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The SHMOO (plural: SHMOON, also SHMOOS) is a fictional cartoon creature created by Al Capp
Al Capp
(1909–79); the character first appeared in its classic comic strip Li\'l Abner on August 31, 1948.

CONTENTS

* 1 Description * 2 The original story * 3 Analysis * 4 Etymology * 5 In science

* 6 Licensing history

* 6.1 Toys and consumer products * 6.2 Comic books and reprints * 6.3 Recordings and sheet music * 6.4 Animation and puppetry

* 7 In popular culture * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

DESCRIPTION

A shmoo is shaped like a plump bowling pin with stubby legs. It has smooth skin, eyebrows and sparse whiskers—but no arms, nose or ears. Its feet are short and round but dextrous, as the shmoo's comic book adventures make clear. It has a rich gamut of facial expressions and often expresses love by exuding hearts over its head. Cartoonist
Cartoonist
Al Capp ascribed to the shmoo the following curious characteristics:

* They reproduce asexually and are incredibly prolific, multiplying exponentially faster than rabbits. They require no sustenance other than air. * Shmoos are delicious to eat, and are eager to be eaten. If a human looks at one hungrily, it will happily immolate itself — either by jumping into a frying pan, after which they taste like chicken, or into a broiling pan, after which they taste like steak. When roasted they taste like pork, and when baked they taste like catfish. (Raw, they taste like oysters on the half-shell.) * They also produce eggs (neatly packaged), milk (bottled, grade-A), and butter—no churning required. Their pelts make perfect bootleather or house timber, depending on how thick one slices it. * They have no bones, so there's absolutely no waste. Their eyes make the best suspender buttons, and their whiskers make perfect toothpicks. In short, they are simply the perfect ideal of a subsistence agricultural herd animal. * Naturally gentle, they require minimal care, and are ideal playmates for young children. The frolicking of shmoon is so entertaining (such as their staged "shmoosical comedies") that people no longer feel the need to watch television or go to the movies . * Some of the more tasty varieties of shmoo are more difficult to catch. Usually shmoo hunters, now a sport in some parts of the country, utilize a paper bag, flashlight and stick to capture their shmoos. At night the light stuns them, then they can be whacked in the head with the stick and put in the bag for frying up later on.

THE ORIGINAL STORY

In a sequence beginning in late August 1948, Li'l Abner
Li'l Abner
discovers the shmoos when he ventures into the forbidden "Valley of the Shmoon" following the mysterious and musical sound they make (from which their name derives). Abner is thrown off a cliff and into the valley below by a primitive "large gal" (as he addresses her), whose job is to guard the valley. (This character is never seen again.) There, against the frantic protestations of a naked, heavily bearded old man who shepherds the shmoos, Abner befriends the strange and charming creatures. "Shmoos," the old man warns, "is the greatest menace to hoomanity th' world has evah known!" "Thass becuz they is so bad, huh?" asks Li'l Abner. "No, stupid", answers the man — and then encapsulates one of life's profound paradoxes : "It's because they's so good!!".

Having discovered their value ("Wif these around, nobody won't nevah havta work no more!!"), Abner leads the shmoos out of the valley — where they become a sensation in Dogpatch and, quickly, the rest of the world. Captains of industry such as J. Roaringham Fatback, the "Pork King", become alarmed as sales of nearly all products decline, and in a series of images reminiscent of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 , the " Shmoo
Shmoo
Crisis" unfolds. On Fatback's orders, a corrupt exterminator orders out "Shmooicide Squads" to wipe out the shmoos with a variety of firearms, which is depicted in a macabre and comically graphic sequence, with a tearful Li'l Abner
Li'l Abner
misguidedly saluting the supposed "authority" of the extermination squads.

After the shmoos have been eliminated, Dogpatch's extortionate grocer Soft-Hearted John is seen cackling as he displays his wares—rotting meat and produce: "Now them mizzuble starvin' rats has t'come crawlin t'me fo' the necessities o' life!! They complained 'bout mah prices befo'!! Wait'll they see th' new ones!!". The exterminator congratulates him.

