era, the _Yuga Purana_ is an important source material" Dilip Coomer Ghose, General Secretary, The Asiatic Society
Asiatic Society
, Kolkata
Kolkata
, 2002 * ^ "Megasthenes: _Indika_". _Project South Asia_. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. The greatest city in India
India
is that which is called Palimbothra, in the dominions of the Prasians Megasthenes
Megasthenes
informs us that this city stretched in the inhabited quarters to an extreme length on each side of eighty stadia, and that its breadth was fifteen stadia, and that a ditch encompassed it all round, which was six hundred feet in breadth and thirty cubits in depth, and that the wall was crowned with 570 towers and had four-and-sixty gates. (Arr. Ind. 10. 'Of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
and the Manners of the Indians') * ^ Indian History Allied Publishers * ^ The Malavikágnimitra : a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
play by Kālidāsa; Tawney, C. H. p.91 * ^ "Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian coins in the Smithsonian institution", Bopearachchi, p16. Also: "Kalidasa recounts in his Mālavikāgnimitra (5.15.14–24) that Puṣpamitra appointed his grandson Vasumitrato guard his sacrificial horse, which wandered on the right bank of the Sindhu river and was seized by Yavana cavalrymen- the latter being thereafter defeated by Vasumitra. The "Sindhu" referred to in this context may refer the river Indus : but such an extension of Shunga power seems unlikely, and it is more probable that it denotes one of two rivers in central India
India
-either the Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Yamuna
Yamuna
, or the Kali-Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Chambal ." The Yuga Purana, Mitchener, 2002. * ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization, Sailendra Nath Sen, New Age International, 1999, p.169 * ^ Bakker, The rise of Ayodhya
Ayodhya
as a place of pilgrimage 1982 . * ^ History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.254 * ^ "Some Newly Discovered Inscriptions from Mathura
Mathura
: The Meghera Well Stone Inscription of Yavanarajya Year 160 Recently a stone inscription was acquired in the Government Museum, Mathura." India's ancient past, Shankar Goyal Book Enclave, 2004, p.189 * ^ "tatha YavanaKamboja Mathuram.abhitash cha ye./ ete ashava.yuddha.kushaladasinatyasi charminah."//5 — (MBH 12/105/5, Kumbhakonam Ed) * ^ "Silabario Sunga". _proel.org_.

REFERENCES

* "The Legend of King Ashoka, A study and translation of the Ashokavadana", John Strong, Princeton Library of Asian translations, 1983, ISBN 0-691-01459-0 * "Dictionary of Buddhism" by Damien KEOWN (Oxford University Press, 2003) ISBN 0-19-860560-9 * _Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas_, Romila Thapar, 1961 (revision 1998); Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-564445-X * "The Yuga Purana", John E. Mitchiner, Kolkata
Kolkata
, The Asiatic Society, 2002, ISBN 81-7236-124-6

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* Medallions from Barhut * Shunga art in North India
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