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Shudra
Shudra
(Sanskrit: शूद्र, IAST: śūdra) is a varna (class, caste) in Hinduism.[1] Various sources translate it into English as a caste,[1] or alternatively as a social class.[2] It is the lowest rank of the four varnas.[3] The word Shudra
Shudra
appears only once in the Rig veda
Rig veda
but is found in other Hindu
Hindu
texts such as the Manusmriti, Arthashastra
Arthashastra
and Dharmashastras. Theoretically, Shudras have constituted the hereditary labouring class serving others[1][4] but in reality they have shared occupations with other varnas, including being traders and warriors.[5][6][7] In some cases, they participated in the coronation of kings, or were ministers and kings according to early Indian texts.[8][9]

Contents

1 Texts

1.1 Rigveda 1.2 Later Vedic texts 1.3 Arthashastra 1.4 Manusmriti 1.5 Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
smriti and Grhyasutras 1.6 Medieval Upanishads 1.7 Non- Hindu
Hindu
texts

2 Occupation

2.1 Bali, Indonesia 2.2 Historical evidence

3 Commentary 4 See also 5 References

5.1 Bibliography

Texts[edit] Rigveda[edit] The term Shudra
Shudra
appears only once in the Rig veda.[10][11] This mention is found in a verse in the Purusha Sukta which is one of its 1,028 hymns.[12][13] While the Rigveda
Rigveda
was most likely compiled between c. 1500 and 1200 BCE,[14][15] John Muir in 1868 suggested that the verse that mentions the four varnas has "every character of modernness both in its diction and ideas".[16] The Purusha Sukta verse is now generally considered to have been inserted at a later date into the Vedic text, possibly as a charter myth.[17][18] According to Stephanie Jamison and Joel Brereton, a professor of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Religious studies, "there is no evidence in the Rigveda
Rigveda
for an elaborate, much-subdivided and overarching caste system", and "the varna system seems to be embryonic in the Rigveda
Rigveda
and, both then and later, a social ideal rather than a social reality".[17] Historian R. S. Sharma states that "the Rig Vedic society was neither organized on the basis of social division of labour nor on that of differences in wealth... [it] was primarily organised on the basis of kin, tribe and lineage."[19] Later Vedic texts[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2018)