However, it is soon discovered that Abner has secretly saved two shmoos, a "boy" and a "girl". The boy shmoo, as a Dogpatch native, is required to run from the girl shmoo in the annual Sadie Hawkins Day race. (Shmoos are usually portrayed as gender-neutral, although Capp sidesteps this issue to allow the comic plot twist.) When he is caught by her, in accordance with the rules of the race, they are joined in marriage by Marryin' Sam (whom they "pay" with a dozen eggs, two pounds of butter and six cupcakes with chocolate frosting — all of which Sam reckons to be worth about 98 cents). The already expanding shmoo family is last seen returning towards the Valley of the Shmoon.

The sequence, which ended just before Christmas
Christmas
of 1948, was massively popular, both as a commentary on the state of society and a classic allegory of greed and corruption tarnishing all that is good and innocent in the world. The Shmoo
Shmoo
caused an unexpected national sensation, and set the stage for a major licensing phenomenon. In their very few subsequent appearances in Li'l Abner, shmoos are also identified by the U.S. military
U.S. military
as a major threat to national security .

ANALYSIS

The Shmoo, any literate person must know, was one of history's most brilliant utopian satires. —  The Baltimore Sun
The Baltimore Sun
, 2002

"Capp is at his allegorical best in the epics of the Shmoos, and later, the Kigmies," wrote comic strip historian Jerry Robinson (in The Comics: An Illustrated History of Comic Strip Art, 1974). "Shmoos are the world's most amiable creatures, supplying all man's needs. Like a fertility myth gone berserk, they reproduced so prodigiously they threatened to wreck the economy"—if not western civilization as we know it, and ultimately society itself.

Al Capp
Al Capp
offered his version of the origin of the Shmoo
Shmoo
in a wryly satirical article, "I Don't Like Shmoos," in Cosmopolitan (June 1949):

I was driving from New York City to my farm in New Hampshire . The top of my car was down, and on either side of me I could see the lush and lovely New England
New England
countryside... It was the good earth at its generous summertime best, offering gifts to all. And the thought that came to me was this: Here we have this great and good and generous thing—the Earth. It's eager to give us everything we need. All we have to do is just let it alone, just be happy with it.

Cartoonists don't think like people. They think in pictures. Little pictures that will fit into a comic strip. And so, in my mind, I reduced the Earth... down to the size of a small critter that would fit into the Li'l Abner
Li'l Abner
strip—and it came out a Shmoo... I didn't have any message—except that it's good to be alive. The Shmoo
Shmoo
didn't have any social significance; it is simply a juicy li'l critter that gives milk and lays eggs... When you look at one as though you'd like to eat it, it dies of sheer ecstasy. And if one really loves you, it'll lay you a cheesecake —although this is quite a strain on its li'l innards...

I thought it was a perfectly ordinary little story, but when it appeared in newspapers, all hell broke loose! Life, in an editorial, hailed the Shmoo
Shmoo
as the very symbol and spirit of free enterprise . Time said I'd invented a new era of enlightened management-employee relationship, (they called it Capp-italism.) The Daily Worker
The Daily Worker
cussed me out as a Tool of the Bosses, and denounced the Shmoo
Shmoo
as the Opium of the Masses...

Superficially, the Shmoo
Shmoo
story concerns a cuddly creature that desires nothing more than to be a boon to mankind. Although initially Capp denied or avoided discussion of any satirical intentions (“If the Shmoo
Shmoo
fits,” he proclaimed, “wear it!”), he was widely seen to be stalking bigger game subtextually . The story has social , ethical and philosophical implications that continue to invite analysis to this day. During the remainder of his life, Capp was seldom interviewed without reference to the nature of the Shmoo
Shmoo
story.

The mythic tale ends on a deliberately ironic note. Shmoos are officially declared a menace, and systematically hunted down and slaughtered—because they were deemed "bad for business." The much-copied storyline was a parable that was interpreted in many different ways at the outset of the Cold War
Cold War
. Al Capp
Al Capp
was even invited to go on a radio show to debate socialist Norman Thomas
Norman Thomas
on the effect of the Shmoo
Shmoo
on modern capitalism .

