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Shuja-ud-Daulah (b. (1732-01-19)19 January 1732 – d. (1775-01-26)26 January 1775) was the Subedar Nawab
Nawab
of Oudh
Oudh
from 5 October 1754 to 26 January 1775,[2] Though a minor royal, he is best known for his key roles in two definitive battles in Indian history - the Third Battle of Panipat which temporarily halted Maratha
Maratha
domination of the northern regions of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and overthrew Shah Jahan III and reaffirmed Shah Alam II as the rightful emperor of the Mughal Empire. He had allied himself with Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim
and took part in the Battle of Buxar, which ended in defeat.[1]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh

2.1 Grand Vizier
Vizier
of the Mughal Empire 2.2 The Third Battle of Panipat 2.3 The Battle of Buxar 2.4 Allahabad
Allahabad
Treaty 2.5 Reemergence of Shah Alam II

3 Death and burial 4 References 5 Further reading 6 Notes 7 External links

Early life[edit] Shuja-ud-Daulah was the son of the Mughal Grand Vizier
Vizier
Safdarjung chosen by Ahmad Shah Bahadur. Unlike his father Shuja-ud-Daulah was known from an early age for his abilities to synthesize his subordinates, this skill would eventually cause him to emerge as the chosen Grand Vizier
Vizier
by Shah Alam II. Shuja-ud-Daulah is also known to have assisted the famous Alivardi Khan on various occasions when the territories of the Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal, were being ravaged by Raghoji I Bhonsle
Raghoji I Bhonsle
and his Marathas. Thus Shuja-ud-Daulah is known to have been a very respected figure among the servicemen of Alivardi Khan. Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh[edit]

Procession of Nawab
Nawab
Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
at Faizabad. From an album of 18th century Indian watercolours.

After the death of his father the Mughal Grand Vizier
Vizier
Safdarjung
Safdarjung
in the year 1753, Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
was recognized as the next Nawab
Nawab
by the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Ahmad Shah Bahadur. Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
despised Imad-ul-Mulk an ally of the Marathas of the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
whose regime emerged after the Battle of Sikandarabad with the support of the Sadashivrao Bhau. Imad-ul-Mulk blinded Ahmad Shah Bahadur and placed Alamgir II
Alamgir II
on the Mughal imperial throne. Alamgir II
Alamgir II
and his son Prince Ali Gauhar, were often persecuted by Imad-ul-Mulk because they refused to abandon their peaceful terms with Ahmad Shah Durrani, they also demanded the resignation of Imad-ul-Mulk mainly due to his relations with the Marathas. Grand Vizier
Vizier
of the Mughal Empire[edit] Prince Ali Gauhar fled Delhi
Delhi
when he realized a conspiracy that would eventually lead to the murder of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Alamgir II. Shuj-ud-Daula welcomed and protected Prince Ali Gauhar, who then declared himself Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
and officially recognized Shuja-ud-Daulah as the Grand Vizier
Vizier
of the Mughal Empire. Together they challenged the usurper Shah Jahan III, who was placed on the Mughal imperial throne by Sadashivrao Bhau
Sadashivrao Bhau
and his forces, which plundered much of the Mughal Empire. Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
was then advised to lead an expedition that would attempt to retake the eastern regions of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
from the British East India Company and Mir Jafar. While Shuja-ud-Daula, Najib-ul-Daula and Mirza Jawan Bakht
Mirza Jawan Bakht
allied themselves with Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
and assisted his forces during the Second Battle of Sikandarabad in the year 1760 and later led a Mughal Army
Mughal Army
of 43,000 during the Third Battle of Panipat. The Third Battle of Panipat[edit]

Palace of Nawab
Nawab
Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
at Lucknow