According to Romila Thapar, the Vedic text's mention of Shudra
Shudra
and other varnas has been seen as its origin, and that "in the varna ordering of society, notions of purity and pollution were central and activities were worked out in this context" and it is "formulaic and orderly, dividing society into four groups arranged in a hierarchy".[4] The word Pusan appears in a Vedic era Upanishad, meaning "nourisher" and associates it with the creation of earth and production activities that nourishes the whole world, and the text calls this Pusan as Shudra.[20][21] The term Pusan, in Hindu
Hindu
mythology, is the charioteer of the sun who know the paths thereby bringing light, knowledge and life to all.[22] The same word Pusan is, however, associated in a Brahmana
Brahmana
text to Vaishya.[21] According to Sharma, nowhere in the Vedic text collections "is there any evidence of restrictions regarding food and marriage either between the Dasa and Aryan, or between the Shudra
Shudra
and the higher varnas". Further, adds Sharma, in late Atharva Veda, " Shudra
Shudra
does not come in for notice, probably because his varna did not exist at that stage".[23] Arthashastra[edit] The ancient Hindu
Hindu
text Arthashastra
Arthashastra
states, according to Sharma, that Aryas were free men and could not be subject to slavery under any circumstances.[24] The text contrasts Aryas with Shudra, but neither as a hereditary slave nor as an economically closed social stratum in a manner that the term Shudra
Shudra
later was interpreted.[10][24][25] According to Rangarajan, the law on labour and employment in Arthashastra
Arthashastra
has led to a variety of different interpretations by different translators and commentators, and "the accepted view is that slavery, in the form it was practised in contemporary Greece, did not exist in Kautilyan India".[26] Kautilya
Kautilya
argued for the rights of Shudras and all classes to participate as warriors. Roger Borsche says that this is so because it is in the self-interest of the ruler to "have a people's army fiercely loyal to him precisely because the people had been treated justly".[25] Manusmriti[edit] The Manusmriti
Manusmriti
predominantly discusses the code of conduct (dharma rules) for the Brahmins (priestly class) and the Kshatriyas (king, administration and warrior class).[27] The text mentions Shudras, as well as Vaishyas, but this part is its shortest section. Sections 9.326 – 9.335 of the Manusmriti
Manusmriti
state eight rules for Vaishyas and two for Shudras.[28] Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
smriti and Grhyasutras[edit] According to Laurie Patton, a professor of Religion specialising on early Indian religions, the rights and status of Shudra
Shudra
varies widely across early Indian texts.[29] Apastamba Grhysutra states they may not and excludes the Shudra
Shudra
students from hearing or learning the Vedas.[29] Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
Smriti
Smriti
in contrast mentions Shudra
Shudra
students, and the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
states that all four varnas including the Shudras may hear the Vedas.[30][31][32] Other Hindu
Hindu
texts go further and state that the three varnas – Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya
Vaishya
– may acquire knowledge from Shudra
Shudra
teachers, and the yajna sacrifices may be performed by Shudras.[33] These rights and social mobility for Shudras may have arisen in times of lower societal stress and greater economic prosperity, periods that also saw the improvement in the social conditions of women.[30] Medieval Upanishads[edit] Medieval era texts such as Vajrasuchi Upanishad
Upanishad
discuss varna, and include the term Shudra.[34][35] According to Ashwani Peetush, a professor of Philosophy at the Wilfrid Laurier University, the Vajrasuchi Upanishad
Upanishad
is a significant text because it assumes and asserts that any human being from any social background can achieve the highest spiritual state of existence.[36] Non- Hindu
Hindu
texts[edit] Outside of the conflicting stances within the Hindu
Hindu
texts, non-Hindu texts present a different picture about the Shudras. A Buddhist text, states Patton, "refers to Shudras who know the Vedas, grammar, Mimamsa, Samkhya, Vaisheshika and lagna".[29] According to Johannes Bronkhorst, a professor of Indology specializing on early Buddhism and Hinduism, the ancient Buddhist canon is predominantly devoid of varna discussion, and Shudra
Shudra
and other varnas are rarely referred to in its ancient discourses.[37] The Buddhist texts do not describe the Indian society as divided into the four varṇas of "Brahmins, Ksạtriyas, Vaiśyas and Śūdras". Instead, states Bronkhorst, the bulk of society is described as consisting of "householders" (Pāli: gahapati), without internal distinctions.[37] Even where the Brahmins are mentioned in such a context, they too are referred to as householders, or Brāhmaṇa-gahapati.[38] The term vaṇṇa does appear in the Buddhist texts as few exceptions, but states Bronkhorst, only in the context of abstract divisions of society and it seems to "have remained a theoretical concept without any parallel in actual practice".[39] Occupation[edit]

A Gurkha, a Brahmin
Brahmin
and a Shudra
Shudra
in an 1868 photo.

The Shudra, states Marvin Davis, are not required to learn the Vedas. They were not "twice born" (Dvija), and their occupational sphere stated as service (seva) of the other three varna.[3][4] The word Dvija
Dvija
is neither found in any Vedas
Vedas
and Upanishads, nor is it found in any Vedanga literature such as the Shrauta-sutras or Grihya-sutras.[40] The word is almost entirely missing, in any context, from ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature composed before the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE, and it scarcely appears in Dharmasutras
Dharmasutras
literature.[40] Increasing mentions of it appear in Dharmasastras
Dharmasastras
texts of mid to late 1st-millennium CE. The presence of the word Dvija
Dvija
is a marker that the text is likely a medieval era Indian text.[40] The traditional occupation of Shudra
Shudra
is described as labourers and service providers.[41][42] However, this categorisation varies by scholar.[43] For example, some sources state agriculturalists and artisans to be the hereditary occupation of Vaishya
Vaishya
varna, some place these occupations with the Shudra
Shudra
varna, while some such as Charles Drekmeier state " Vaishya
Vaishya
and Shudra
Shudra
actually shared many occupations and were frequently grouped together".[2][44][45] The Arthashastra
Arthashastra
mentions Shudra
Shudra
as artisans, while the Vishnusmriti (3rd century) states all arts to be their occupational domain. In contrast, the Parasarasmriti and other texts state that arts and crafts are the occupational domain of all four varnas.[46] Other sources state that this statement of occupations of Shudra
Shudra
is a theoretical discussion found in select texts, it is not historical. Other Hindu
Hindu
texts such as the epics, states Naheem Jabbar, assert that Shudras played other roles such as kings and ministers.[8] According to Ghurye,[47] in reality, the hereditary occupation aspect of Shudra and other varnas was missing from large parts of India, and all four varnas (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras) were agriculturalists, traders or became warriors in large numbers depending on economic opportunity and circumstantial necessities.[48] According to Ghurye:

