SHOOT \'EM UP (also known as SHMUP or STG ) is a subgenre of the
shooter genre of video games . In a shoot 'em up, the player character
moves forward automatically, often in a flying vehicle such as a
spacecraft or aircraft , shooting large numbers of enemies while
dodging obstacles. There is no consensus as to which design elements
compose a shoot 'em up. Some restrict the definition to games
featuring spacecraft and certain types of character movement; others
allow a broader definition including characters on foot and a variety
of perspectives. Shoot 'em ups call for fast reactions and for the
player to memorize levels and enemy attack patterns. "Bullet hell"
games feature overwhelming numbers of enemy projectiles .
The genre's origins can be traced back to
Spacewar! , one of the
earliest computer games, developed in 1962 and eventually released in
amusement arcades in the early 1970s. Later in 70s, games such as
Space Invaders and Asteroids popularized the genre. Shoot 'em ups were
popular throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. In the mid-1990s, shoot
'em ups became a niche genre based on design conventions established
in the 1980s, and increasingly catered to specialist enthusiasts,
particularly in Japan.
* 1 Definition
* 1.1 Common elements
* 2 Types
* 3 History
* 3.1 Origins and rise
* 3.2 Golden age and refinement
* 3.3 Bullet hell and niche appeal
* 4 Notes
* 5 References
A "shoot 'em up", also known as a "shmup" or "STG" (the common
Japanese abbreviation for "shooting games"), is a game in which the
protagonist combats a large number of enemies by shooting at them
while dodging their fire. The controlling player must rely primarily
on reaction times to succeed. Beyond this, critics differ on exactly
which design elements constitute a shoot 'em up. Some restrict the
genre to games featuring some kind of craft, using fixed or scrolling
movement. Others widen the scope to include games featuring such
protagonists as robots or humans on foot, as well as including games
featuring "on-rails" (or "into the screen") and "run and gun"
movement. Mark Wolf restricts the definition to games featuring
multiple antagonists ("'em" being short for "them"), calling games
featuring one-on-one shooting "combat games". Formerly, critics
described any game where the primary design element was shooting as a
"shoot 'em up", but later shoot 'em ups became a specific,
inward-looking genre based on design conventions established in those
shooting games of the 1980s.
Shoot 'em ups are a subgenre of shooter game , in turn a type of
action game . These games are usually viewed from a top-down or
side-view perspective, and players must use ranged weapons to take
action at a distance. The player's avatar is typically a vehicle under
constant attack. Thus, the player's goal is to shoot as quickly as
possible at anything that moves or threatens him. In some games, the
player's character can withstand some damage; in others, a single hit
will result in his destruction. The main skills required in shoot 'em
ups are fast reactions and memorising enemy attack patterns. Some
games feature overwhelming numbers of enemy projectiles and the player
has to memorise their patterns to survive. These games belong to
one of the fastest-paced video game genres .
Large numbers of enemy characters are typically featured. These
enemies may behave in a certain way dependent on their type, or attack
in formations that the player can learn to predict. The basic gameplay
tends to be straightforward and many games offset this with boss
battles and a variety of weapons. Shoot 'em ups rarely have realistic
physics. Characters can instantly change direction with no inertia ,
and projectiles move in a straight line at constant speeds. The
player's character can collect "power-ups " which may afford the
character greater protection, an "extra life ", or upgraded weaponry.
Different weapons are often suited to different enemies, but these
games seldom keep track of ammunition. As such, players tend to fire
indiscriminately, and their weapons only damage legitimate targets.
