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Shoin-zukuri
Shoin-zukuri
(書院造) is a style of Japanese residential architecture used in the mansions of the military, temple guest halls, and Zen
Zen
abbot's quarters of the Azuchi–Momoyama (1568–1600) and Edo periods (1600–1868). It forms the basis of today's traditional-style Japanese house. Characteristics of the shoin-zukuri development were the incorporation of square posts and floors completely covered with tatami.[1] The style takes its name from the shoin, a term that originally meant a study and a place for lectures on the sūtra within a temple, but which later came to mean just a drawing room or study.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Sukiya-zukuri

2 See also 3 Notes 4 References

History[edit]

The shiro-shoin at Nishi Hongan-ji

Shoin-zukuri

The foundations for the design of today's traditional Japanese residential houses with tatami floors were established in the late Muromachi period
Muromachi period
and refined during the ensuing Momoyama period.[3][4] Shoin-zukuri, a new architectural style influenced by Zen
Zen
Buddhism, developed during that time from the shinden-zukuri of the earlier Heian period's palaces and the subsequent residential style favored by the warrior class during the Kamakura period.[3][5][6] The term shoin (書院), meaning study or drawing room has been used to denote reception rooms in residences of the military elite as well as study rooms at monasteries.[3][7] A shoin has a core area surrounded by aisles, and smaller areas separated by fusuma sliding doors, or shōji partitions constructed of paper on a wooden frame or wooden equivalents, mairado (舞良戸) and sugido (杉戸).[5] The main reception room is characterized by specific features: a recessed alcove (tokonoma); staggered shelves; built-in desks; and ornate sliding doors.[3][5] Generally the reception room is covered with wall-to-wall tatami, has square beveled pillars, a coved or coffered ceiling, and wooden shutters protecting the area from rain (雨戸, amado).[3][5] The entrance hall (genkan) emerged as an element of residential architecture during the Momoyama period.[5] The oldest extant shoin style building is the Tōgu-dō at Ginkaku-ji
Ginkaku-ji
dating from 1485. Other representative examples of early shoin style, also called shuden, include two guest halls at Mii-dera.[8] In the early Edo period, shoin-zukuri reached its peak and spread beyond the residences of the military elite.[4] The more formal shoin-style of this period is apparent in the characteristics of Ninomaru Palace at Nijō Castle as well as the shoin at Nishi Hongan-ji
Nishi Hongan-ji
(see photos above).[4][9] The simpler style used in the architecture of tea houses for the tea ceremony developed in parallel with shoin-zukuri. In the 16th century Sen no Rikyū established dedicated "grass hut" (草庵, sōan) style teahouses characterized by their small size of typically two to eight mat, the use of natural materials, and rustic appearance.[10] This teahouse style, exemplified by the Joan and Taian teahouses, was influenced by Japanese farmhouse style and the shoin style[11] featuring tatami matted floors, recessed alcoves (tokonoma) and one or more ante chambers for preparations.[11] Sukiya-zukuri[edit] Main article: Sukiya-zukuri By the beginning of the Edo period, the features of the shoin and the teahouse styles began to blend.[12] The result was an informal version of the shoin style called sukiya-zukuri (数寄屋造).[13][14] The sukiya-zukuri style has a characteristic decorative alcove and shelf, and utilizes woods such as cedar, pine, hemlock, bamboo, and cypress, often with rough surfaces including the bark.[14] Compared to the shoin style's, roof eaves in the sukiya style bend downward.[13] While the shoin style was suitable for ceremonial architecture, it became too imposing for residential buildings. Consequently, the less formal sukiya style was used for the mansions of the aristocracy and samurai after the beginning of the Edo period.[14][15] See also[edit]

List of National Treasures of Japan (residences)

Notes[edit]

^ Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, entry for "shoin-zukuri". ^ Iwanami Kōjien
Kōjien
(広辞苑) Japanese dictionary, 6th Edition (2008), DVD version ^ a b c d e Young & Young 2007, p. 80 ^ a b c Young & Young 2007, p. 81 ^ a b c d e "shoinzukuri". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System. Retrieved 2009-11-17.  ^ Young & Young 2007, p. 79 ^ "shoin". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System. Retrieved 2009-11-17.  ^ Nishi & Hozumi 1996, p. 76 ^ Nishi & Hozumi 1996, p. 75 ^ "souan". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System. Retrieved 2009-11-17.  ^ a b Young, Young & Yew 2004, p. 63 ^ Young & Young 2007, p. 90 ^ a b Young, Young & Yew 2004, p. 100 ^ a b c "sukiyazukuri". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System. Retrieved 2009-11-17.  ^ Nishi & Hozumi 1996, p. 78

