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The Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire
(IAST: Śuṅga) was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha
Magadha
that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
Shunga, after the fall of the Maurya
Maurya
Empire. Its capital was Pataliputra, but later emperors such as Bhagabhadra
Bhagabhadra
also held court at Besnagar (modern Vidisha) in eastern Malwa.[1] Pushyamitra Shunga
Pushyamitra Shunga
ruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra. There were ten Shunga rulers. However, after the death of Agnimitra, the second king of the dynasty, the empire rapidly disintegrated[2]: inscriptions and coins indicate that much of northern and central India
India
consisted of small kingdoms and city-states that were independent of any Shunga hegemony.[3] The dynasty is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. They fought the Kalinga, the Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty, the Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom
and possibly the Panchalas
Panchalas
and Mathuras. Art, education, philosophy, and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images, larger stone sculptures, and architectural monuments such as the stupa at Bharhut, and the renowned Great Stupa
Stupa
at Sanchi. Shunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of learning and art. The script used by the empire was a variant of Brahmi script
Brahmi script
and was used to write Sanskrit. The Shunga Empire
Shunga Empire
played an imperative role in patronizing culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu
Hindu
thought were taking place. Patanjali's Mahābhāṣya was composed in this period. Artistry also progressed with the rise of the Mathura
Mathura
art style. The Kanva dynasty
Kanva dynasty
succeeded the Shungas around 73 BCE.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Buddhism

2.1 Accounts of persecution 2.2 Support

2.2.1 Royal dedications

2.3 Shunga period contributions in Sanchi

2.3.1 Great Stupa
Stupa
(No 1) 2.3.2 Stupa
Stupa
No2 and Stupa
Stupa
No3

3 Wars of the Shungas

3.1 Literary evidence

3.1.1 Military expeditions of the Shungas 3.1.2 Yavana
Yavana
invasion and capture of Pataliputra 3.1.3 Battle on the Sindhu river

3.2 Epigraphic and archaeological evidence

3.2.1 Dhanadeva- Ayodhya
Ayodhya
inscription 3.2.2 Yavanarajya inscription

3.3 Heliodorus pillar

4 Cultural contributions 5 Script 6 List of Shunga Emperors 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Origins[edit]

Man on a relief, Bharhut, Shunga period.

Shunga royal family, West Bengal, 1st century BCE.

The Shunga dynasty was a Brahmin
Brahmin
dynasty,[4] established in 185 BCE, about 50 years after Ashoka's death, when the emperor Brihadratha Maurya, the last ruler of the Maurya
Maurya
Empire, was assassinated by his Senānī or commander-in-chief, Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
Shunga,[5] while he was reviewing the Guard of Honour of his forces. Pushyamitra Shunga
Pushyamitra Shunga
then ascended the throne. Pushyamitra Shunga
Pushyamitra Shunga
became the ruler of Magadha
Magadha
and neighbouring territories. His realm essentially covered the central parts of the old Mauryan Empire.[6] The Shunga definitely had control of the central city of Ayodhya
Ayodhya
in northern central India, as is proved by the Dhanadeva- Ayodhya
Ayodhya
inscription.[6] However, the city of Mathura
Mathura
further west never seems to have been under the direct control of the Shungas, as no archaeological evidence of a Shunga presence has ever been found in Mathura.[7] On the contrary, according to the Yavanarajya inscription, Mathura
Mathura
was probably under the control of Indo-Greeks from some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE, and remained so as late as 70 BCE.[7] Some ancient sources however claim a greater extent for the Shunga Empire: the Asokavadana
Asokavadana
account of the Divyavadana claims that the Shungas sent an army to persecute Buddhist monks as far as Sakala (Sialkot) in the Punjab region
Punjab region
in the northwest:

... Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
equipped a fourfold army, and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama (in Pataliputra). ... Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
therefore destroyed the sangharama, killed the monks there, and departed. ... After some time, he arrived in Sakala, and proclaimed that he would give a ... reward to whoever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk.[8]:293

Also, the Malavikagnimitra claims that the empire of Pushyamitra extended to the Narmada River
Narmada River
in the south. They may also have controlled the city of Ujjain.[6] Meanwhile, Kabul
Kabul
and much of the Punjab
Punjab
passed into the hands of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and the Deccan Plateau to the Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty. Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
died after ruling for 36 years (187–151 BCE). He was succeeded by son Agnimitra. This prince is the hero of a famous drama by one of India's greatest playwrights, Kālidāsa. Agnimitra
Agnimitra
was viceroy of Vidisha
Vidisha
when the story takes place. The power of the Shungas gradually weakened. It is said that there were ten Shunga emperors. The Shungas were succeeded by the Kanva dynasty around 73 BCE. Buddhism[edit] Main article: Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
Shunga See also: Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India Accounts of persecution[edit]

Shunga horseman, Bharhut.