A screenshot from
Project Starfighter , a side-scrolling
shoot-'em-up video game
Shoot 'em ups are categorized by design elements, particularly
viewpoint and movement:
FIXED SHOOTERS (such as Space Invaders) restrict the protagonist to a
single axis of motion, enemies attack in a single direction (such as
descending from the top of the screen), and each level is contained
within a single screen. These games are sometimes called "gallery
shooters". Atari's Centipede is a hybrid, in that the player can move
freely, but that movement is constrained to a small area at the bottom
of the screen, and the game otherwise meets the fixed shooter
RAIL SHOOTERS limit the player to moving around the screen while the
game follows a specific route; these games often feature an "into the
screen" viewpoint, with which the action is seen from behind the
player character , and moves "into the screen", while the player
retains control over dodging. Examples include
Space Harrier (1985),
Captain Skyhawk (1990), Star Wars: Rebel Assault (1993), Panzer
Star Fox 64
Star Fox 64 (1997), and
Sin and Punishment (2000).
Light-Gun games that are "on-rails" are not in the shoot-em-up
category but the FPS category, and the term has also been applied to
scripted events in first-person shooters such as
Call of Duty .
TUBE SHOOTERS feature craft flying through an abstract tube.
Technically, most tube shooters are also fixed shooters, because the
player is still constrained to left/right movement, but it's mapped to
the shape of the tube.
SCROLLING SHOOTERS include vertical or horizontal scrolling games.
* VERTICALLY SCROLLING SHOOTERS: In a vertically scrolling shoot 'em
up (or "VERTICAL SCROLLER "), the action is viewed from above and
scrolls up (or very occasionally down) the screen.
* HORIZONTALLY SCROLLING SHOOTERS: In a "HORIZONTAL SHOOTER" or
"SIDE-SCROLLING SHOOTER ", in which the action is viewed side-on and
* ISOMETRICALLY SCROLLING SHOOTERS: A small number of scrolling
shooters, such as
Zaxxon , feature an isometric point of view
MULTIDIRECTIONAL SHOOTERS feature 360 degree movement where the
protagonist may rotate and move in any direction. Multidirectional
shooters with one joystick for movement and one joystick for firing in
any direction independent of movement are called "twin-stick
BULLET HELL (弾幕, danmaku, literally "barrage" or "bullet
curtain") is a shoot 'em up in which the entire screen is often almost
completely filled with enemy bullets. This type is also known as
"curtain fire", "manic shooters" or "maniac shooters". This style
of game originated in the mid-1990s, and is an offshoot of scrolling
CUTE \'EM UPS feature brightly coloured graphics depicting surreal
settings and enemies. Newer, particularly Japanese, cute 'em ups may
employ overtly sexual characters and innuendo. Cute 'em ups tend to
have unusual, oftentimes completely bizarre opponents for the player
to fight, with the
Parodius franchise being an example.
RUN AND GUN (or "RUN \'N\' GUN") describes a shoot 'em up in which
the protagonist fights on foot, perhaps with the ability to jump . Run
and gun games may use side scrolling , vertical scrolling or isometric
viewpoints and may feature multidirectional movement.
ARENA BASED SHOOTERS or area based shooters take place in a single
screen, e.g. Robotron: 2084 ,
Smash TV .
ORIGINS AND RISE
Spacewar!, an early computer game featuring shooting and
The genre's exact origins are a matter of some confusion. Video game
journalist Brian Ashcraft pinpoints
Spacewar! (one of the very
earliest computer games) as the first shoot 'em up, but the later
Space Invaders is more frequently cited as the "first" or "original"
in the genre.
Spacewar! was developed at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology in 1961, for the amusement of the developers;
it was, however, remade four times as an arcade game in the early to
mid-1970s. The game featured combat between two spacecraft.
Space Invaders (1978) set the template for the shoot 'em up genre
However, it was not until 1978's seminal Space Invaders, created by
Nishikado at Japan's
Taito Corporation , that the shooter genre became
Space Invaders pitted the player against multiple enemies
descending from the top of the screen at a constantly increasing rate
of speed. The game used alien creatures inspired by The War of the
H. G. Wells ) because the developers were unable to render
the movement of aircraft; in turn, the aliens replaced human enemies
because of moral concerns (regarding the portrayal of killing humans)
on the part of Taito Corporation. As with subsequent shoot 'em ups of
the time, the game was set in space as the available technology only
permitted a black background. The game also introduced the idea of
giving the player a number of "lives ".