After escaping from Delhi
Delhi
due to the murder of his father the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II, the young Prince Ali Gauhar was well received by Shuja-ud-Daula. The Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh
Awadh
and the newly appointed Mughal Grand Vizier
Vizier
Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
assured Prince Ali Gauhar that he and Najib-ud-Daula
Najib-ud-Daula
would initiate a struggle that would overthrow the Maratha
Maratha
if Prince Ali Gauhar would lead what remained of the Mughal Army against the expanding British East India Company
British East India Company
in Bengal.[3] Shuja's decision about whom to join as an ally in the Third Battle of Panipat was one of the decisive factors that determined the outcome of the war as lack of food due to the Afghans cutting the supply lines of Marathas was one of the reasons that Marathas could not sustain the day-long battle. Their forces were weak due to starvation and also fighting facing the sun. Shuja was earlier not very sure about whose side should he take before the Third Battle of Panipat. Marathas were still further south then and it would have taken them considerable time to reach Shuja's province. Considering the risk he had with upsetting Abdali with his huge army on his soil he took (albeit hesitatingly) the decision to join the Afghans and Najib (Najib-ud-Daula). His mother was of the opinion that he should join the Marathas as they had helped his father previously on numerous occasions. Eventually he was forced to join the Afghans that were led by Ahmad Shah Durrani, whose troops crossed the flooded Ganges river into his province. As the chosen Grand Vizier
Vizier
of the Mughal Empire, Shuja-ud-Daula commanded a sizeable army of Mughal troopers, who cut off the supplies of the Marathas and even defeated them in pitched confrontations during the Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat
and eliminated the Maratha
Maratha
leader Sadashivrao Bhau. The Battle of Buxar[edit] Shuja is also known for his role in the Battle of Buxar, a battle that was no less definite in Indian history. He along with the forces of Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
and Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim
were defeated by the British forces in one of the key battles in the history of British rule in India. Allahabad
Allahabad
Treaty[edit]

Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
with his sons and relatives.

He again fought British with the help of Marathas at Kara Jahanabad and was defeated. On 16 August 1765 AD he signed the Treaty of Allahabad, which said that Kora and Allahabad
Allahabad
district will go to Company and the Company will get 50 lakh rupees from Awadh.[4] British will be allowed free trade in Awadh
Awadh
and will help each other in case of war with other powers, which was a very shrewd politics of the Company.[5] To pay for the protection of British forces and assistance in war, Awadh
Awadh
gave up first the fort of Chunar, then districts of Benaras, Ghazipur
Ghazipur
and finally Allahabad.[1] Reemergence of Shah Alam II[edit]

Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
served as the leading Grand Vizier
Vizier
of the Mughal Empire during the Third Battle of Panipat, he was also the Nawab
Nawab
of Awadh, and a loyal ally of Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
throughout his lifetime.

After the defeat in the Battle of Buxar
Battle of Buxar
Shah Alam II
Shah Alam II
realised that he needed the help of the East India Company to retain his throne with respect rather than becoming puppet emperor dominated by Maratha's and he did so . Death and burial[edit]

Gulab Bari, the tomb of Shuja-ud-Daula, in Faizabad.

Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
died on 26-01-1775 in Faizabad, the then capital of Awadh, and is buried in the same city. His burial place is a tomb and known as Gulab Bari
Gulab Bari
(Rose Garden).

Preceded by Abu´l Mansur Mohammad Moqim Khan Subadar
Subadar
Nawab
Nawab
of Oudh 1754 – 1762 Succeeded by post abolished

Preceded by new creation Nawab
Nawab
Wazir al-Mamalik of Oudh 1762 – 1775 Succeeded by Asaf ad-Dowla Amani

References[edit]

^ a b c Shuja-ud-daula (1754-1775) ^ Princely States of India ^ https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=AQa2AAAAIAAJ&q=Shah+Alam+ii+an+shuja-ud-daula&dq=Shah+Alam+ii+an+shuja-ud-daula&hl=en&sa=X&ei=IR_3TtTeKc7o-gbZw4mbAQ&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg ^ Wikisource: Text of Allahabad
Allahabad
Treaty ^ HISTORY OF AWADH (Oudh) a princely State of India by Hameed Akhtar Siddiqui

Further reading[edit]

Shuja-ud-Daulah - Vol. I, II (1754-1765) by Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava

Notes[edit]

^ title after death

External links[edit]

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