Following the Mauryans, the first Brahmin
Brahmin
emperor was Pushyamitra Shunga, and is believed by some historians to have persecuted Buddhists and contributed to a resurgence of Brahmanism
Brahmanism
that forced Buddhism
Buddhism
outwards to Kashmir, Gandhara
Gandhara
and Bactria.[9] Buddhist scripture such as the Asokavadana
Asokavadana
account of the Divyavadana and ancient Tibetan historian Taranatha
Taranatha
have written about persecution of Buddhists. Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
is said to have burned down Buddhist monasteries, destroyed stupas, massacred Buddhist monks and put rewards on their heads, but some consider these stories as probable exaggerations.[9][10]

"... Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
equipped a fourfold army, and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama. ... Pushyamitra therefore destroyed the sangharama, killed the monks there, and departed. ... After some time, he arrived in Sakala, and proclaimed that he would give a ... reward to whoever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk." —  Asokavadana
Asokavadana
account of the Divyavadana[11]:293

Indian Puranic
Puranic
sources also, such as the Pratisarga Parva
Pratisarga Parva
of the Bhavishya Purana, describe the resurgence of Brahmanism
Brahmanism
following the Maurya
Maurya
Dynasty, and the killing of millions of Buddhists:

"At this time (after the rule of Chandragupta, Bindusara
Bindusara
and Ashoka) the best of the brahmanas, Kanyakubja, performed sacrifice on the top of a mountain named Arbuda. By the influence of Vedic
Vedic
mantras, four Kshatriyas appeared from the yajna (sacrifice). (...) They kept Ashoka under their control and annihilated all the Buddhists. It is said there were 4 million Buddhists and all of them were killed by uncommon weapons". — Pratisarga Parva[12]

Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
is known to have revived the supremacy of the Bramahnical religion and reestablished animal sacrifices (Yajnas) that had been prohibited by Ashoka.[10] Support[edit]

Shunga period stupa at Sanchi.

East Gateway and Railings, Red Sandstone, Bharhut
Bharhut
Stupa, 2nd Century BCE. Indian Museum, Kolkata.

Later Shunga emperors were seen as amenable to Buddhism
Buddhism
and as having contributed to the building of the stupa at Bharhut.[13] However, given the rather decentralized and fragmentary nature of the Shunga state, with many cities actually issuing their own coinage, as well as the relative dislike of the Shungas for the Buddhist religion, some authors argue that the constructions of that period in Sanchi
Sanchi
for example cannot really be called "Shunga". They were not the result of royal sponsorship, in contrast with what happened during the Mauryas, and most of the dedications at Sanchi
Sanchi
were private or collective, rather than the result of royal patronage.[14] Some writers believe that Brahmanism
Brahmanism
competed in political and spiritual realm with Buddhism[9] in the Gangetic plains. Buddhism flourished in the realms of the Bactrian kings.[citation needed] Some Indian scholars are of the opinion that the orthodox Shunga emperors were not intolerant towards Buddhism
Buddhism
and that Buddhism prospered during the time of the Shunga emperors. The existence of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Bengal in the Shunga period can also be inferred from a terracotta tablet that was found at Tamralipti
Tamralipti
and is on exhibit at the Asutosh Museum in Kolkata. Royal dedications[edit] Two dedication by a king Brahmamitra
Brahmamitra
and a king Indragnimitra are recorded at the Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
in Bodh Gaya, and have been claimed to show Sunga support for Buddhism. These kings however are essentially unknown, and do not form a part of the Shunga recorded genealogy, but they are thought to be post-Ashokan and to belong to the period of Sunga rule.[15][16] A Brahmamitra
Brahmamitra
is known otherwise as a local ruler of Mathura, but Indragnimitra is unknown, and according to some authors, Indragnimitra is in fact not even mentioned as a king in the actual inscription.[17][18]

An inscription at Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
at the Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
records the construction of the temple as follows:

"The gift of Nagadevi the wife of King Brahmamitra."

Another inscription reads:

"The gift of Kurangi, the mother of living sons and the wife of King Indragnimitra, son of Kosiki. The gift also of Srima of the royal palace shrine.[19][20] "

Cunningham has regretted the loss of the latter part of these important records. As regards the first coping inscription, he has found traces of eleven Brahmi letters after "Kuramgiye danam", the first nine of which read "rajapasada-cetika sa". Bloch reads these nine letters as "raja-pasada-cetikasa" and translates this expression in relation to the preceding words:

"(the gift of Kurangi, the wife of Indragnimitra and the mother of living sons), "to the caitya (cetika) of the noble temple", taking the word raja before pasada as an epithet on ornans, distinguishing the temple as a particularly large and stately building similar to such expressions as rajahastin 'a noble elephant', rajahamsa `a goose (as distinguished from hamsa 'a duck'), etc."

Cunningham has translated the expression by "the royal palace, the caitya", suggesting that "the mention of the raja-pasada would seem to connect the donor with the king's family." Luders doubtfully suggests "to the king's temple" as a rendering of "raja-pasada-cetikasa." Shunga period contributions in Sanchi[edit] Main article: Sanchi

The Great Stupa
Stupa
under the Shungas. The Shungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.