Space Invaders was a massive
commercial success, causing a coin shortage in Japan, and gaining
mainstream popularity in America. It popularised a more interactive
style of gameplay with the enemies responding to the player-controlled
cannon's movement, and it was the first video game to popularise the
concept of achieving a high score , being the first to save the
player's score. The aliens of
Space Invaders return fire at the
protagonist, making them the first arcade game targets to do so. It
set the template for the shoot 'em up genre, and has influenced most
shooting games released since then.
GOLDEN AGE AND REFINEMENT
Golden age of arcade video games
Galaxian —"the granddaddy of all top-down
shooters", according to IGN—was released. Its use of colour
graphics and individualised antagonists were considered "strong
evolutionary concepts" among space ship games. That same year saw the
SNK 's debut shoot 'em up
Ozma Wars , notable for being the
first action game to feature a supply of energy, resembling a life bar
, a mechanic that has now become common in the majority of modern
action games. It also featured vertically scrolling backgrounds and
In 1981, Defender established scrolling in shoot 'em ups, offering
horizontally extended levels. Unlike most later games in the genre,
the player could move in either direction. The game's use of
scrolling helped remove design limitations associated with the screen,
and though the game's minimap feature had been introduced before,
Defender integrated it into the gameplay in a more essential manner.
Konami 's Scramble , released in 1981, is a side-scrolling shooter
with forced scrolling. It was the first scrolling shooter to offer
multiple, distinct levels .
Atari 's Tempest , released in 1981, is
one of the earliest tube shooters and an early attempt to incorporate
a 3D perspective into shooter games. Tempest ultimately went on to
influence major rail shooters.
Vertical scrolling shooters emerged around the same time. Namco's
Xevious , released in 1982, is frequently cited as the first vertical
scrolling shooter and, although it was in fact preceded by several
other games of that type, it is considered one of the most
Xevious is also the first to convincingly portray
realistic landscapes as opposed to purely science fiction settings.
While Asteroids (1979) allowed the player to rotate the game's
spacecraft, 1982's highly acclaimed Robotron: 2084 was most
influential on subsequent multi-directional shooters.
Space Harrier , a rail shooter released in 1985, broke new
ground graphically and its wide variety of settings across multiple
levels gave players more to aim for than high scores. 1985 also saw
the release of Konami's
Gradius , which gave the player greater
control over the choice of weaponry, thus introducing another element
of strategy. The game also introduced the need for the player to
memorise levels in order to achieve any measure of success. Gradius,
with its iconic protagonist, defined the side-scrolling shoot 'em up
and spawned a series spanning several sequels. The following year saw
the emergence of one of Sega's forefront series with its game Fantasy
Zone . The game received acclaim for its surreal graphics and setting
and the protagonist, Opa-Opa, was for a time considered Sega's mascot
. The game borrowed Defender's device of allowing the player to
control the direction of flight and along with the earlier TwinBee
(1985), is an early archetype of the "cute 'em up" subgenre. R-Type
, an acclaimed side-scrolling shoot 'em up, was released in 1987 by
Irem , employing slower paced scrolling than usual, with difficult
levels calling for methodical strategies. 1990's Raiden was the
beginning of another acclaimed and enduring series to emerge from this
Shoot 'em ups such as
Ikari Warriors (1986) featuring
characters on foot, rather than spacecraft, became popular in the
mid-1980s in the wake of action movies such as Rambo: First Blood Part
II . The origins of this type go back to Sheriff by
released in 1979. Taito's Front Line (1982) established the
upwards-scrolling formula later popularized by Commando , in 1985.