"After it came out both the left and the right attacked the Shmoo," according to publisher Denis Kitchen
Denis Kitchen
. " Communists thought he was making fun of socialism and Marxism . The right wing thought he was making fun of capitalism and the American way . Capp caught flak from both sides. For him it was an apolitical morality tale about human nature ... I think was one of those bursts of genius. He was a genius, there's no question about that."

The Shmoo
Shmoo
inspired hundreds of " Shmoo
Shmoo
clubs" all over North America. College students—who had made Capp's invented idea of the Sadie Hawkins dance a universally adopted tradition—flocked to the Shmoo as well. One school, the University of Bridgeport
University of Bridgeport
, even launched the "American Society
Society
for the Advancement of the Shmoo" in early 1949.

Capp introduced many other allegorical creatures in Li'l Abner
Li'l Abner
over the years—including BALD IGGLES , KIGMIES, NOGOODNIKS, MIMIKNIKS, THE MONEY HA-HA, SHMINKS, ABOMINABLE SNOW-HAMS, GOBBLEGLOPS and BASHFUL BULGANIKS, among others. Each one highlighted another disquieting facet of human nature—but none have ever had quite the same cultural impact as the Shmoo. According to publisher Denis Kitchen: "For the rest of his career Capp got countless letters people begging him to bring the Shmoo
Shmoo
back. Periodically he would do it but each time it ended the same way—with the Shmoo
Shmoo
being too good for humanity, and he had to essentially exterminate them again. But there was always one or two who would survive for future plot twists..."

ETYMOLOGY

The actual origin of Capp's word "shmoo" has been the subject of debate by linguists for decades, leading to the misconception that the term was derived from "schmo " or "schmooze ." However, "shmue" was a taboo Yiddish
Yiddish
term for the uterus . It is one of many Yiddish
Yiddish
slang variations that would find their way into Li'l Abner. Revealing an important key to the story, Al Capp
Al Capp
himself wrote that the Shmoo metaphorically represented the limitless bounty of the earth in all its richness—in essence, Mother Nature herself. In Li'l Abner's words, "Shmoos hain't make believe. The hull earth is one!!"

IN SCIENCE

The term "shmoo" has entered the English language, defining highly technical concepts in at least four separate fields of science :

* " Shmoo plot
Shmoo plot
" is a technical term relating to the graphical display of test results in electrical engineering , dating back at least to 1966. The name most likely arose because the shape of the two-dimensional plots often resembled a shmoo. The term is also a verb: to "shmoo" means to run the test.

* In microbiology , the shmoo's uncanny resemblance to budding yeast —combined with its near-limitless usefulness—has led to the character's adoption as a mascot of sorts for scientists studying yeast as a model organism for genetics and cell biology . In fact, the cellular bulge that is produced by a haploid yeast cell as a response to a pheromone from the opposite mating type (either a or α) is referred to as a "shmoo," because cells that are undergoing mating and present this particular structure resemble the cartoon character. The whole process is known to biologists as "shmooing." Shmoos are essential; without them, we would have neither bread nor beer . The word "shmoo" has appeared in nearly 700 science publications since 1974; it is used in labs studying the bread- and beer-making species Saccharomyces cerevisiae , (Source: Discover magazine, November 2007).

* It has been used in discussions of socioeconomics , for instance. In economics , a "widget" is any material good which is produced through labor (extracted, refined, manufactured, or assembled) from a finite resource—in contrast to a "shmoo," which is a material good that reproduces itself and is captured or bred as an economic activity (the original shmoo reproduces without requiring any material sustenance). "If shmoos really existed, they would be a "free good ." Erik Olin Wright uses the "parable of the shmoo" to introduce discussion of class structure and economics.

* Echinoderm biologists use "shmoo" (often spelled "schmoo") to refer to a very simple, highly derived, blob-shaped larva found in some sea urchins (e.g. Wray 1996 ).

* In the field of particle physics , "shmoo" refers to a high energy cosmic ray survey instrument utilized at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Cygnus X-3 Sky Survey performed at the LAMPF (Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) grounds. Over one hundred white "shmoo" detectors were at one time sprinkled around the accelerator beamstop area and adjacent mesa to capture subatomic cosmic ray particles emitted from the Cygnus constellation . The detectors housed scintillators and photomultipliers in an array that gave the detector its distinctive shmoo shape. The particle accelerator Tevatron
Tevatron
at Fermilab
Fermilab
houses superconducting magnets which produce ice formations that also resembled shmoos.