Though theoretically the position of the Shudras was very low, there is evidence to show that many of them were well-to-do. Some of them succeeded in marrying their daughters in royal families. Sumitra, one of the four wives of king Dasharatha, was a Shudra. Some of them even worked their way up to throne. The famous Chandragupta is traditionally known to be a Shudra. — G.C. Ghurye, Caste and Race in India[49]

Bali, Indonesia[edit] Among the Hindu
Hindu
communities of Bali Indonesia, the Shudra
Shudra
(locally spelled Soedra) have typically been the temple priests, though depending on the demographics, a temple priest may also be a Brahmin (Brahmana), Kshatriya
Kshatriya
(Ksatrya) or Vaishya
Vaishya
(Vesya). In most regions, it has been the Shudra
Shudra
who typically make offerings to the gods on behalf of the Hindu
Hindu
devotees, chant prayers, recite meweda (Vedas), and set the course of Balinese temple festivals.[50] Historical evidence[edit] Scholars have tried to locate historical evidence for the existence and nature of varna and jati in documents and inscriptions of medieval India. Supporting evidence for the existence of varna and jati systems in medieval India has been elusive, and contradicting evidence has emerged.[51][52] Varna is rarely mentioned in the extensive medieval era records of Andhra Pradesh, for example. This has led Cynthia Talbot, a professor of History and Asian Studies, to question whether varna was socially significant in the daily lives of this region. The mention of jati is even rarer, through the 13th century. Two rare temple donor records from warrior families of the 14th century claim to be Shudras. One states that Shudras are the bravest, the other states that Shudras are the purest.[51] Richard Eaton, a professor of History, writes, "anyone could become warrior regardless of social origins, nor do the jati appear as features of people's identity. Occupations were fluid." Evidence shows, according to Eaton, that Shudras were part of the nobility, and many "father and sons had different professions, suggesting that social status was earned, not inherited" in the Hindu
Hindu
Kakatiya population in the Deccan region between the 11th and 14th centuries.[53] Historical evidence left by Buddhist rulers in ancient and medieval India do not mention Shudra. For example, according to Johannes Bronkhorst, none of Ashoka's inscriptions mention the terms Kshatriyas, Vaishyas or Shudras, and only mention Brahmins and Śramaṇas.[54] Several popular medieval era Bhakti
Bhakti
movement poet-saints and religious leaders were born in a Shudra
Shudra
family. Examples include Tukaram
Tukaram
and Namdev.[55][56] The compositions of Namdev
Namdev
have been popular not only in the Hindu
Hindu
community of Maharashtra, but also in the Sikh community. Sixty of his compositions were included by the Sikh Gurus of Punjab region as they compiled the Sikhism
Sikhism
scripture the Guru Granth Sahib.[57][58] Commentary[edit]

A 1908 photo of a bride and bridegroom of the sudra caste in a horse-drawn vehicle.[59]

Dr. Ambedkar, a social reformer, believed that there were initially only three varnas: the Brahmin, Kshatriya
Kshatriya
and Vaishya, and that the Shudras were the Kshatriyas who were denied the Upanayana, an initiation ritual, by the Brahmins.[60] This claim has been contested by historians such as R. S. Sharma.[61] Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
states Shudra
Shudra
and the other varna is a concept found in all human beings in different proportions. He states that this was externalised and mechanised into a system quite different from what it was intended.[62] The tenets of Vedic Hinduism
Hinduism
in north India held less sway in the south, where the societal divisions were simply Brahmin
Brahmin
and Shudra. However, some non-Brahmins adopted the classification of Sat Shudra (clean Shudra) in an attempt to distinguish themselves from other non- Brahmin
Brahmin
communities.[63] See also[edit]