Commando also drew comparisons to
Rambo and indeed contemporary
critics considered military themes and protagonists similar to Rambo
or Schwarzenegger prerequisites for a shoot 'em up, as opposed to an
action-adventure game . In 1986,
Arsys Software released WiBArm , a
shooter that switched between a 2D side-scrolling view in outdoor
areas to a fully 3D polygonal third-person perspective inside
buildings, while bosses were fought in an arena-style 2D battle, with
the game featuring a variety of weapons and equipment. In 1987,
3-D WorldRunner was an early stereoscopic 3-D shooter played
from a third-person perspective, followed later that year by its
sequel JJ , and the following year by
Space Harrier 3-D which used
the SegaScope 3-D shutter glasses . That same year, Sega's Thunder
Blade switched between both a top-down view and a third-person view,
and introduced the use of force feedback , where the joystick
vibrates. Also in 1987,
Konami created Contra as an coin-op arcade
game that was particularly acclaimed for its multi-directional aiming
and two player cooperative gameplay. However, by the early 1990s and
the popularity of 16-bit consoles , the scrolling shooter genre was
overcrowded, with developers struggling to make their games stand out
(one exception being the inventive
Gunstar Heroes , by Treasure ).
BULLET HELL AND NICHE APPEAL
This article needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2017)
A new type of shoot 'em up emerged in the early 1990s: variously
termed "bullet hell", "manic shooters", "maniac shooters" and danmaku
(弾幕, "barrage"), these games required the player to dodge
overwhelming numbers of enemy projectiles and called for still more
consistent reactions from players. Bullet hell games arose from the
need for 2D shoot 'em up developers to compete with the emerging
popularity of 3D games: huge numbers of missiles on screen were
intended to impress players.
Batsugun (1993) provided the
prototypical template for this new breed, with Cave (formed by former
employees of Toaplan, including Batsugun's main creator Tsuneki Ikeda,
after the latter company collapsed) inventing the type proper with
DonPachi . Manic shooter games marked another point where the
shoot 'em up genre began to cater to more dedicated players. Games
Gradius had been more difficult than
Space Invaders or
Xevious, but bullet hell games were yet more inward-looking and aimed
at dedicated fans of the genre looking for greater challenges. While
shooter games featuring protagonists on foot largely moved to 3D-based
genres, popular, long-running series such as Contra and Metal Slug
continued to receive new sequels. Rail shooters have rarely been
released in the new millennium, with only
Panzer Dragoon Orta
achieving cult recognition. Treasure's shoot 'em up, Radiant
Silvergun (1998), introduced an element of narrative to the genre. It
was lavished with critical acclaim for its refined design, though it
was not released outside Japan and remains a much sought after
collectors' item. Its successor
Ikaruga (2001) featured improved
graphics and was again acclaimed as one of the best games in the
Radiant Silvergun and
Ikaruga were later released on Xbox
Live Arcade . The
Touhou Project series spans nineteen years and
twenty-four games as of 2015 and was listed in the Guinness World
Records in October 2010 for being the "most prolific fan-made shooter
series". The genre has undergone something of a resurgence with the
release of the
Xbox 360 ,
PlayStation 3 and
Wii online services,
while in Japan arcade shoot 'em ups retain a deep-rooted niche
popularity. Geometry Wars: Retro Evolved was released on Xbox Live
Arcade in 2005 and in particular stood out from the various
re-releases and casual games available on the service. The PC has
also seen its share of dōjin shoot 'em ups like
Crimzon Clover ,
Jamestown: Legend of the Lost Colony , Xenoslaive Overdrive, and the
eXceed series . However, despite the genre's continued appeal to an
enthusiastic niche of players, shoot 'em up developers are
increasingly embattled financially by the power of home consoles and
their attendant genres.
* ^ A B Davies, Jonti. The Shooting Never Stops Archived 2012-04-02
Wayback Machine ..
GameSpy . 30 July 2008.
* ^ A B Carless, Simon. Final Form On Jamestown\'s Origins,
Mechanics Archived 2011-09-08 at the
Wayback Machine .. Game Set
Watch. 5 April 2011.