* The shmoo has been suggested as a hypothetical example of the potential falsifiability of natural selection as a key driving mechanism of biological evolution .

LICENSING HISTORY

Of course, it was merchandised to death. I think they even had shmoo toilet seats. — Al Capp, Cartoonist
Cartoonist
PROfiles #37, March 1978

An unexpected—and virtually unprecedented—postwar merchandising phenomenon followed Capp's introduction of the Shmoo
Shmoo
in Li'l Abner. As in the strip, shmoos suddenly appeared to be everywhere in 1949 and 1950—including a Time cover story. They also garnered nearly a full page of coverage (under "Economics") in Time's International section. Major articles also ran in Newsweek , Life , The New Republic and countless other publications and newspapers. Virtually overnight, as a Life headline put it, "The U.S. Becomes Shmoo-Struck!"

TOYS AND CONSUMER PRODUCTS

A child in West Berlin holding a toy Shmoo
Shmoo
and sitting on a CARE Package (October 1948)

Shmoo
Shmoo
dolls, clocks, watches, jewelry, earmuffs, wallpaper, fishing lures, air fresheners, soap, ice cream, balloons, ashtrays, toys, games, Halloween masks, salt and pepper shakers, decals, pinbacks, tumblers, coin banks, greeting cards, planters, neckties, suspenders, belts, curtains, fountain pens and other shmoo paraphernalia were produced. A garment factory in Baltimore
Baltimore
turned out a whole line of shmoo apparel, including "Shmooveralls." In 1948, people danced to the Shmoo
Shmoo
Rhumba
Rhumba
and the Shmoo
Shmoo
Polka
Polka
. The Shmoo
Shmoo
briefly entered everyday language through such phrases as "What's Shmoo?" and "Happy Shmoo Year!"

Close to a hundred licensed shmoo products from 75 different manufacturers were produced in less than a year, some of which sold five million units each. In a single year, shmoo merchandise generated over $25,000,000 in sales—in 1948 dollars, that is. Adjusted for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI), that would be the equivalent of $215 million in 2007.

There had never previously been anything like it. Comparisons to contemporary cultural phenomena are inevitable. But modern crazes are almost always due to massive marketing campaigns by large media corporations, and are generally aimed at the youth market. The Shmoo phenomenon arose immediately, spontaneously and solely from cartoonist Al Capp's daily comic strip—and it appealed widely to Americans of all ages. Forty million people read the original 1948 Shmoo
Shmoo
story, and Capp's already considerable readership roughly doubled following the overwhelming success of the Shmoo... —  Denis Kitchen
Denis Kitchen

The Shmoo
Shmoo
was so popular it even replaced Walt Disney 's Mickey Mouse as the face of the Children's Savings Bond , issued by the U.S. Treasury Department in 1949. The valid document was colorfully illustrated with Capp's character, and promoted by the Federal Government of the United States with a $16 million advertising campaign budget. According to one article at the time, the Shmoo showed "Thrift, loyalty, trust, duty, truth and common cents add up to aid to his nation." Al Capp
Al Capp
accompanied President Harry S. Truman at the bond's unveiling ceremony.

COMIC BOOKS AND REPRINTS

The Life and Times of the Shmoo
Shmoo
(1948), a paperback collection of the original sequence, was a bestseller for Simon "> Shmoo
Shmoo
78rpm disc