Caste system in India Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes

References[edit]

^ a b c Varadaraja V. Raman 2006, pp. 200-204. ^ a b Encyclopedia Britannica 2010. ^ a b Davis, Marvin (1983). Rank and Rivalry: The Politics of Inequality in Rural West Bengal. Cambridge University Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780521288804.  ^ a b c Thapar 2004, p. 63. ^ Ghurye 1969, pp. 15–17, Quote: "This was only generally true, for there were groups of occupations like trading, agriculture, labouring in the field and doing military service which were looked upon as anybody's, and most castes were supposed to be eligible for any of them.. ^ Ram Sharan Sharma
Ram Sharan Sharma
(1990). Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa A.D. 600. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 60–61, 192–200, 261–267 with footnotes. ISBN 978-81-208-0706-8.  ^ Richard Gombrich
Richard Gombrich
(2012). "Chapter 8. Caste in the Monastery". Buddhist Precept & Practice. Routledge. pp. 343–357. ISBN 978-1-136-15616-8. ; According to Gombrich's study of Buddhist texts, particularly relating to castes in Sri Lankan Buddhist and Tamil Hindu
Hindu
society, "The terms Vaisya and Sudra did not correspond to any clear-cut social units, even in the ancient period, but various groups were subsumed under each term (...); In medieval times (say AD 500-1500) though society was still said to consist of the four classes, this classification seems to have become irrelevant (...)" ^ a b Naheem Jabbar (2009). Historiography and Writing Postcolonial India. Routledge. pp. 148–149. ISBN 978-1-134-01040-0.  ^ Ram Sharan Sharma
Ram Sharan Sharma
(1990). Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa A.D. 600. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 54–61, 267–268 with footnotes. ISBN 978-81-208-0706-8.  ^ a b D. R. Bhandarkar 1989, p. 9. ^ Basham 1989, pp. 25-26. ^ Sharma, Ram Sharan (1983). Material culture and social formations in ancient India. Macmillan. p. 51.  ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 36–37.  ^ Flood 1996, p. 37. ^ Witzel 1995, p. 4. ^ Muir, John (1868). Original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India: Their Religion and Institutions, Volume 1 (2nd ed.). London: Trubner and Co. p. 12.  ^ a b Stephanie Jamison & Joel Brereton 2014, pp. 57–58. ^ Moriz Winternitz; V. Srinivasa Sarma (1996). A History of Indian Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3.  ^ Sharma, Ram Sharan (1990). Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa A.D. 600. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 10.  ^ Patrick Olivelle (1998). The Early Upanishads: Annotated Text and Translation. Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-19-535242-9.  ^ a b Ram Sharan Sharma
Ram Sharan Sharma
(1990). Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa A.D. 600, Third Revised Edition. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-81-208-0706-8.  ^ Patrick Olivelle (1998). The Early Upanishads: Annotated Text and Translation. Oxford University Press. pp. 483, 636. ISBN 978-0-19-535242-9.  ^ Ram Sharan Sharma
Ram Sharan Sharma
(1990). Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa A.D. 600, Third Revised Edition. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-81-208-0706-8.  ^ a b R. S. Sharma 1958, p. 163 (1990:177). ^ a b Roger Boesche 2013, pp. 103-104. ^ LN Rangarajan 1992, p. 411. ^ Patrick Olivelle 2005, pp. 16, 62-65. ^ Patrick Olivelle 2005, pp. 16, 8-14, 206-207. ^ a b c Laurie Patton 2002, p. 90. ^ a b Laurie Patton 2002, pp. 90-91. ^ Srisa Chandra Vasu (Transl) (1974). Yajnavalkya's Smriti: With the Commentary of Vijnaneśvara, Called the Mitakṣara, and the Gloss of Bâlambhaṭṭa. AMS Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-404-57802-2.  ^ Ram Sharan Sharma
