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SHUDDHADVAITA

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Vallabha
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* v * t * e

SHUDDADVAITA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: śuddhādvaita "pure non-dualism") is the "purely non-dual" philosophy propounded by Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
(1479-1531 CE), the founding philosopher and guru of the Vallabhā sampradāya ("tradition of Vallabha") or Puśtimārg ("The path of grace"), a Hindu Vaishnava
Vaishnava
tradition focused on the worship of Krishna
Krishna
. Vallabhacharya's pure form (nondualist ) philosophy is different from Advaita
Advaita
. The Shrinathji
Shrinathji
temple at Nathdwara
Nathdwara
, and compositions of eight poets (aṣṭachap), including Sur , are central to the worship by the followers of the sect.

CONTENTS

* 1 Location * 2 Central Topics

* 3 Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya

* 3.1 Initiating mantra

* 4 Philosophy

* 4.1 Everything is Krishna\'s Leela * 4.2 Path to bliss in the Kali Yuga
Kali Yuga
* 4.3 Atma-nivedana * 4.4 Aṣṭachāp

* 5 Shuddhadwait Martand * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links

LOCATION

Though the tradition originated near Vrindavana
Vrindavana
in the current Indian state of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, in modern times followers of Shuddadvaita are concentrated in the states of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
and Gujarat
Gujarat
.

CENTRAL TOPICS

In the ancient Vedic tradition of knowledge and comprehension of reality, the central theme would be experiencing the Supreme Entity or Brahman
Brahman
. Vedas
Vedas
primarily contain references to the adwait nature of Brahm. However, depending on how a scholar perceives those verses, s/he might see duality— dwait aspect as well. This ambiguity has led to several philosophical traditions in the Indian history , such as:

* Advaita
Advaita
vāda of Adi Shankaracharya
Adi Shankaracharya
* Vishistadvaita
Vishistadvaita
vāda of Ramanujacharya
Ramanujacharya
* Dvaita
Dvaita
vāda or Bhedavāda of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
* Dvaitadvaita vāda of Nimbarkacharya * Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
vāda of Vishnu
Vishnu
swami popularized by Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
* Achintya Bhedābheda vāda of Krishna
Krishna
Chaitanya

VALLABHACHARYA

Main article: Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya

Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
was a devotional philosopher, who founded the Pushti sect in India. He won the title of acharya by traveling and debating advaita scholars from a young age.

In 1493-94 Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
is said to have identified an image of Krishna
Krishna
at the Govardhan hill
Govardhan hill
at Braj
Braj
. This image, now called Shrinathji
Shrinathji
and located at Nathdwara
Nathdwara
, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
, is central to the worship by Vallabha
Vallabha
followers.

INITIATING MANTRA

According to Vallabha
Vallabha
tradition, one night in 1494, Vallabhacharya received the Brahmasambandha mantra (the mantra that binds one with Brahman
Brahman
, or Krishna) from Krishna
Krishna
himself (hence the name, mukhāvatāra) at Gokula . The eight-syllable mantra, śri kṛṣṇaḥ śaraṇaṃ mama (Lord Krishna
Krishna
is my refuge), is passed onto new initiates in Vallabh sampradaya, and the divine name is said to rid the recipient of all impurities of the soul (doṣas) .

PHILOSOPHY

Part of a series on

VAISHNAVISM

Supreme deity

* Vishnu
Vishnu
* Krishna
Krishna
* Rama
Rama

Important deities Dashavatara
Dashavatara

* Matsya
Matsya
* Kurma
Kurma
* Varaha
Varaha
* Narasimha
Narasimha
* Vamana
Vamana
* Parasurama
Parasurama
* Rama
Rama
* Balarama
Balarama
* Krishna
Krishna
* Buddha * Kalki
Kalki

Other Avatars

* Mohini
Mohini
* Nara-Narayana
Nara-Narayana
* Hayagriva
Hayagriva

Related

* Lakshmi
Lakshmi
* Sita
Sita
* Hanuman
Hanuman
* Shesha
Shesha

Texts

* Vedas
Vedas
* Upanishads
Upanishads
* Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
* Divya Prabandha
Divya Prabandha
* Ramcharitmanas
Ramcharitmanas