References[edit]

Nishi, Kazuo; Hozumi, Kazuo (1996) [1983]. What is Japanese architecture? (illustrated ed.). Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-1992-0. Retrieved 2009-11-11.  Young, David; Young, Michiko (2007) [2004]. The art of Japanese architecture. Architecture and Interior Design (illustrated, revised ed.). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3838-0. Retrieved 2009-11-11. 

v t e

Elements of Japanese architecture

Styles

Buddhist Buke Daibutsuyō Gassho Giyōfū Hachiman Hirairi Hiyoshi (Hie) Imperial Crown style
Imperial Crown style
(Teikanyōshiki) Irimoya Ishi-no-ma Kasuga Kibitsu Nagare Ōbaku
Ōbaku
Zen Setchūyō Shinden Shinmei Shinto Shoin Sukiya Sumiyoshi Taisha Wayō Zenshūyō

Model of Himeji Castle

Types of building

Butsuden Castle Chashitsu Dō Haiden Heiden Hokora Hōkyōintō Kura Kyōzō Machiya Main Hall Minka Setsumatsusha Shōrō Tahōtō Japanese pagoda Yagura

Roof styles

Hidden Irimoya Karahafu

Structural

Burdock piling Chigi Disordered piling Engawa Fusuma Hisashi Irimoya-zukuri Irori Jinmaku Katōmado Katsuogi Kuruwa Mokoshi Moya Nakazonae Namako wall Nightingale floor Onigawara Ranma Shōji (washi) Sōrin Tamagaki Tatami Tokonoma Tokyō Tsumairi Shibi

Gates Approaches

Genkan Kairō Karamon Mon Nijūmon Niōmon Rōmon Sandō Sanmon Sōmon Torii (Mihashira)

Rooms

Chashitsu Daidokoro Mizuya Shoin Toilets Washitsu

Furnishings

Butsudan Byōbu Chabudai Emakimono Furo Futon Getabako Kaidan dansu Kamado Kamidana Kichō Kotatsu Misu Noren Sudare Tamaya Tansu Zabuton Zafu

Outdoor objects

Chōzuya
Chōzuya
(Temizuya) Ishigantō Komainu Tōrō

Measurements

Ken Koku Ri Shaku Sun

Organizations

Architectural Institute of Japan Japan Institute of Architects Metabolist Movement

Related topics

Groups of Traditional Buildings Iki Japanese garden (rock (Zen)) Ryokan Sentō Wabi-sabi Yabo

National Treasures

Castles Residences Shrines Temples Other structures

v t e

Buddhist temples in Japan

Japanese Buddhist architecture

Architectonic elements

hidden roof hisashi irimoya kaerumata: see nakazonae kairō karahafu karesansui kentozuka: see nakazonae komainu katōmado mokoshi moya nakazonae Niō or Kongōrikishi sandō shichidō garan shōrō sōrin tokyō tōrō onigawara

Mon (gates)

karamon nijūmon niōmon rōmon sanmon sōmon torii

Buildings

Chinjusha chōzuya/temizuya -dō main hall (kon-dō, hon-dō, butsuden) kuri kyōzō or kyō-dō shoin

Japanese pagodas

gorintō hōkyōintō hōtō kasatōba sotōba muhōtō tahōtō

Styles

Daibutsuyō Wayō Setchūyō Shoin-zukuri Shin-Wayō Zenshūyō Ōbaku
Ōbaku
Zen
Zen
architecture

Others

A-un ken

Schools and objects of worship

Major schools

Jōdo Nichiren Shingon Tendai

Zen
Zen
schools

Sōtō Ōbaku Rinzai

Nanto rokushū

Jōjitsu Hossō Kusha Kegon Ritsu Sanron

Objects of worship

Amida Nyōrai Benzaiten Dainichi Nyorai Jizō Kannon Marishi-ten Shaka Nyorai Shitennō (Four Kings) Twelve Heavenly Generals
Twelve Heavenly Generals
(Jūni Shinshō) Yakushi Nyorai

Other elements

Implements

kei (ritual gong) mokugyō

Others

bussokuseki butsudan Glossary of Japanese Buddhism Japanese Buddhist pantheon jingū-ji miyadera saisenbako

Authority control

.