On the basis of Ashokavadana, it is presumed that the stupa may have been vandalized at one point sometime in the 2nd century BCE, an event some have related to the rise of the Shunga emperor Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
Shunga who overtook the Mauryan Empire
Mauryan Empire
as an army general. It has been suggested that Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
may have destroyed the original stupa, and his son Agnimitra
Agnimitra
rebuilt it.[21] The original brick stupa was covered with stone during the Shunga period. Great Stupa
Stupa
(No 1)[edit] During the later rule of the Shunga, the stupa was expanded with stone slabs to almost twice its original size. The dome was flattened near the top and crowned by three superimposed parasols within a square railing. With its many tiers it was a symbol of the dharma, the Wheel of the Law. The dome was set on a high circular drum meant for circumambulation, which could be accessed via a double staircase. A second stone pathway at ground level was enclosed by a stone balustrade. The railing around Stupa
Stupa
1 do not have artistic reliefs. These are only slabs, with some dedicatory inscriptions. These elements are dated to circa 150 BCE.[22] Stupa
Stupa
No2 and Stupa
Stupa
No3[edit] The buildings which seem to have been commissioned during the rule of the Shungas are the Second and Third stupas (but not the highly decorated gateways, which are from the following Satavahana
Satavahana
period, as known from inscriptions), and the ground balustrade and stone casing of the Great Stupa
Stupa
( Stupa
Stupa
No 1). The Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana are said to have been placed in Stupa
Stupa
No 3.[23] These are dated to circa 115 BCE for the medallions, 80 BCE for the gateway carvings,[24] slightly after the reliefs of Bharhut, with some reworks down to the 1st century CE.[22][24] The style of the Shunga period decorations at Sanchi
Sanchi
bear a close similarity to those of Bharhut, as well as the peripheral balustrades at Bodh Gaya, which are thought to be the oldest of the three.

Shunga structures and decorations (150-80 BCE)

Great Stupa ( Stupa
Stupa
expansion and balustrades only are Shunga). Undecorated ground railings dated to approximately 150 BCE.[22]

Shunga balustrade and staircase.

Shunga stonework.

Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.

Deambulatory pathway.

Summit railing and umbrellas.

Stupa
Stupa
No 2 Entirely Shunga work. The reliefs are thought to date to the last quarter of the 2nd century BCE (circa 115 BCE for the medallions, 80 BCE for the gateway carvings),[24] slightly after the reliefs of Bharhut, with some reworks down to the 1st century CE.[22][24]

Elephant and Riders.

Balustrade
Balustrade
post with Lakshmi.

Balustrade
Balustrade
post with Yaksha.

Pillar with elephants supporting a wheel.

Personnage.

Lotus.

Floral motif.

Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE.[24]

Ashoka
Ashoka
supported by his two wives. Similar to the later relief at Gateway 1.

Relic boxes found inside the stupa.

Stupa
Stupa
No 3 ( Stupa
Stupa
and balustrades only are Shunga).

Stairway and railing.

Lotus medallions.

Floral designs.

Post relief.[25]

Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.

Wars of the Shungas[edit]

Extent of the Shunga Empire

War and conflict characterized the Shunga period. They are known to have warred with the Kalingas, Satavahanas, the Indo-Greeks, and possibly the Panchalas
Panchalas
and Mathuras.[citation needed] The Shunga Empire's wars with the Indo-Greek Kingdom
Indo-Greek Kingdom
figure greatly in the history of this period. From around 180 BCE the Greco-Bactrian ruler Demetrius conquered the Kabul
Kabul
Valley and is theorized to have advanced into the trans-Indus to confront the Shungas.[10] The Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Menander I
Menander I
is credited with either joining or leading a campaign to Pataliputra
Pataliputra
with other Indian rulers; however, very little is known about the exact nature and success of the campaign. The net result of these wars remains uncertain.[citation needed]

Vedika pillar with "Yavana" Greek warrior. Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga Period, c. 100-80 BC. Reddish brown sandstone.[26] Indian Museum, Calcutta.

Literary evidence[edit] Several works, such as the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Yuga Purana
Yuga Purana
describe the conflict between the Shungas and the Indo-Greeks. Military expeditions of the Shungas[edit] Scriptures such as the Ashokavadana
Ashokavadana
claim that Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
toppled Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
and killed many Buddhist monks.[27] Then it describes how Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
sent an army to Pataliputra
Pataliputra
and as far as Sakala (Sialkot), in the Punjab, to persecute Buddhist monks.[28][29] Yavana
Yavana
invasion and capture of Pataliputra[edit] The Indo-Greeks, called Yavanas
Yavanas
in Indian sources, either led by Demetrius I or Menander I, then invaded India, possibly receiving the help of Buddhists.[30] Menander in particular is described as a convert to Buddhism
Buddhism
in the Milindapanha. The Hindu
Hindu
text of the Yuga Purana, which describes Indian historical events in the form of a prophecy,[31] relates the attack of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
on the capital Pataliputra, a magnificent fortified city with 570 towers and 64 gates according to Megasthenes,[32] and describes the ultimate destruction of the city's walls:

"Then, after having approached Saketa
Saketa
together with the Panchalas
Panchalas
and the Mathuras, the Yavanas, valiant in battle, will reach Kusumadhvaja ["the town of the flower-standard", Pataliputra]. Then, once Puspapura [another name of Pataliputra] has been reached and its celebrated mud[-walls] cast down, all the realm will be in disorder." (Yuga Purana, Paragraph 47–48, 2002 edition)

Western sources also suggest that this new offensive of the Greeks into India
India
led them as far as the capital Pataliputra:[33]

Those who came after Alexander went to the Ganges
Ganges
and Pataliputra — Strabo, 15.698