* ^ A B C D E Buchanan, Levi, Top 10 Classic Shoot \'Em Ups
Archived 2012-02-16 at the
Wayback Machine .,
IGN , April 8, 2008, May
* ^ A B C Beck, Ian (May 19, 2006). "Jets\'n\'Guns". Inside Mac
Games . Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved July
* ^ A B Ashcraft, p. 70
* ^ A B C D E F G H Bielby, Matt, "The Complete YS Guide to Shoot
'Em Ups", Your Sinclair, July, 1990 (issue 55), p. 33
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R Game Genres: Shmups,
Professor Jim Whitehead, January 29, 2007. Accessed June 17, 2008
* ^ A B Provo, Frank, Bloody Wolf Archived 2008-12-12 at the
Wayback Machine ., GameSpot, July 7, 2007. Accessed June 17, 2008
* ^ Mark J. P. Wolf (2008). The video game explosion: a history
from PONG to PlayStation and beyond.
ABC-CLIO . p. 272. ISBN
0-313-33868-X . Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. Retrieved
* ^ A B C D Rollings, Andrew; Ernest Adams (2006). Fundamentals of
Game Design. Prentice Hall. Archived from the original on 2009-02-17.
* ^ A B Parkin, Simon (September 21, 2006). "
Eurogamer . Archived from the original on July 3, 2009. Retrieved
February 14, 2009.
* ^ A B Ashcraft, p. 66
* ^ Provo, Frank Galaga \'90 Archived 2008-12-12 at the Wayback
Machine ., GameSpot, August 10, 2007. Accessed June 17, 2008
* ^ A B Goldstein, Hilary,
Panzer Dragoon Orta Archived 2009-03-07
Wayback Machine ., IGN, January 10, 2003, July 17, 2008
* ^ Kalata, Kurt, Space Harrier, Hardcore Gaming 101. Accessed
February 02, 2010
* ^ Ashcraft, Brian (2008), Arcade Mania! The Turbo Charged World
of Japan's Game Centers,
Kodansha International , p. 147
* ^ "Call of Duty: Black Ops Review". Game Rant. 2010-11-11.
Archived from the original on 2010-11-12. Retrieved 2010-11-27. it
becomes a little disappointing when you're forced to sit there and
watch scripted walkthroughs of story moments. Going to the Pentagon is
something that should be pretty exciting, but it's essentially a
rail-shooter without the shooting.
* ^ Robert Howarth (November 8, 2007). "
Call of Duty 4 First
Impressions". Voodoo Extreme. IGN. Archived from the original on
November 11, 2007. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
* ^ Reed, Kristan, Gyruss Archived 2009-08-05 at the Wayback
Machine ., Eurogamer, April 19, 2007. Accessed February 17, 2009
* ^ Smith, Rachael, "Sidewize", Your Sinclair, October 1987 (issue
22), p. 38
* ^ Onyett, Charles (February 13, 2006). "Crystal Quest".
Archived from the original on July 22, 2016. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
* ^ McAllister, Graham (March 30, 2011). "A Guide To iOS Twin Stick
Gamasutra . Think Services. Archived from the
original on April 25, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
* ^ Yin-Poole, Wesley (December 9, 2013). "Microsoft\'s ID@Xbox
policy means this indie twin-stick shooter can\'t launch on Xbox One".
Eurogamer . Gamer Network. Archived from the original on March 5,
2014. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
* ^ Sheffield, Brandon, Q&A: Capcom\'s Kujawa On Revisiting
Classics, Bullet Hell Archived 2008-06-23 at the
Wayback Machine .,
Gamasutra, April 22, 2008. Accessed March 2, 2009
* ^ A B C D E Ashcraft, p. 77
* ^ Ashcraft, p. 82
* ^ Dunham, Jeremy, First Look: Alien Hominid Archived 2008-12-24
Wayback Machine ., IGN, July 27, 2004. Accessed June 17, 2008
* ^ A B C Bielby, Matt, "The YS Complete Guide To Shoot-'em-ups
Part II", Your Sinclair, August 1990 (issue 56), p. 19
* ^ Ashcraft, p. 72
* ^ "The Next Generation 1996 Lexicon A to Z: Shooter". Next
Generation . No. 15.