Ram Sharan Sharma
(1990). Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa A.D. 600, Third Revised Edition. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 293. ISBN 978-81-208-0706-8.  ^ Laurie Patton 2002, p. 91. ^ Mariola Offredi (1997), The banyan tree: essays on early literature in new Indo-Aryan languages, Volume 2, Manohar Publishers, OCLC 46731068, ISBN 9788173042775, page 442 ^ M.V. Nadkarni (2005), Review Articles: Perspectives on Dalit Problems and Solutions, Journal of Social and Economic Development, Vol. 7, No. 1, page 99 ^ Ashwani Peetush (2011), Justice and Religion: Hinduism, in Encyclopedia of Global Justice, Springer Netherlands, ISBN 978-1402091599, pages 596–600 ^ a b Johannes Bronkhorst 2011, p. 34 with footnotes. ^ Johannes Bronkhorst 2011, pp. 34-35. ^ Johannes Bronkhorst 2011, p. 35. ^ a b c Patric Olivelle (2012). Silvia D'Intino, Caterina Guenzi, ed. Aux abords de la clairière: études indiennes et comparées en l'honneur de Charles Malamoud. Volume 7 of Bibliothèque de l'École des Hautes Études, Sciences Religieuses: Série Histoire et prosopographie. Brepols, Belgium. pp. 117–132. ISBN 978-2-503-54472-4.  ^ Doniger, Wendy (1999). Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions. Springfield, MA, USA: Merriam-Webster. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0.  ^ Ingold, Tim (1994). Companion encyclopedia of anthropology. London New York: Routledge. p. 1026. ISBN 978-0-415-28604-6.  ^ Ghurye 1969, pp. 63-64, 102 Quote: "treat both the Vaishyas and the Shudras as almost indistinguisable. The occupations prescribed by Parashara, who is par excellence the mentor of the age, for both of them are the same, viz. agriculture, trade and crafts". ^ Charles Drekmeier (1962). Kingship and Community in Early India. Stanford University Press. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-0-8047-0114-3.  ^ Ram Sharan Sharma
Ram Sharan Sharma
(1990). Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa A.D. 600. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 263–269, 342–345. ISBN 978-81-208-0706-8.  ^ Stella Kramrisch (1994). Exploring India'S Sacred Art. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-81-208-1208-6.  ^ Ghurye 1969, pp. 15–16. ^ Ghurye 1969, pp. 16–17. ^ Ghurye 1969, p. 63. ^ Jane Belo (1953), Bali: Temple Festival, Monograph 22, American Ethnological Society, University of Washington Press, pages 4-5 ^ a b Talbot 2001, pp. 50–51. ^ Orr 2000, pp. 30–31. ^ Eaton 2008, pp. 15-16. ^ Johannes Bronkhorst 2011, pp. 32, 36. ^ Richard M. Eaton (2005), A Social History of the Deccan, 1300–1761: Eight Indian Lives, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521716277, pages 129-130 ^ Novetzke 2013, pp. 54-55. ^ Pashaura Singh (2003). The Bhagats of the Guru Granth Sahib: Sikh Self-definition and the Bhagat Bani. Oxford University Press. pp. 11–15, 105–107, 119–120. ISBN 978-0-19-566269-6.  ^ Kerry Brown (2002). Sikh Art and Literature. Routledge. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-134-63136-0.  ^ Joyce, Thomas Athol (1908). Women of all nations, a record of their characteristics, habits, manners, customs and influence.  ^ Ambedkar, B.R. (1970). Who were the Shudras (PDF). Bombay: Thackers. p. xiv.  ^ Sharma, Ram Sharan (1990). Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa A.D. 600. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 5.  ^ Aurobindo (1996), pp. 740-747 ^ Vaitheespara, Ravi (2011). "Forging a Tamil Caste: Maraimalai Adigal (1876-1950) and the discourse of caste in colonial Tamilnadu". In Bergunder, Michael; Frese, Heiko. Ritual, Caste, and Religion in Colonial South India. Primus Books. p. 96. ISBN 978-9-38060-721-4. 

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