Battle on the Sindhu river[edit] An account of a direct battle between the Greeks and the Shunga is also found in the Mālavikāgnimitram, a play by Kālidāsa
Kālidāsa
which describes a battle between a squadron of Greek cavalrymen and Vasumitra, the grandson of Pushyamitra, accompanied by a hundred soldiers on the "Sindhu river", in which the Indians defeated a squadron of Greeks and Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
successfully completed the Ashvamedha
Ashvamedha
Yagna.[34] This river may be the Indus river
Indus river
in the northwest, but such expansion by the Shungas is unlikely, and it is more probable that the river mentioned in the text is the Sindh River or the Kali Sindh River
Sindh River
in the Ganges
Ganges
Basin.[35] Epigraphic and archaeological evidence[edit] Dhanadeva- Ayodhya
Ayodhya
inscription[edit] Ultimately, Shunga rule seems to have extended to the area of Ayodhya. Shunga inscriptions are known as far as Ayodhya
Ayodhya
in northern central India;[6] in particular, the Dhanadeva- Ayodhya
Ayodhya
inscription refers to a local king Dhanadeva, who claimed to be the sixth descendant of Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
Shunga. The inscription also records that Pushyamitra performed two Ashvamedhas (victory sacrifices) in Ayodhya.[36] Yavanarajya inscription[edit]

The Yavanarajya inscription, dated to "year 116 of Yavana
Yavana
hegemony", probably 70 or 69 BCE, was discovered in Mathura. Mathura
Mathura
Museum.

The Greeks seem to have maintained control of Mathura. The Yavanarajya inscription, also called the "Maghera inscription", discovered in Mathura, suggests that the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
were in control of Mathura during the 1st century BCE.[37][38] The inscription is important in that it mentions the date of its dedication as "The last day of year 116 of Yavana
Yavana
hegemony (Yavanarajya)". It is considered that this inscription is attesting the control of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE in Mathura, a fact that is also confirmed by numismatic and literary evidence.[7] Moreover, it doesn't seem that the Shungas ever ruled in Mathura
Mathura
or Surasena
Surasena
since no Shunga coins or inscriptions have been found there.[7] The Anushasana Parva
Anushasana Parva
of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
affirms that the city of Mathura
Mathura
was under the joint control of the Yavanas
Yavanas
and the Kambojas.[39] Later however, it seems the city of Mathura
Mathura
was retaken from them, if not by the Shungas themselves, then probably by other indigenous rulers such as the Datta dynasty
Datta dynasty
or the Mitra dynasty, or more probably by the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
Northern Satraps
Northern Satraps
under Rajuvula. In the region of Mathura, the Arjunayanas and Yaudheyas mention military victories on their coins ("Victory of the Arjunayanas", "Victory of the Yaudheyas"), and during the 1st century BCE, the Trigartas, Audumbaras
Audumbaras
and finally the Kunindas also started to mint their own coins, thus affirming independence from the Indo-Greeks, although the style of their coins was often derived from that of the Indo-Greeks. Heliodorus pillar[edit]

The Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
was built in Vidisha
Vidisha
under the Shungas, at the instigation of Heliodorus, ambassador of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king Antialcidas. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda. Established circa 100 BCE.

Very little can be said with great certainty. However, what does appear clear is that the two realms appeared to have established normalized diplomatic relations in the succeeding reigns of their respective rulers. The Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
and the Shungas seem to have reconciled and exchanged diplomatic missions around 110 BCE, as indicated by the Heliodorus pillar, which records the dispatch of a Greek ambassador named Heliodorus, from the court of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas, to the court of the Shunga emperor Bhagabhadra
Bhagabhadra
at the site of Vidisha
Vidisha
in central India. Cultural contributions[edit] While there is much debate on the religious politics of the Shunga dynasty, it is recognized for a number of contributions. Art, education, philosophy, and other learning flowered during this period. Most notably, Patanjali's Yoga
Yoga
Sutras and Mahabhashya were composed in this period. It is also noted for its subsequent mention in the Malavikaagnimitra. This work was composed by Kalidasa in the later Gupta period, and romanticized the love of Malavika and King Agnimitra, with a background of court intrigue. Artistry on the subcontinent also progressed with the rise of the Mathura
Mathura
school, which is considered the indigenous counterpart to the more Hellenistic Gandhara
Gandhara
school of Afghanistan and Pakistan. During the historical Shunga period (185 to 73 BCE), Buddhist activity also managed to survive somewhat in central India
India
(Madhya Pradesh) as suggested by some architectural expansions that were done at the stupas of Sanchi
Sanchi
and Barhut, originally started under Emperor Ashoka. It remains uncertain whether these works were due to the weakness of the control of the Shungas in these areas, or a sign of tolerance on their part. The last of the Shunga emperors was Devabhuti
Devabhuti
(83–73 BCE). He was assassinated by his minister (Vasudeva Kanva) and is said to have been overfond of the company of women. The Shunga dynasty was then replaced by the subsequent Kanvas.

Shunga statuettes and reliefs

Chandraketugarth, goddess of fecundity.

Chandraketugarth.

Shunga Yakshi, 2nd–1st century BCE.

Shunga masculine figurine (molded plate). 2nd–1st century BCE.

Shunga woman with child. 2nd–1st century BCE.

Shunga Yaksha. 2nd–1st century BCE.

Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE.

Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE.

Baluster-holding yakṣa, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga period (2nd–1st century BCE). Guimet Museum.

Royal family, Shunga, West Bengal
West Bengal
1st century BCE.

Amorous royal couple. Shunga, 1st century BCE, West Bengal.

Sunga Love Scene.