Imagine Media . March 1996. p. 40. The first
shooter is generally acknowledged to be Space Invaders.
* ^ A B Buchanan, Levi,
Space Invaders Archived 2008-12-08 at the
Wayback Machine ., IGN, March 31, 2003. Accessed June 14, 2008
* ^ Surette, Tim, Gaming pioneer passes away Archived 2008-12-12 at
Wayback Machine ., GameSpot, June 7, 2006. Accessed June 16, 2008
* ^ A B Edwards, Benj. "Ten Things Everyone Should Know About Space
1UP.com . Retrieved 2008-07-11.
* ^ Ashcraft pp. 72–73
* ^ A B C Geddes, Ryan; Hatfield, Daemon (2007-12-10). "IGN\'s Top
10 Most Influential Games". IGN. Archived from the original on
2008-07-23. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
Retro Gamer Staff. "Nishikado-San Speaks".
Retro Gamer . No. 3.
Live Publishing. p. 35.
* ^ Kevin Bowen. "The Gamespy Hall of Fame: Space Invaders".
GameSpy . Archived from the original on 2008-04-08. Retrieved
* ^ Craig Glenday, ed. (2008-03-11). "Record Breaking Games:
Shooting Games Roundup".
Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition 2008.
Guinness World Records . Guinness. pp. 106–107. ISBN
* ^ "Players Guide To Electronic Science Fiction Games". Electronic
Games . Vol. 1 no. 2. March 1982. pp. 34–45 . Archived from the
original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
* ^ "Essential 50: Space Invaders".
1UP.com . Retrieved 2011-03-26.
* ^ Buchanan, Levi.
Galaxian Mini Archived 2011-07-13 at the Wayback
Machine ., IGN, April 21, 2003. Accessed June 17, 2008
* ^ "Arcade Games". Joystick. 1 (1): 10. September 1982.
* ^ Playing With Power: Great Ideas That Have Changed Gaming
* ^ A B The History of
SNK Archived 2012-05-14 at the Wayback
Machine ., GameSpot. Accessed February 16, 2009
* ^ Stearny, Mark (September 1982). "The Evolution of Space Games:
How We Got From
Space Invaders to Zaxxon". JoyStik (1): 8–29.
* ^ Cuciz, David (May 2001). "Hall of Fame: Defender".
Archived from the original on 2005-03-26. Retrieved 2009-12-06.
* ^ Roper, Chris, The Games of
Atari Classics Evolved: Part 2
Archived 2007-10-29 at the
Wayback Machine ., IGN, October 22, 2007.
Accessed June 17, 2008
* ^ Terminator 3: The Redemption Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback
Machine ., Yahoo Games!. Accessed March 2, 2009
* ^ Leo, Jonathan, "
Rez HD", GameAxis Unwired, March 2008, p. 47
* ^ Ashcraft, p. 75
* ^ Mielke, James, Asteroids Review Archived 2011-09-20 at the
Wayback Machine .,'GameSpot, November 19, 1998. Accessed February 17,
* ^ Gerstmann, Jeff, Robotron: 2084 Review, GameSpot, December 20,
2005. Accessed February 17, 2009
* ^ Staff, Top 10 Tuesday: Game Designers Archived 2012-02-14 at
Wayback Machine ., IGN. Accessed February 17, 2009
* ^ Buchanan, Levi,
Space Harrier Retrospective Archived 2011-07-13
Wayback Machine ., IGN, September 5, 2008. Accessed February
* ^ A B Maragos, Nich,
Space Harrier (PS2), 1UP.com, January 1,
2000. Accessed February 17, 2009
* ^ A B Ashcraft, p. 76
* ^ Kasavin, Greg,
Gradius Collection Review, GameSpot, June 7,
2006. Accessed February 12, 2009
* ^ Fahs, Travis,
Fantasy Zone Retrospective Archived 2011-07-13 at
Wayback Machine ., IGN, October 1, 2008. Accessed February 13,
* ^ Kalata, Kurt,
Fantasy Zone Archived 2010-01-16 at the Wayback