Puranas
Puranas

* Vishnu
Vishnu
* Bhagavata * Naradiya * Garuda * Padma * Agni

Sampradayas

* Sri ( Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
) * Brahma
Brahma
( Dvaita
Dvaita
, Acintyabhedabheda ) * Rudra (Shuddhadvaita) * Nimbarka ( Dvaitadvaita )

Philosophers–acharyas

* Nammalvar
Nammalvar
* Yamunacharya
Yamunacharya
* Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Madhva * Chaitanya * Vallabha
Vallabha
* Sankardev
Sankardev
* Madhavdev * Nimbarka * Pillai Lokacharya
Pillai Lokacharya
* Prabhupada
Prabhupada
* Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika

Related traditions

* Bhagavatism
Bhagavatism
* Pancharatra
Pancharatra
* Tattvavada
Tattvavada
* Pushtimarg * Radha Krishna
Krishna
* ISKCON * Swaminarayan * Ekasarana * Pranami * Ramanandi * Vaikhanasas
Vaikhanasas

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

* v * t * e

The school of in-essence monism or purified non-dualism of Vallabha sees equality in "essence" of the individual self with God. There is no real difference between the two (like the analogy of sparks to fire). However, unlike Shankara 's Advaita
Advaita
, Vallabha
Vallabha
does not deny God as the whole and the individual as the part. The individual soul is not the Supreme ( Satcitananda ) clouded by the force of avidya , but is itself Brahman
Brahman
, with one attribute (ananda) rendered imperceptible. The soul is both a doer and enjoyer. It is atomic in size, but pervades the whole body through its essence of intelligence (like sandalwood makes its presence felt through its scent even if sandalwood can't be seen).

Unlike Advaita, the world of Maya is not regarded as unreal, since Maya is nothing else than a power of Ishvara
Ishvara
. He is not only the creator of the universe but is the universe itself. Vallabha
Vallabha
cites the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
account, that Brahman
Brahman
desired to become many, and he became the multitude of individual souls and the world. Although Brahman
Brahman
is not known, He is known when He manifests Himself through the world.

Bhakti
Bhakti
is the means of salvation, though Jnana
Jnana
is also useful. Karmas precede knowledge of the Supreme, and are present even when this knowledge is gained. The liberated perform all karmas. The highest goal is not Mukti or liberation, but rather eternal service of Krishna and participation along with His activities in His Divine abode of Vrindavana
Vrindavana
. Vallabha
Vallabha
distinguishes the transcendent consciousness of Brahman
Brahman
as Purushottama . Vallabha
Vallabha
lays a great stress on a life of unqualified love and devotion towards God.

In all the philosophical traditions, it is common practice to describe how the Supreme Entity Brahm is related to us and our surroundings. In the system of Suddhadwait Vedant, otherwise known as Brahmvaad, the One, secondless Ultimate Reality is the only category. Every other thing has proceeded from it at the time of creation, is non-different from it during creation and merges into it at the time of dissolution. The two other well known categories namely the animate souls and the inanimate objects are respectively its parts and modifications. The animate souls are its parts because they retain to some extent the essential qualities thereof namely consciousness and joy. The inanimate objects are its modification because the above said qualities are absent therein.

EVERYTHING IS KRISHNA\'S LEELA

According to the version of Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Theology Vallabhacharya espoused; the glorious Krishna
Krishna
in His " Satcitananda " form is the Absolute, Svayam Bhagavan
Svayam Bhagavan
. He is permanently playing out His sport (leela ) from His seat in the Goloka which is even beyond the divine Vaikuntha
Vaikuntha
, the abode of Vishnu
Vishnu
and Satya-loka , the abode of Brahma the Creator, and Kailas , the abode of Shiva
Shiva
. Creation is His sport.

PATH TO BLISS IN THE KALI YUGA

Followers of Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
maintain that if one wants to obtain moksha and the bliss given by Krishna
Krishna
, the only path to do so is bhakti . In the Kali Yuga
Kali Yuga
, it is believed that the forms of bhakti mentioned in the scriptures are nearly impossible to practice, so the followers of Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
recommend pushti bhakti – which is the end itself and not means to an end, giving moksha, joy and oneness with Shree Krishna. It illustrates oneness with Shree Krishna
Krishna
can be achieved merely by having true belief and love for Shree Krsna and recitation of the Brahmasambandha mantra.