Script[edit] The script used by the Shunga was a variant of Brahmi, and was used to write the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. The script is thought to be an intermediary between the Maurya
Maurya
and the Kalinga Brahmi scripts.[40]

Shunga coinage

Bronze coin of the Shunga period, Eastern India. 2nd–1st century BCE.

Another Shunga coin

A copper coin of 1/4 karshapana of Ujjain
Ujjain
in Malwa.

Shunga coin.

Outline of South Asian history

Palaeolithic (2,500,000–250,000 BC)

Madrasian Culture

Soanian
Soanian
Culture

Neolithic (10,800–3300 BC)

Bhirrana
Bhirrana
Culture (7570–6200 BC)

Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
Culture (7000–3300 BC)

Edakkal Culture (5000–3000 BC)

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
(3500–1500 BC)

Ahar-Banas Culture (3000–1500 BC)

Pandu Culture (1600–1500 BC)

Malwa
Malwa
Culture (1600–1300 BC)

Jorwe Culture (1400–700 BC)

Bronze Age (3300–1300 BC)

Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1300 BC)

 – Early Harappan Culture (3300–2600 BC)

 – Mature Harappan Culture (2600–1900 BC)

 – Late Harappan Culture (1900–1300 BC)

Vedic
Vedic
Civilisation (2000–500 BC)

 – Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (2000–1600 BC)

 – Swat culture (1600–500 BC)

Iron Age (1500–200 BC)

Vedic
Vedic
Civilisation (1500–500 BC)

 – Janapadas (1500–600 BC)

 – Black and Red ware culture (1300–1000 BC)

 – Painted Grey Ware culture (1200–600 BC)

 – Northern Black Polished Ware (700–200 BC)

Pradyota Dynasty (799–684 BC)

Haryanka Dynasty (684–424 BC)

Three Crowned Kingdoms (c. 600 BC–AD 1600)

Maha Janapadas (c. 600–300 BC)

Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Ror Dynasty (450 BC–AD 489)

Shishunaga Dynasty (424–345 BC)

Nanda Empire (380–321 BC)

Macedonian Empire (330–323 BC)

Maurya
Maurya
Empire (321–184 BC)

Seleucid India (312–303 BC)

Pandya Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1345)

Chera Kingdom (c. 300 BC-AD 1102)

Chola Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1279)

Pallava Empire (c. 250 BC–AD 800)

Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire (c. 250 BC–c. AD 500)

Parthian Empire (247 BC– AD 224)

Middle Kingdoms (230 BC– AD 1206)

Satavahana
Satavahana
Empire (230 BC–AD 220)

Kuninda
Kuninda
Kingdom (200 BC–AD 300)

Mitra Dynasty (c. 150 –c. 50 BC)

Shunga Empire (185–73 BC)

Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom (180 BC–AD 10)

Kanva Empire (75–26 BC)

Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
Kingdom (50 BC–AD 400)

Indo-Parthian Kingdom (AD 21–c. 130)

Western Satrap Empire (AD 35–405 )

Kushan Empire (AD 60–240)

Bharshiva Dynasty (170–350)

Nagas of Padmavati (210–340)

Sasanian Empire (224–651)

Indo-Sassanid Kingdom (230–360)

Vakataka Empire (c. 250–c. 500)

Kalabhras Empire (c. 250–c. 600)

Gupta Empire (280–550)

Kadamba Empire (345–525)

Western Ganga Kingdom (350–1000)

Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Kingdom (350–1100)

Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina
Empire (420–624)

Maitraka
Maitraka
Empire (475–767)

Huna Kingdom (475–576)

Rai Kingdom (489–632)

Kabul
Kabul
Shahi Empire (c. 500–1026)

Chalukya Empire (543–753)

Maukhari
Maukhari
Empire (c. 550–c. 700)

Harsha Empire (606–647)

Tibetan Empire (618–841)

Eastern Chalukya Kingdom (624–1075)

Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)

Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Empire (650–1036)

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)

Pala Empire (750–1174)

Rashtrakuta Empire (753–982)

Paramara Kingdom (800–1327)

Yadava Empire (850–1334)

Chaulukya Kingdom (942–1244)

Western Chalukya Empire (973–1189)

Lohara Kingdom (1003–1320)

Hoysala Empire (1040–1346)

Sena Empire (1070–1230)

Eastern Ganga Empire (1078–1434)

Kakatiya Kingdom (1083–1323)

Zamorin Kingdom (1102–1766)

Kalachuris of Tripuri (675-1210)

Kalachuris of Kalyani (1156–1184)

Chutiya Kingdom (1187–1673)

Deva Kingdom (c. 1200–c. 1300)

Late medieval period (1206–1526)

Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526)

 – Mamluk Sultanate (1206–1290)

 – Khalji Sultanate (1290–1320)

 – Tughlaq Sultanate (1320–1414)

 – Sayyid Sultanate (1414–1451)

 – Lodi Sultanate (1451–1526)

Ahom Kingdom (1228–1826)

Chitradurga Kingdom (1300–1779)

Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448)

Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)

Bengal Sultanate (1352–1576)

Garhwal Kingdom (1358–1803)

Mysore Kingdom (1399–1947)

Gajapati Kingdom (1434–1541)

Deccan Sultanates (1490–1596)

 – Ahmadnagar Sultanate (1490–1636)

