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SHOIN-ZUKURI (書院造) is a style of Japanese residential architecture used in the mansions of the military, temple guest halls, and Zen
Zen
abbot 's quarters of the Azuchi-Momoyama (1568–1600) and Edo periods (1600–1868). It forms the basis of today's traditional-style Japanese house. Characteristics of the shoin-zukuri development were the incorporation of square posts and floors completely covered with tatami . The style takes its name from the shoin , a term that originally meant a study and a place for lectures on the sūtra within a temple, but which later came to mean just a drawing room or study.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Sukiya-zukuri
Sukiya-zukuri

* 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References

HISTORY

The shiro-shoin at Nishi Hongan-ji
Nishi Hongan-ji
Shoin-zukuri
Shoin-zukuri

The foundations for the design of today's traditional Japanese residential houses with tatami floors were established in the late Muromachi period
Muromachi period
and refined during the ensuing Momoyama period . Shoin-zukuri, a new architectural style influenced by Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
, developed during that time from the shinden-zukuri of the earlier Heian period
Heian period
's palaces and the subsequent residential style favored by the warrior class during the Kamakura period
Kamakura period
. The term shoin (書院), meaning study or drawing room has been used to denote reception rooms in residences of the military elite as well as study rooms at monasteries. A shoin has a core area surrounded by aisles , and smaller areas separated by fusuma sliding doors, or shōji partitions constructed of paper on a wooden frame or wooden equivalents, mairado (舞良戸) and sugido (杉戸). The main reception room is characterized by specific features: a recessed alcove (tokonoma ); staggered shelves; built-in desks; and ornate sliding doors. Generally the reception room is covered with wall-to-wall tatami, has square beveled pillars, a coved and/or coffered ceiling, and wooden shutters protecting the area from rain (雨戸, amado). The entrance hall (genkan) emerged as an element of residential architecture during the Momoyama period. The oldest extant shoin style building is the Tōgu-dō at Ginkaku-ji
Ginkaku-ji
dating from 1485. Other representative examples of early shoin style, also called shuden, include two guest halls at Mii-dera
Mii-dera
. In the early Edo period , shoin-zukuri reached its peak and spread beyond the residences of the military elite. The more formal shoin-style of this period is apparent in the characteristics of Ninomaru Palace at Nijō Castle
Nijō Castle
as well as the shoin at Nishi Hongan-ji
Nishi Hongan-ji
(see photos above).

The simpler style used in the architecture of tea houses for the tea ceremony developed in parallel with shoin-zukuri. In the 16th century Sen no Rikyū
Sen no Rikyū
established dedicated "grass hut" (草庵, sōan) style teahouses characterized by their small size of typically two to eight mat , the use of natural materials, and rustic appearance. This teahouse style, exemplified by the Joan and Taian teahouses, was influenced by Japanese farmhouse style and the shoin style featuring tatami matted floors, recessed alcoves (tokonoma ) and one or more ante chambers for preparations.

SUKIYA-ZUKURI

Main article: Sukiya-zukuri
Sukiya-zukuri

By the beginning of the Edo period
Edo period
, the features of the shoin and the teahouse styles began to blend. The result was an informal version of the shoin style called sukiya-zukuri (数寄屋造). The sukiya-zukuri style has a characteristic decorative alcove and shelf, and utilizes woods such as cedar, pine, hemlock, bamboo, and cypress , often with rough surfaces including the bark. Compared to the shoin style's, roof eaves in the sukiya style bend downward. While the shoin style was suitable for ceremonial architecture, it became too imposing for residential buildings. Consequently, the less formal sukiya style was used for the mansions of the aristocracy and samurai after the beginning of the Edo period.

SEE ALSO

* List of National Treasures of Japan (residences)
List of National Treasures of Japan (residences)

NOTES

* ^ Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, entry for "shoin-zukuri". * ^ Iwanami Kōjien
Kōjien
(広辞苑) Japanese dictionary, 6th Edition (2008), DVD version * ^ A B C D E Young & Young 2007 , p. 80 * ^ A B C Young & Young 2007 , p. 81 * ^ A B C D E "shoinzukuri". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System . Retrieved 2009-11-17. * ^ Young & Young 2007 , p. 79 * ^ "shoin". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System . Retrieved 2009-11-17. * ^ Nishi & Hozumi 1996 , p. 76 * ^ Nishi & Hozumi 1996 , p. 75 * ^ "souan". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System . Retrieved 2009-11-17. * ^ A B Young, Young & Yew 2004 , p. 63 * ^ Young & Young 2007 , p. 90 * ^ A B Young, Young & Yew 2004 , p. 100 * ^ A B C "sukiyazukuri". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System . Retrieved 2009-11-17. * ^ Nishi Hozumi, Kazuo (1996) . What is Japanese architecture? (illustrated ed.). Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-1992-0 . Retrieved 2009-11-11. * Young, David; Young, Michiko (2007) . The art of Japanese architecture. Architecture and Interior Design (illustrated, revised ed.). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3838-0 . Retrieved 2009-11-11.