ATMA-NIVEDANA

It is that bhakti which gives itself up body, heart and soul to the cause of God. It is considered to be the fullest expression of what is known as Atma-nivedana (= giving-up of oneself) among the nine forms of bhakti (Navadha Bhakti). It is the bhakti of the devotee who worships God not for any reward or presents but for His own sake. Such a devotee goes to Goloka after leaving this body and lives in eternal bliss enjoying the sports of the Lord. The classical example of this complete self-effacement is that of the cow-herdesses towards Krishna . They spoke no word except prayer and they moved no step except towards Krishna
Krishna
. Their supreme-most meditation was on the lotus-feet of Krishna
Krishna
.Thus it is by God's grace alone that one can obtain release from bondage and attain Krishna's heaven, Goloka.

AṣṭACHāP

In V.S. 1602, his son Vitthalnath, also known as Gusainji , established the eight-fold system of singing the name and glory of Shrinathji
Shrinathji
( Kirtana ) and entrusted this responsibility to eight poet-disciples of Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
and his own, called the ashta-chhaap after the eight divine services to Shrinathji
Shrinathji
from morning until going to sleep. Foremost among them was Sur , the blind poet of Agra
Agra
.

These are Surdas, Krishna
Krishna
Das, Paramanand Das, Kumbhan Das, Chaturbhuj Das, Nand Das, Chhitswami, and Govind Das. The first four poets and singers were Vallabhacharya's disciples, while the other three were Gusainji's.

SHUDDHADWAIT MARTAND

Shuddhadwait is defined more thoroughly in verse 27-28 from Shuddhadwait Martand:

शुद्धाद्वैतापदे ज्ञेय: समास: कर्मधारय: I

अद्वैतं शुद्धयो: प्राहुः षष्ठी तत्पुरुषमं बुधा: II

मायासंबंधरहितमं शुद्धमित्युच्यते बुधै: I

कार्यकरणरूपमं हि शुद्धं ब्रह्म न मायिकम़् II

"It is Karmdharay samaas : Shuddham ch tat adwaitam (The Pure and its non-dualism). Or, it is the Shashti Tatpurush samaas Shuddhyoh adwaitam (The Non-dual is pure). In this system, the combination of Maya with Brahm is done away with; therefore the cause of this world is not Brahm covered by Maya. But the pure Brahm and only pure Brahm is the effect and cause of this world."

The Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
philosophy has also been explained by various scholars of the sect, such as Devarshi Ramanath Shastri , who has enunciated the tenets of this philosophy in his books ‘Shuddhadvait Siddhantasaar’ (Hindi and Gujarati) and Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
Darshan.

NOTES

* ^ Martin, Nancy M., "North Indian Hindi devotional literature" in Flood 2003 , pp. 182–198 * ^ A B Beck 1993 , pp. 194–195 * ^ A B Colas, Gerard, "History of Vaiṣṇava traditions" in Flood 2003 , pp. 229–270 * ^ PhD thesis,"The system of Shuddhadwait Vedant of Vallabhacharya" by Goswami Raghunathji * ^ Shuddhadwait Martand, verse 27-28 * ^ Anubhashya on Brahmsutras, 2005, Introduction pp. iv * ^ Shuddhadvait Darshan (vol.2), Pub. Mota Mandir, Bhoiwada, Mumbai, 1917 * ^ Shuddhadvait Darshan (in 3 Vols.)(New Edition), Pub. Vidya Vibhag, Nathdwara,2000

REFERENCES

* Beck, Guy L. (1993). Sonic theology: Hinduism
Hinduism
and sacred sound. Columbia, S.C: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-855-7 . * Flood, Gavin (Ed) (2003), Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing , ISBN 0-631-21535-2 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Pustimarg Sahitya by Mota Mandir Mumbai

* v * t * e

Sampradayas of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism

TRADITIONS

* Kumara-sampradaya of Nimbarka * Brahma Sampradaya of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
* Sri Sampradaya
Sri Sampradaya
of Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Rudra sampradaya of Vishnuswami

VEDANTA PHILOSOPHIES

* Dvaitadvaita * Dvaita
Dvaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* Shuddhadvaita *

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