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The Short 360
Short 360
(also SD3-60; also Shorts 360)[1] is a commuter aircraft that was built by British manufacturer Short Brothers
Short Brothers
during the 1980s. The Short 360
Short 360
seats up to 39 passengers and was introduced into service in November 1982. It is a larger version of the Short 330. It is also affectionately known in aviation circles as "The Shed".

Contents

1 Development 2 Operational history 3 Variants 4 Operators

4.1 Civil operators 4.2 Military operators

5 Accidents and incidents 6 Specifications (360-300) 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Notes 8.2 Bibliography

9 External links

Development[edit] During the 1970s the world's commuter airline market began to evolve from the 20-seat class to larger and more comfortable cabins. Short Brothers of Northern Ireland had created the Skyvan in 1962, followed by the related but larger Short 330
Short 330
in 1974.

Cabin interior of Manx Airlines
Manx Airlines
Short 360
Short 360
showing 'box' structure and two-and-one seating layout

The Short 360
Short 360
is a 36-seat derivative of the 30–33 seat Short 330. In high density configuration, 39 passengers could be carried. The two Short airliners have a high degree of commonality and are very close in overall dimensions. The later 360 is easily identified by a larger, swept tail unit mounted on a revised rear fuselage. The 360 has a 3'0" (91 cm) fuselage "plug" which gave sufficient additional length for two more seat rows (six more passengers), while the extra length smoothed out the aerodynamic profile and reduced drag.[1] Seating is arranged with two seats on the starboard side of the cabin and one seat on the port side. The 360's power is supplied by two Pratt & Whitney PT6A-65Rs. The development was announced in 1980, with the prototype's first flight on 1 June 1981[2] and type certification awarded on 3 September 1981. After initiating production with the basic model, Short marketed a number of 360 developments. First was the 360 Advanced, in late 1985, with 1,424 shp (1,062 kW) PT6A-65-AR engines. That was followed by the 360/300, in March 1987, with six-blade propellers, more powerful PT6A-67R engines, and aerodynamic improvements, giving a higher cruise speed and improved "hot and high" performance. The 360/300 was also built in 360/300F freighter configuration. Operational history[edit] The first production Short 360
Short 360
had its maiden flight on 19 August 1982[3] and entered service with Suburban Airlines (later merged with Allegheny Airlines/US Airways) in November 1982.[4] Building on the strengths and reputation of its 330 antecedent, the 360s found a niche in regional airline use worldwide, being able to operate comfortably from 4,500 ft (1,400 m) runways – opening up hundreds of airfields that would otherwise be inaccessible to airliners. With a cruise speed about 215 mph (370 km/h), at an altitude of 10,000 ft (3,048 m), the unpressurized 360 was not the fastest turboprop in its market but it offered acceptable performance at a reasonable price combined with ease of service and maintainability.[5] The PT6A turboprops are fully ICAO Stage 3 noise-compliant, making the 360 one of the quietest turboprop aircraft operating today. Production of the 360 ceased in 1991 after 165 deliveries.[6] In 1998, approximately 110 360s were in service.[6] In 2009 a retired Emerald Airlines 360 was bought by Kingsland Primary School in Stoke-on-Trent, for use as a mobile classroom.[7] Variants[edit]

U.S. Army Short C-23B+ Sherpa

360-100 - the first production model with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65R turboprop engines.[8] 360 Advanced - with PT6A-65AR engines rated at 1,424 shp (1,062 kW) each.[8] The aircraft was later redesignated 360-200. Introduced in late 1985.[8] 360-300 - with more powerful PT6A-67R engines with six-blade propellers. Higher cruise speed and improved performance.[8] 360-300F - the freighter version of the -300,[8] with capacity for five LD3
LD3
cargo containers. Short C-23 Sherpa
Short C-23 Sherpa
B+ and C variants are military-configured Short 360s operated by the United States
United States
military.[9]

Operators[edit]

A Tiara Air
Tiara Air
Short 360
Short 360
at Aruba
Aruba
Airport

A British Airways
British Airways
Express Short 360
Short 360
at Dublin Airport
Dublin Airport
in 1995

In 2013 there were a total of 13 Short 360
Short 360
aircraft (all variants) in passenger service with Air Seychelles
Air Seychelles
(1), Deraya Air Taxi
Deraya Air Taxi
(2), Pacific Coastal Airlines
Pacific Coastal Airlines
(2, stored out of service), Servicios Aéreos Profesionales (1), Tiara Air
Tiara Air
(2), Interisland Airways (1), La Costena (1), Comeravia (1), Malu Aviation (1) and Ayit Aviation and Tourism (1).[10] The Short 360
Short 360
specifically proved very popular with the U.K.'s regional airlines including the Isle of Man-based-Manx. This fed passengers into larger hubs in England, Scotland and Ireland.[citation needed] Current and previous operators have included: Civil operators[edit]