Machine ., Hardcore Gaming 101. Accessed February 02, 2010
* ^ Todd, Brett,
R-Type Dimensions Review, GameSpot, February 7,
2009. Accessed February 13, 2009
* ^ Navarro, ALex, Raiden Review Archived 2011-09-20 at the Wayback
Machine ., GameSpot, November 17, 2004. Accessed February 13, 2009
* ^ Buchanan, Levi, Raiden Archived 2009-07-24 at the Wayback
Machine ., IGN, February 17, 2004. Accessed February 13, 2009
* ^ Segre, Nicole, "Commando," Sinclair User, February 1986 (issue
* ^ John Szczepaniak. "Retro Japanese Computers: Gaming\'s Final
Frontier". Hardcore Gaming 101. p. 4. Archived from the original on
2011-01-13. Retrieved 2011-03-16. Reprinted from "Retro Japanese
Computers: Gaming's Final Frontier",
Retro Gamer (67), 2009
3-D WorldRunner at
* ^ JJ: Tobidase Daisakusen Part II at
Space Harrier 3-D at
Thunder Blade at the
Killer List of Videogames
* ^ IGN\'s Top 100 Games Archived 2010-03-12 at the Wayback Machine
., IGN, July 25, 2005. Accessed February 19, 2009
* ^ Ashcraft, pp. 78-80
* ^ Ashcraft, pp. 77-78
* ^ Magrino, Tom, Contra conquering DS Archived 2011-09-19 at the
Wayback Machine ., GameSpot, June 20, 2007. Accessed February 17, 2009
* ^ Staff, Contra Q&A Archived 2011-09-20 at the
Wayback Machine .,
GameSpot, October 1, 2002. Accessed February 17, 2009
* ^ Bozon, Mark, Metal Slug Anthology Review Archived 2009-02-14 at
Wayback Machine ., IGN, December 20, 2006. Accessed February 17,
* ^ Brudwig, Erik,
Rez HD is Coming Archived 2011-07-13 at the
Wayback Machine ., IGN, January 22, 2008. Accessed February 17, 2009
* ^ Buchanan, Levi, Fond Memories:
Radiant Silvergun Archived
2011-07-13 at the
Wayback Machine ., IGN, April 7, 2008. Accessed
February 13, 2009
* ^ McCarthy, Dave, The Best Games That Never Came out in Britain
Archived 2009-01-30 at the
Wayback Machine ., IGN, January 26, 2009,
Accessed February 13, 2009
* ^ A B Staff, Top 10 Tuesday: 2D Space Shooters Archived
2009-09-03 at the
Wayback Machine ., IGN, March 6, 2007. Accessed
February 13, 2009
* ^ "Most prolific fan-made shooter series". Guinness World Records
. Archived from the original on 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
* ^ A B Ashcraft, p. 88
* ^ Gouskos, Carrie, Geometry Wars: Retro Evolved Review Archived
2009-01-30 at the
Wayback Machine ., GameSpot, November 23, 2005.
Accessed February 13, 2009
* ^ "State of the Shoot ëEm Up - Edge Magazine". Next-gen.biz.
2008-11-17. Retrieved 2011-09-06.
* Ashcraft, Brian, (2008) Arcade Mania! The Turbo-Charged World of
Japan's Game Centers, (Kodansha International)
Video game genres
* Beat \'em up
Hack and slash
* Pac-Man clone
* Light gun
* Shoot 'em up
* Battle royale
Grand Theft Auto clone
Escape the room
* Point n\' click
* Action role-playing
* Tactical role-playing
* Construction and management
* Life simulation
* Social simulation
Multiplayer online battle arena
Multiplayer online battle arena
* Time management
* Kart racing
* Christian game
* Crossover game
* Cult game
Multiplayer video game
Nonviolent video game
Multiplayer online game
Social network game
* Twitch gameplay
Video game clone
Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.
* Cookie statement
* Mobile view