* v * t * e

Elements of Japanese architecture
Japanese architecture

STYLES

* Buddhist * Buke * Daibutsuyō
Daibutsuyō
* Gassho * Giyōfū * Hachiman * Hirairi * Hiyoshi (Hie) * Imperial Crown style (Teikanyōshiki) * Irimoya * Ishi-no-ma * Kasuga * Kibitsu * Nagare * Ōbaku
Ōbaku
Zen
Zen
* Setchūyō * Shinden * Shinmei * Shinto * Shoin * Sukiya * Sumiyoshi * Taisha * Wayō
Wayō
* Zenshūyō
Zenshūyō

Model of Himeji Castle
Himeji Castle

TYPES OF BUILDING

* Butsuden * Castle * Chashitsu * Dō * Haiden * Heiden * Hokora
Hokora
* Hōkyōintō
Hōkyōintō
* Kura * Kyōzō
Kyōzō
* Machiya
Machiya
* Main Hall * Minka * Setsumatsusha
Setsumatsusha
* Shōrō
Shōrō
* Tahōtō
Tahōtō
* Japanese pagoda
Japanese pagoda
* Yagura

ROOF STYLES

* Hidden * Irimoya * Karahafu
Karahafu

STRUCTURAL

* Burdock piling
Burdock piling
* Chigi * Disordered piling
Disordered piling
* Engawa * Fusuma
Fusuma
* Hisashi * Irimoya-zukuri * Irori
Irori
* Jinmaku
Jinmaku
* Katōmado
Katōmado
* Katsuogi
Katsuogi
* Kuruwa * Mokoshi * Moya * Nakazonae
Nakazonae
* Namako wall
Namako wall
* Nightingale floor
Nightingale floor
* Onigawara
Onigawara
* Ranma * Shōji
Shōji
(washi ) * Sōrin
Sōrin
* Tamagaki * Tatami * Tokonoma
Tokonoma
* Tokyō
Tokyō
* Tsumairi * Shibi

* Gates * Approaches

* Genkan * Kairō
Kairō
* Karamon
Karamon
* Mon * Nijūmon
Nijūmon
* Niōmon
Niōmon
* Rōmon
Rōmon
* Sandō
Sandō
* Sanmon
Sanmon
* Sōmon
Sōmon
* Torii
Torii
(Mihashira )

ROOMS

* Chashitsu * Daidokoro * Mizuya
Mizuya
* Shoin
Shoin
* Toilets * Washitsu

FURNISHINGS

* Butsudan
Butsudan
* Byōbu
Byōbu
* Chabudai
Chabudai
* Emakimono * Furo * Futon
Futon
* Getabako * Kaidan dansu * Kamado
Kamado
* Kamidana * Kichō * Kotatsu
Kotatsu
* Misu * Noren * Sudare
Sudare
* Tamaya * Tansu * Zabuton * Zafu

OUTDOOR OBJECTS

* Chōzuya
Chōzuya
(Temizuya) * Ishigantō * Komainu * Tōrō
Tōrō

MEASUREMENTS

* Ken * Koku
Koku
* Ri * Shaku * Sun

ORGANIZATIONS

* Architectural Institute of Japan
Architectural Institute of Japan
* Japan Institute of Architects * Metabolist Movement
Metabolist Movement

RELATED TOPICS

* Groups of Traditional Buildings
Groups of Traditional Buildings
* Iki * Japanese garden
Japanese garden
(rock (Zen) ) * Ryokan * Sentō
Sentō
* Wabi-sabi * Yabo

NATIONAL TREASURES

* Castles * Residences * Shrines * Temples * Other structures

* v * t * e

Buddhist temples in Japan
Buddhist temples in Japan

JAPANESE BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

ARCHITECTONIC ELEMENTS

* hidden roof * hisashi * irimoya * kaerumata: see nakazonae * kairō * karahafu * karesansui * kentozuka: see nakazonae * komainu * katōmado * mokoshi * moya * nakazonae * Niō or Kongōrikishi * sandō * shichidō garan * shōrō * sōrin * tokyō * tōrō * onigawara

MON (GATES)

* karamon * nijūmon * niōmon * rōmon * sanmon * sōmon * torii

BUILDINGS

* Chinjusha
Chinjusha
* chōzuya/temizuya * -dō * main hall (kon-dō, hon-dō, butsuden) * kuri * kyōzō or kyō-dō * shoin

JAPANESE PAGODAS

* gorintō * hōkyōintō * hōtō * kasatōba * sotōba * muhōtō * tahōtō

STYLES

* Daibutsuyō
Daibutsuyō
* Wayō
Wayō
* Setchūyō * Shoin-zukuri * Shin- Wayō
Wayō
* Zenshūyō
Zenshūyō
* Ōbaku
Ōbaku
Zen
Zen
architecture

OTHERS

* A-un * ken

SCHOOLS AND OBJECTS OF WORSHIP

MAJOR SCHOOLS

* Jōdo * Nichiren * Shingon * Tendai
Tendai

ZEN SCHOOLS

* Sōtō
Sōtō
* Ōbaku
Ōbaku
* Rinzai

NANTO ROKUSHū

* Jōjitsu * Hossō * Kusha * Kegon
Kegon
* Ritsu * Sanron

OBJECTS OF WORSHIP

* Amida Nyōrai * Benzaiten
Benzaiten
* Dainichi Nyorai * Jizō * Kannon * Marishi-ten * Shaka Nyorai * Shitennō (Four Kings) * Twelve Heavenly Generals
Twelve Heavenly Generals
(Jūni Shinshō) * Yakushi Nyorai

OTHER ELEMENTS

IMPLEMENTS

* kei (ritual gong) * mokugyō

OTHERS

* bussokuseki * butsudan * Glossary of Japanese Buddhism
Buddhism
*