 – Berar Sultanate (1490–1574)

 – Bidar Sultanate (1492–1619)

 – Bijapur Sultanate (1492–1686)

 – Golkonda Sultanate (1518–1687)

Keladi Kingdom (1499–1763)

Koch Kingdom (1515–1947)

Early modern period
Early modern period
(1526–1858)

Mughal Empire (1526–1858)

Sur Empire (1540–1556)

Madurai Kingdom (1559–1736)

Thanjavur Kingdom (1572–1918)

Bengal Subah (1576–1757)

Marava Kingdom (1600–1750)

Thondaiman Kingdom (1650–1948)

Maratha Empire (1674–1818)

Sikh Confederacy (1707–1799)

Travancore
Travancore
Kingdom (1729–1947)

Sikh Empire (1799–1849)

Colonial states (1510–1961)

Portuguese India (1510–1961)

Dutch India (1605–1825)

Danish India (1620–1869)

French India (1759–1954)

Company Raj (1757–1858)

British Raj (1858–1947)

Periods of Sri Lanka

Prehistory (Until 543 BC)

Early kingdoms period (543 BC–377 BC)

Anuradhapura period (377 BC–AD 1017)

Polonnaruwa period (1056–1232)

Transitional period (1232–1505)

Crisis of the Sixteenth Century (1505–1594)

Kandyan period (1594–1815)

British Ceylon (1815–1948)

Contemporary Sri Lanka (1948–present)

National histories

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

Regional histories

Assam Balochistan Bengal Bihar Gujarat Himachal Pradesh Kabul Kashmir Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Rajasthan Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Punjab Odisha Sindh South India Tamil Nadu Tibet

Specialised histories

Agriculture Architecture Coinage Demographics Dynasties Economy Education Indology Influence on Southeast Asia Language Literature Maritime Metallurgy Military Partition of India Pakistan studies Philosophy Religion Science & Technology Timeline

v t e

List of Shunga Emperors[edit]

Emperor Reign[citation needed]

Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
Shunga 185–149 BCE

Agnimitra 149–141 BCE

Vasujyeshtha 141–131 BCE

Vasumitra 131–124 BCE

Bhadraka (aka Ardraka or Odruka) 124–122 BCE

Pulindaka 122–119 BCE

Ghosha (aka Ghoshavasu) 119-108 BCE

Vajramitra 108-94 BCE

Bhagabhadra
Bhagabhadra
(aka Bhagavata) 94-83 BCE

Devabhuti 83–73 BCE

See also[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of India

Ancient

Madrasian Culture Soanian, c. 500,000 BCE Neolithic, c. 7600 – c. 3300 BCE

Bhirrana
Bhirrana
7570 - 6200 BCE Jhusi
Jhusi
7106 BCE Lahuradewa 7000 BCE Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
7000 - 2600 BCE

Indus Valley Civilization, c. 3300 – c. 1700 BCE Post Indus Valley Period, c. 1700 – c. 1500 BCE Vedic
Vedic
Civilization, c. 1500 – c. 500 BCE

Early Vedic
Vedic
Period

Rise of Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement

Later Vedic
Vedic
Period

Spread of Jainism
Jainism
- Parshvanatha Spread of Jainism
Jainism
- Mahavira Rise of Buddhism

Mahajanapadas, c. 500 – c. 345 BCE Nanda Dynasty, c. 345 – c. 322 BCE

Classical

Maurya
Maurya
Dynasty, c. 322 – c. 185 BCE Shunga Dynasty, c. 185 – c. 75 BCE Kanva Dynasty, c. 75 – c. 30 BCE Kushan Dynasty, c. 30 – c. 230 CE Satavahana
Satavahana
Dynasty, c. 30 BCE – c. 220 CE Gupta Dynasty, c. 200 – c. 550 CE

Early medieval

Chalukya Dynasty, c. 543 – c. 753 CE Harsha's Dynasty, c. 606 CE – c. 647 CE Karakota Dynasty, c. 724 – c. 760 CE Arab Invasion, c. 738 CE Tripartite Struggle, c. 760 – c. 973 CE

Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Dynasty Rastrakuta Dynasty Pala Dynasty

Chola Dynasty, c. 848 – c. 1251 CE 2nd Chalukya Dynasty, c. 973 – c. 1187 CE

Late medieval

Delhi Sultanate, c. 1206 – c. 1526 CE

Slave Dynasty Khalji Dynasty Tugluq Dynasty Sayyid Dynasty Lodhi Dynasty

Pandyan Dynasty, c. 1251 – c. 1323 CE Vijayanagara, c. 1336 – c. 1646 CE Bengal Sultanate, c. 1342 – c. 1576 CE

Early modern

Mughal Dynasty, c. 1526 – c. 1540 CE Suri Dynasty, c. 1540 – c. 1556 CE Mughal Dynasty, c. 1556 – c. 1857 CE

Bengal Subah, c. 1576 – c. 1757 CE

Maratha Empire, c. 1674 – c. 1818 CE Company Raj, c. 1757 – c. 1858 CE Kingdom of Mysore, c. 1760 – c. 1799 CE Sikh Empire, c. 1799 – c. 1849 CE

