, the flight length is defined as the distance of a flight. Commercial flights are often categorized into long-, medium- or short-haul by commercial airline
s based on flight length, although there is no international standard definition and many airlines use air time or geographic boundaries instead.
Route category lengths tend to define short-haul routes as being shorter than , long-haul as being longer than , and medium-haul as being in-between.
Route category definitions
thumb|Lufthansa defines the File:Lufthansa_Boeing_747-8_D-ABYF_(22461604758).jpg.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Boeing 747-8">File:Lufthansa Boeing 747-8 D-ABYF (22461604758).jpg">thumb|Lufthansa defines the [[Boeing 747-8
as a long-haul airliner
Asia & Australia
* [[Japan Air Lines defines routes to Europe and North America as long-haul and all other flights as short-haul.
* [[Virgin Australia]] defines domestic flights as within Australia, short-haul as those to South East Asia/Pacific and long-haul as those to Abu Dhabi or Los Angeles.
* The [[Hong Kong Airport]] considers destinations in North and South Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Southwest Pacific and the Indian Subcontinent long-haul and all others are short-haul.
defines medium-haul routes as being between , short-haul as shorter and long-haul routes as longer than that.
* The Association of European Airlines
defined Long-haul as flights to Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Australasia and medium-haul as flights to North Africa and Middle East. The now defunct airline Air Berlin
defined short- and medium-haul as flights to Europe/North Africa and long-haul as those to the rest of the world.
* Air France
defines short-haul as domestic, medium-haul as within Europe/North Africa and long haul as the rest of the world.
* American Airlines
defines short-/medium-haul flights as being less than and long-haul as either being more than or being the New York–Los Angeles and New York–San Francisco routes.
* United Airlines
defines short-haul flights as being less than and long-haul flights as being greater than .
Aircraft category definitions
* Delta Air Lines
defines its Boeing 717
as short-haul domestic aircraft, Boeing 757
, Boeing 737
, Airbus A319
as long-haul domestic and Boeing 777
, Airbus A330
and transoceanic Boeing 757 as long-haul.
defines its fleet
as long-haul for wide-body aircraft
such as the Airbus A330
, or Boeing 747
, medium-haul for narrow-body aircraft
like the A320
families, and short-haul for regional jets
like the Embraer E-Jet
s or the Bombardier CRJ-900
* Thomson Airways
defines the Boeing 737
as a short and mid-haul airliner while the Boeing 767
as long haul.
While they are capable of flying further, long-haul widebodies are often used on shorter trips: 40% of A350 routes are shorter than , 50% of A380 flights fall within , 70% of 777-200ER routes are shorter than , 80% of 787-9s routes are shorter than , 70% of 777-200LRs flights are shorter than and 777-300ERs flights are evenly distributed across its range.
Shortest commercial flight
The Westray to Papa Westray flight
, operated by Loganair
, is the shortest commercial flight in the world over 2.8 km (1.7 mi) in two minutes scheduled flight time including taxiing.
Longest commercial flight
The world's longest ever commercial flight was Air Tahiti Nui
Flight TN64 in early 2020. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic
and the impossibility of transit in the USA through Los Angeles International Airport
, Air Tahiti Nui
scheduled and operated in March and April 2020 Flight TN64 as a non-stop flight between Papeete
and Paris Charles de Gaulle
, using a Boeing 787-9
and covering 15,715 km (8,485 nmi; 9,765 mi).
From November 9, 2020, Singapore Airline
s SQ 23/24 is the world's longest active commercial flight between Singapore
and JFK Airport New York City, USA
. covering in around 18 hours 40min and operated by an Airbus A350-900ULR
Absolute distance versus flight length
The absolute distance between two points is the great-circle distance
, which is always the shortest geographical route. In the example (right), the aircraft travelling westward from North America to Japan is following a great-circle route extending northward towards the Arctic
region. The apparent curve of the route is a result of distortion when plotted onto a conventional map projection and makes the route appear to be longer than it really is. Stretching a string between North America and Japan on a globe will demonstrate why this really is the shortest route despite appearances.
The actual flight length is the length of the track flown across the ground in practice, which is usually longer than the ideal great-circle and is influenced by a number of factors such as the need to avoid bad weather, wind direction and speed, fuel economy, navigational restrictions and other requirements. In the example, easterly flights from Japan to North America are shown taking a longer, more southerly, route than the shorter great-circle; this is to take advantage of the favourable jet stream
, a fast, high-altitude tail-wind, that assists the aircraft along its ground track saving more time and fuel than the geographically shortest route.
Air time versus schedule times
Air time is the elapsed time that the aircraft is airborne, regardless of what time-zone
the flight began and ended in.
Schedule time is the difference between the scheduled local time at the origin and the scheduled local time at the destination and usually differs from the actual time in the air as it is affected by the local time zones. Local clock time flying westward, or "chasing the sun", is slowed,
[Dik A. Daso Doolittle: Aerospace Visionary 2003 - Page 116 "While flying west, a pilot actually lengthens her day by “chasing the sun.” Hence, there are effectively three hours more daylight than darkness on this east-to-west flight."]
while local clock time flying eastbound is sped up. However, flights over the International Date Line
located at approximately 180o
E in the Pacific will subtract 24 hours from the schedule time going eastwards and add 24 hours going westwards. For example, the eastward flight shown in the example from Japan to North America will have a scheduled time of arrival earlier than the departure time, while from North America to Japan the flight will take a whole day longer by local time; the actual flying time in both cases being the same or similar.
* Endurance (aeronautics)
* Flight distance record
* International flight
* List of regional airliners
* Non-stop flight
* Range (aeronautics)
* Short-haul flight ban
The Great Circle Mapper
Displays Great Circle flight routes on a Map And calculates distance and duration
Flight-time and -distance calculatorAir Miles CalculatorFlight Duration CalculatorFlight Distance Calculator
Flight routes duration and Great Circle Mapper