 Argentina

LAPA

 Australia

Hazelton Airlines Murray Valley Airlines Sunshine Express Airlines Sunstate Airlines
Sunstate Airlines
(QantasLink) Airlines of Tasmania

 Aruba

Tiara Air

 Canada

Pacific Coastal Airlines

 China

CAAC

 Costa Rica

TACA (SANSA)

 Democratic Republic of Congo

Malu Aviation

 Dominican Republic

SAP Air Group

 Germany

Nightexpress Rheinland Air Service (RAS) Express Airways (EPA)

 Guam

Freedom Air (Guam)[11]

 Guatemala

TACA (INTER)

 Guernsey

Aurigny

 Honduras

TACA (ISLEÑA)[12]

 Ireland

Aer Arann Aer Lingus[13]

 Israel

Ayit Aviation and Tourism

 Nicaragua

TACA (LA COSTENA)[14]

 Panama

TACA Aeroperlas

 Philippines

Philippine Airlines

 Portugal

Aero Vip

 Puerto Rico

Air Flamenco M&N Aviation

 Seychelles

Air Seychelles
Air Seychelles
(Former)

 Thailand

Thai Airways[15]

 United Kingdom

HD Air (formerly BAC Express)[16] British Regional Airways/Loganair[17] Manx Airlines Jersey European (now Flybe)[18] Gill Airways[19]

 United States

Allegheny Commuter Airlines (operated by Pennsylvania Airlines and Suburban Airlines) American Eagle (operated by Executive Airlines, Flagship Airlines and Simmons Airlines) Air Cargo Carriers Business Express Comair Dash Air Federal Express[20] Gulfstream International Airlines Imperial Airlines Interisland Airways (Hawaii) Mississippi Valley Airlines
Mississippi Valley Airlines
(MVA) Trans Executive Airlines Trans International Express United Express
United Express
(operated by WestAir Commuter Airlines) US Airways
US Airways
Express (operated by Allegheny Commuter Airlines) US Forest Service (smokejumper aircraft)

A number of small air cargo airlines have also operated the Short 360 in freight operations in the U.S. Military operators[edit]

 United States

US Army

 Venezuela

Venezuelan Air Force
Venezuelan Air Force
(Fuerza Aérea Venezolana)

Accidents and incidents[edit] The Short 360
Short 360
has been involved in 15 hull-loss accidents, resulting in the loss of 16 airframes.[21]

22 October 1985: A CAAC flight overran the runway while landing at Enshi Airport. There were no fatalities, but the airframe was written off. 31 January 1986: An Aer Lingus
Aer Lingus
flight crashed on approach to East Midlands Airport, UK, due to airframe icing and turbulent conditions. There were no fatalities, but the airframe was written off. 13 December 1987: Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
Flight 443, using a Short 360 registration EI-BTJ crashed into a 5,000' mountain in the Philippines while approaching Iligan. All 11 passengers and 4 crew on board were killed. 28 November 1989: A newly built aircraft, not yet delivered to a customer, was destroyed by a bomb on the apron at Belfast City Airport, Northern Ireland. The device had been planted by the IRA. There were no fatalities., 20 August 1990: A CCAir aircraft parked at Charlotte-Douglas Airport (Charlotte, North Carolina, USA) was blown by a wind gust into an electrical power cart, and a fire started. There were no fatalities, but the airframe was written off. 25 November 1997: An aircraft operated by Corporate Air landed heavily at Billings-Logan Airport (Billings, Montana, USA) in gusty wind conditions. The nosewheel strut collapsed, leading to a crash with the loss of the airframe. There were no fatalities. 9 February 1998: A British Regional Airlines aircraft landed heavily at Stornoway Airport In Scotland. The undercarriage was damaged leading to a crash with the loss of the airframe. There were no fatalities.

Air Cargo Carriers
Air Cargo Carriers
Flight 1290 damage caused by brake fire.