Modern

The Great Rebellion, c. 1857 – c. 1858 CE British Raj, c. 1858 – c. 1947 CE

Independence Movement

Independent India, c. 1947 CE – present

Related articles

Timeline of Indian History Dynasties in Indian History Economic History Demographic History Linguistic History Architectural History Art History Literary History Philosophical History History of Religion Musical History Education History Coinage History Science and Technology History List of Inventions and Discoveries Military History Naval History Wars involving India

v t e

Part of a series on the

History of Bengal

Ancient Geopolitical units

Pundravardhana Vanga Gangaridai Samatata Anga Suhma Harikela Kamarupa

Ancient and Classical dynasties

Nanda dynasty Maurya
Maurya
dynasty Shunga dynasty Gupta dynasty Varman dynasty Gauda dynasty Mallabhum
Mallabhum
dynasty Khadga dynasty Pala dynasty Chandra dynasty Chola dynasty Sena dynasty Deva dynasty

Medieval and Early Modern periods

Delhi Sultanate City states

Sonargaon Lakhnauti Satgaon

Bengal Sultanate

Ilyas Shahi dynasty Hussain Shahi dynasty Karrani dynasty

Sur Empire Twelve Bhuyan Confederacy Kingdom of Mrauk U Jaintia Kingdom Koch dynasty Kingdom of Tripura Kingdom of Bhurshut Mughal Empire

Bengal Subah Burdwan Raj Rajshahi Raj Nadia Raj Bettiah Raj Nawabs of Bengal Zamindars

Maratha expeditions in Bengal

European colonisation

Portuguese Chittagong Dutch Bengal French Bengal Danish Bengal Austrian Bengal British India

Company rule Bengal Presidency Bengal famine of 1770 Partition of Bengal (1905) Bengal famine of 1943 Direct Action Day Indian Mutiny of 1857 British Raj Bengal Renaissance Eastern Bengal and Assam Anti-colonial struggle Partition of Bengal (1947)

East Bengal

East Bengali refugees

East Pakistan

1964 East Pakistan riots Language Movement Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 Liberation War 1971 Genocide Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

Bangladesh

People's Republic Military coups Bangladesh
Bangladesh
famine of 1974

Indian Bengal

West Bengal Tripura merger Left Front Naxalism Barak Valley Language Movement Gorkhaland

Calendar

Bengali calendar Malla calendar

Related

Bengali literary history Architecture of Bengal Bangamata

v t e

History of Buddhism History of India Greco-Buddhism

Notes[edit]

^ Stadtner, Donald (1975). "A Śuṅga Capital from Vidiśā". Artibus Asiae. 37 (1/2): 101–104. doi:10.2307/3250214. JSTOR 3250214.  ^ K.A. Nilkantha Shastri (1970), A Comprehensive History of India: Volume 2, p.108: "Soon after Agnimitra
Agnimitra
there was no 'Sunga empire.'" ^ Bhandare, Shailendra. "Numismatics and History: The Maurya-Gupta Interlude in the Gangetic Plain." in Between the Empires: Society in India, 300 to 400, ed. Patrick Olivelle (2006), p.96 ^ Between the Empires: Society in India
India
300 BCE to 400 CE By Patrick Olivelle, Oxford University Press, Page 147-152 ^ " Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
is said in the Puranas
Puranas
to have been the senānī or army-commander of the last Maurya
Maurya
emperor Brihadratha" The Yuga Purana, Mitchener, 2002. ^ a b c d Ancient Indian History and Civilization, Sailendra Nath Sen, New Age International, 1999, p.169 ^ a b c d History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.8-10 [1] ^ John S. Strong (1989). The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0616-0. Retrieved 30 October 2012.  ^ a b c Sarvastivada pg 38–39 ^ a b c A Journey Through India's Past Chandra Mauli Mani, Northern Book Centre, 2005, p.38 ^ John S. Strong (1989). The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0616-0. Retrieved 30 October 2012.  ^ Pratisarga Parva
Pratisarga Parva
p.18 ^ Akira Hirakawa, Paul Groner, "A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana", Motilal Banarsidass
Motilal Banarsidass
Publ., 1996, ISBN 81-208-0955-6 pg 223 ^ Buddhist Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi
Sanchi
Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, c. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD Julia Shaw, Routledge, 2016 p.58 ^ Asoka, Mookerji Radhakumud, Motilal Banarsidass
Motilal Banarsidass
Publishe, 1962 p.152 ^ Between the Empires: Society in India
India
300 BCE to 400 CE Patrick Olivelle, Oxford University Press, 2006 p.58-59 ^ Between the Empires: Society in India
India
300 BCE to 400 CE Patrick Olivelle, Oxford University Press, 2006 p.58-59 ^ Between the Empires: Society in India
India
300 BCE to 400 CE Patrick Olivelle, Oxford University Press, 2006 p.75 ^ (Barua, B.M., 'Old Buddhist Shrines at Bodh-Gaya Inscriptions) ^ " Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
from 500 BCE to 500 CE". buddhanet.net.  ^ "Who was responsible for the wanton destruction of the original brick stupa of Ashoka
Ashoka
and when precisely the great work of reconstruction was carried out is not known, but it seems probable that the author of the former was Pushyamitra, the first of the Shunga kings (184-148 BC), who was notorious for his hostility to Buddhism, and that the restoration was affected by Agnimitra
Agnimitra
or his immediate successor." in John Marshall, A Guide to Sanchi, p. 38. Calcutta: Superintendent, Government Printing (1918). ^ a b c d Buddhist Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi
Sanchi
Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, C. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD, Julia Shaw, Left Coast Press, 2013 p.88ff ^ Marshall p.81 ^ a b c d e Buddhist Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi
Sanchi
Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, C. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD, Julia Shaw, Left Coast Press, 2013 p.90 ^ Marshall p.82 ^ D.N. Jha,"Early India: A Concise History"p.150, plate 17 ^ John S. Strong (1989). The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0616-0. Retrieved 30 October 2012.  ^ Buddhism
Buddhism
in India: From the Sixth Century B.C. to the Third Century A.D. Ashok Kumar Anand, Gyan Books, 1996, p.96 ^ " Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
equipped a fourfold army, and intending to destroy the Buddhist religion, he went to the Kukkutarama (in Pataliputra). ... Pushyamitra
Pushyamitra
therefore destroyed the sangharama, killed the monks there, and departed. ... After some time, he arrived in Sakala, and proclaimed that he would give a ... reward to whoever brought him the head of a Buddhist monk." John S. Strong (1989). The Legend of King Aśoka: A Study and Translation of the Aśokāvadāna. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0616-0. Retrieved 30 October 2012.  ^ A Journey Through India's Past Chandra Mauli Mani, Northern Book Centre, 2005, p.39 ^ "For any scholar engaged in the study of the presence of the Indo-Greeks
Indo-Greeks
or Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
before the Christian Era, the Yuga Purana is an important source material" Dilip Coomer Ghose, General Secretary, The Asiatic Society, Kolkata, 2002 ^ "Megasthenes: Indika". Project South Asia. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. The greatest city in India
India
is that which is called Palimbothra, in the dominions of the Prasians [...] Megasthenes
Megasthenes
informs us that this city stretched in the inhabited quarters to an extreme length on each side of eighty stadia, and that its breadth was fifteen stadia, and that a ditch encompassed it all round, which was six hundred feet in breadth and thirty cubits in depth, and that the wall was crowned with 570 towers and had four-and-sixty gates. (Arr. Ind. 10. 'Of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
and the Manners of the Indians')  ^ Indian History Allied Publishers ^ The Malavikágnimitra : a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
play by Kālidāsa; Tawney, C. H. p.91 ^ "Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
and Indo-Parthian coins in the Smithsonian institution", Bopearachchi, p16. Also: "Kalidasa recounts in his Mālavikāgnimitra (5.15.14–24) that Puṣpamitra appointed his grandson Vasumitra
Vasumitra
to guard his sacrificial horse, which wandered on the right bank of the Sindhu river and was seized by Yavana cavalrymen- the latter being thereafter defeated by Vasumitra. The "Sindhu" referred to in this context may refer the river Indus: but such an extension of Shunga power seems unlikely, and it is more probable that it denotes one of two rivers in central India
India
-either the Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Yamuna, or the Kali-Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Chambal." The Yuga Purana, Mitchener, 2002. ^ Bakker, The rise of Ayodhya
Ayodhya
as a place of pilgrimage 1982. ^ History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.254 [2] ^ "Some Newly Discovered Inscriptions from Mathura : The Meghera Well Stone Inscription of Yavanarajya Year 160 Recently a stone inscription was acquired in the Government Museum, Mathura." India's ancient past, Shankar Goyal Book Enclave, 2004, p.189 ^ "tatha Yavana
Yavana
Kamboja Mathuram.abhitash cha ye./ ete ashava.yuddha.kushaladasinatyasi charminah."//5 — (MBH 12/105/5, Kumbhakonam Ed) ^ "Silabario Sunga". proel.org. 

References[edit]

"The Legend of King Ashoka, A study and translation of the Ashokavadana", John Strong, Princeton Library of Asian translations, 1983, ISBN 0-691-01459-0 "Dictionary of Buddhism" by Damien KEOWN (Oxford University Press, 2003) ISBN 0-19-860560-9 Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas, Romila Thapar, 1961 (revision 1998); Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-564445-X "The Yuga Purana", John E. Mitchiner, Kolkata, The Asiatic Society, 2002, ISBN 81-7236-124-6

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shunga Empire.

Medallions from Barhut Shunga art in North India
India
( Bharhut
Bharhut
and Bodgaya)

Preceded by Maurya
Maurya
dynasty Magadha
Magadha
dynasties Succeeded by Kanva dynasty

v t e

Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and cultural period

Northwestern India (Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India

Upper Gangetic Plain (Kuru-Panchala)

Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain

IRON AGE

Culture Late Vedic
Vedic
Period Late Vedic
Vedic
Period ( Brahmin
Brahmin
ideology)[a] Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic
Vedic
Period (Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b] Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history

 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga

Pre-history

 5th century BC (Persian rule)

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire

HISTORICAL AGE

Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period (300 BC – 200 AD)

 3rd century BC Maurya
Maurya
Empire Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - " Hindu
Hindu
Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f] Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism Sangam period (continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty

Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC

 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians

Kuninda
Kuninda
Kingdom

 2nd century Kushan Empire

 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism

 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty

Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Vishnukundina

 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul
Kabul
Shahi

Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami Chalukyas Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism
Hinduism
(ca. AD 650-1100)[h] Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
- Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

 7th century Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Pandyan Kingdom(Revival) Pallava

 8th century Kabul
Kabul
Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri

 9th century

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta dynasty Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge Univ

.