13 January 2000: A Sirte Oil Company Short 360
Short 360
crashed on approach near Brega; 22 of the 41 passengers and crew on board were killed. 4 February 2001: An Air Aran Short 360
Short 360
crashed on approach to Sheffield City Airport, UK, after reverse thrust was selected while the aircraft was still airborne. There were no fatalities. 27 February 2001: Loganair
Loganair
Flight 670 crashed into the Firth of Forth in Scotland shortly after takeoff from Edinburgh Airport. Both engines failed after ingesting blowing snow while on the ground. Both pilots were killed (no others on board). 21 August 2004: A Venezuelan Air Force
Venezuelan Air Force
Short 360
Short 360
crashed into a mountain while descending to land at Maracay, killing all 30 people on board. 16 December 2004: An Air Cargo Carriers
Air Cargo Carriers
aircraft was lost at Oshawa Municipal Airport. After landing on a snow-covered runway, the pilot attempted a go-around when he realized he would be unable to stop. The aircraft failed to gain altitude and crashed. There were no fatalities. 5 February 2006: Two Short 360-300 freighters, modded for a DOD contract, operated by Air Cargo Carriers, were flying in formation when they collided near Watertown, Wisconsin, US. N3735W attempted to maneuver below N372AC in a right turn and struck the left/ underside of N372AC. The left wing outer section of N3735W was struck and separated by the leading edge of N372AC's left wing, and the aircraft crashed, killing all three occupants. The left propeller of N3735W had struck the forward section of the left "stub wing" of N372AC (the structure housing the left main landing gear and hydraulic service panel). N372AC sustained severe damage, including structural, engine, propeller (losing several blades), aerodynamic, and complete hydraulic failure (affecting flaps, landing gear, nose wheel steering, and primary brakes). The crew managed to make an emergency landing at Dodge County Airport in Juneau, WI (KUNU), but overran the runway due to the damage to the aircraft. The left aileron of N3735W was found on the runway that N372AC landed on. Both crewmen survived uninjured, but N372AC was damaged beyond reasonable repair. 17 May 2012: An Air Cargo Carriers
Air Cargo Carriers
Short 360
Short 360
(registration N617FB) was substantially damaged following a wheel brake fire during taxi at the George Bush Intercontinental Airport, Houston, Texas. There were no injuries to the flight crew of two. The airplane was 60 pounds over Max. takeoff weight and during the long taxi to position for takeoff the crew used a higher than normal power setting and rode the brakes in an attempt lower weight by burning fuel. It's intended destination was Austin, Texas. 29 October 2014: A Skyway Enterprises Short SD-360 (registration N380MQ) cargo flight on behalf of FedEx, scheduled from Sint Maarten, Kingdom of Netherlands to San Juan, Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
lost altitude during climb out and crashed into the water about 2 nautical miles off the end of runway at about 18:35L (22:35 UTC), killing both members of the flight crew.

Specifications (360-300)[edit]

Side view of Tiara Air
Tiara Air
Short 360-100

Data from Flight International[22] General characteristics

Crew: Three (Two pilots plus one cabin crew) Capacity: 36 passengers Length: 70.8 ft (21.58 m) Wingspan: 74.8 ft (22.81 m) Height: 23.67 ft (7.21 m) Wing area: 454 ft² (42.09 m²) Airfoil: NACA
NACA
63A series (modified)[23] Empty weight: 17,350 lb[23] (7,870 kg) Max. takeoff weight: 27,100 lb (12,292 kg) fuel capacity: 480 Gal (2,182 l) Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada
Canada
PT6A-65AR turboprop, 1,424 shp (1,062 kW) each

Performance

Maximum speed: 218 kts (404 km/h, 251 mph) Max cruise at FL100 Cruise speed: 180 kts (333 km/h, 207 mph) Long range cruise at FL100 Stall speed: 85 mph (73 kn, 136 km/h) (flaps and landing gear down)[23] Range: 861 nmi (1,596 km) full tanks, 5,663 lb (2,569 kg) payload Service ceiling: 20,000 ft MSL [24] (6,096 m MSL) Rate of climb: 952 ft/min[23] (4.7 m/s) Fuel consumption: Max cruise: 992 lb/hr (450 kg/hr), long range cruise: 762 lb/hr (346 kg/hr)

See also[edit]

Related development

Short 330 Short C-23 Sherpa Short SC.7 Skyvan

Related lists

List of civil aircraft

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b Mondey 1981, p. 228. ^ Simpson 2001, p. 495 ^ "embraer - fairchild - 1982 - 2182 - Flight Archive".  ^ Eastwood/Roach p. 455. ^ Smith 1986, p. 2. ^ a b "Short 360." Airliners.net. Retrieved: 9 August 2007. ^ Narain, Jayra. "Fasten your seat belts, children, your new geography classroom has landed in the playground." Daily Mail, 31 March 2009. Retrieved: 18 May 2011. ^ a b c d e Frawley 2003, p. 193. ^ "Olive-Drab: C-23." olive-drab.com. Retrieved: 18 August 2010. ^ Last Chance to Fly, 2012. ^ "Freedom Air." Archived 7 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. freedomairguam.com. Retrieved: 18 August 2010. ^ "HR-IAP." biglobe.ne.jp. Retrieved: 18 August 2010. ^ "EI-BSP." airliners.net. Retrieved: 18 August 2010. ^ "La Costeña." airliners.net. ^ "HS-TSE." biglobe.ne.jp. Retrieved: 18 August 2010. ^ "Fleet: G-CLAS," "G-EXPS," "G-TMRA" and "G-TMRB." Archived 31 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. hdair.com. Retrieved: 18 August 2010. ^ "G-BNMT." Archived 3 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine. users.zetnet.co.uk. Retrieved: 18 August 2010. ^ G-OBHD Retrieved: 18 August 2010. ^ "G-BNYI." Archived 2 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine. users.zetnet.co.uk. Retrieved: 18 August 2010. ^ "About FedEx: FedEx Facts." Archived 7 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. FedEx. REtrieved: 18 May 2011. ^ "Short 360: hull losses." aviation-safety.net. Retrieved; 24 April 2013. ^ "Commuter Aircraft Directory". Flight International. 7 May 1988.  ^ a b c d Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89, pp. 305–307. ^ "TCDS A41EU" (PDF). FAA. March 21, 2007. 

Bibliography[edit]

Barnes C.H. and Derek N. James.Shorts Aircraft since 1900. London: Putnam, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-819-4. Donald, David, ed. The Encyclopedia of Civil Aircraft. London: Aurum, 1999. ISBN 1-85410-642-2. Eastwood Tony and Roach John.Turbo Prop Airliner Production List. West Drayton: The Aviation Hobby Shop, 2007. Frawley, Gerard. The International Directory of Civil Aircraft, 2003/2004. Fyshwick, ACT, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd., 2003. ISBN 1-875671-58-7. Mondey, David. Encyclopedia of the World's Commercial and Private Aircraft. New York: Crescent Books, 1981. ISBN 0-517-36285-6. Simpson, Rod. Airlife's World Aircraft. London: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 2001. ISBN 1-84037-115-3. Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5. Smith, P.R. Shorts 330 and 360 (Air Portfolios 2). London: Jane's Publishing Company Limited, 1986. ISBN 0-7106-0425-4.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Short 360.

Short 360
Short 360
page on Airliners.net

v t e

Aircraft produced by Short Brothers

Pre-1921

Biplane No.1 Biplane No.2 Biplane No.3 Short-Wright biplane Dunne D.5 S.27 Improved S.27 S.38 Triple-Twin Tandem-Twin S.36 (lightplane) S.41 S.45 Triple-Tractor S.80 S.81 Admiralty Type 42 Admiralty Type 74 Admiralty Type 81 Admiralty Type 135 Admiralty Type 136 Admiralty Type 166 Admiralty Type 3 Admiralty Type 184 Admiralty Type 827 Admiralty Type 830 S.301 S.310 S.320 Bomber Shirl N.2A N.2B Cromarty Sporting Type Silver Streak

Post-1921 (Short Design Index)

Gnosspelius Gull S.1 S.3 S.4 S.5 S.6 S.7 S.8 S.8/8 S.10 Short Crusader S.11 S.12 S.14 S.15 S.16 S.17 L.17 S.18 S.19 S.20 S.21 S.22 S.23 S.25 S.26 S.27

S.29 S.30 S.31 S.32

S.33

S.35 S.36 (heavy bomber) S.40 SA1 SA2 S.45 Seaford/S.45 Solent SA4 SA5 SA6 SA9 SB1 SB2 SB3 SB4 SB5 SB6 SB7 SC1 SC2 SC5 SC7 SC9 SD1 330 360

By name (alphabetical)

Belfast Bomber C-Class Calcutta Chamois Cockle Cromarty Crusader Empire 'Folder' G-Class Gurnard Kent Knuckleduster Mercury Maia Mussel Nimbus Rangoon Sandringham Sarafand Satellite Scion Senior Scion Scylla Seaford Sealand Seamew Sherpa (C-23) Sherpa (SB4) Shetland Shirl Silver Streak Singapore Skyvan Solent Sperrin Sporting Type Springbok Stirling Sturgeon (biplane) Sturgeon Sunderland Tandem-Twin Triple-Tractor Triple-Twin Tucano Valetta

by type

Airships:

R31 R32 R38

Bombers:

Bomber Stirling

Experimental and prototypes:

Cromarty S.27 Short N.2A Short N.2B Gnosspelius Gull Sarafand SB1 SB4 Sherpa SB5 SC1 SC9 Canberra Shetland Sperrin

Racing:

Short Crusader

Maritime patrol:

Singapore Rangoon Kent Sunderland Seaford

Training:

S.27 Improved S.27 S.38 Tucano

Transport:

330 360 Belfast Short-Mayo Composite Sandringham Scion Scion Senior Solent Sherpa Skyvan

Under licence

Bristol Britannia English Electric Canberra Felixstowe

.