* The Shmoo
Shmoo
Sings with Earl Rogers (1948) 78 rpm / Allegro * The Shmoo
Shmoo
Club b/w The Shmoo
Shmoo
Is Clean, the Shmoo
Shmoo
Is Neat with Gerald Marks and Justin Stone (1949) 78 rpm / Music You Enjoy, Inc. * The Snuggable, Huggable Shmoo
Shmoo
b/w The Shmoo
Shmoo
Doesn't Cost a Cent with Gerald Marks and Justin Stone (1949) 78 rpm / Music You Enjoy, Inc. * Shmoo
Shmoo
Lesson b/w A Shmoo
Shmoo
Can Do Most Anything with Gerald Marks and Justin Stone (1949) 78 rpm / Music You Enjoy, Inc. * The Shmoo
Shmoo
Song (1948) Composed by Jule Styne & John Jacob Loeb / Harvey Music Corp. * Shmoo
Shmoo
Songs (1949) Composed by Gerald Marks / Bristol Music Corp. * The Kigmy Song (1949) Composed by Joe Rosenield the two pairs of characters didn't actually "meet"). The characters did meet, however, in the early 1980s Flintstones spinoff The Flintstone Comedy Show . The Shmoo
Shmoo
appeared, incongruously, in the segment Bedrock Cops as a police officer alongside part-time officers Fred Flintstone and Barney Rubble . Needless to add, this Shmoo
Shmoo
had little relationship to the L'il Abner character, other than a superficial appearance. A later Hanna-Barbera venture, The New Shmoo , featured the character as an (inexplicably) shape-shifting mascot of Mighty Mysteries Comics, a group of teens who solve Scooby-Doo -like mysteries. In this series the Shmoo
Shmoo
could magically "morph" into any shape at will—like Tom Terrific . None of these revisionist revivals of the venerable character was particularly successful.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

* Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
, who was frequently spoofed by Al Capp
Al Capp
in Li'l Abner, has a line in the MGM
MGM
musical On the Town (1949) about cops "multiplyin' like shmoos!" * Florence King refers to owning a ceramic shmoo, which she threw out of her window after reading the books of Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand
. * In the 1990 movie Book of Love , the character Crutch wins a stuffed shmoo at a carnival. * In the M*A*S*H TV episode "Who Knew?," Colonel Potter (played by Harry Morgan
Harry Morgan
) displays an inflatable shmoo toy in his office that he purchased for his grandson. * In Larry Niven 's Known Space stories, an alien species known as the Bandersnatch , also edible and intelligent, is described as being "smooth as a shmoo." * In the novel The Forge of God
The Forge of God
by Greg Bear
Greg Bear
, "Shmoo" is the name humans give to the race of robots that visits Earth, due to their similar shape. * Some overlapping similarities exist between shmoos and tribbles —the multitudinous alien creatures featured in a 1967 TV episode from the original Star Trek . Like shmoos, tribbles also reproduced at such an alarming rate, they threatened ecological disaster. However, David Gerrold
David Gerrold
—who wrote " The Trouble With Tribbles
The Trouble With Tribbles
"—drew his inspiration from an actual event: Australia's environmentally destructive rabbit overpopulation. * The characters Gleep and Gloop—two protoplastic creatures from the Hanna-Barbera Saturday morning animated cartoon series The Herculoids —were clearly inspired by (and are sometimes mistaken for) shmoos. * French artists Etienne Chambaud and David Jourdan have written "Economie de l'abondance ou La courte vie et les jours heureux," a new adventure of Jacques le fataliste et son maître from Diderot
Diderot
, based on the discovery by Jacques of the Shmoo. * In the 2006 film Lucky Number Slevin
Lucky Number Slevin
, the character known only as "The Boss" (played by Morgan Freeman ) refers to the Shmoo, recounting its original features as a source of plenty (in a monologue taken from an old Li'l Abner
Li'l Abner
comic). * The Marxist political philosopher Gerald Cohen used the story of the Shmoo
Shmoo
to illustrate his objections to capitalism in an episode of Opinions. * The Simpsons uses a statue of the Shmoo
Shmoo
to replace the giant phallic statue from the film A Clockwork Orange in the episode " Treehouse of Horror XXV
Treehouse of Horror XXV
". * In the North American version video game, Castlevania: Symphony of the Night there is an enemy monster called "Schmoo" (in the original Japanese version it is an Obake
Obake
called "Kyuu" a homage to the character in manga, Obake
Obake
no Q-tarō ) which is apparently a homage to The Shmoo. Schmoo appear in the Forbidden Library and killing one may result in obtaining the rare sword "Crissaegrim" (its rare item drop), one of the most powerful swords in the game.

* During the Soviet Union's blockade of West Berlin , Germany in 1948, candy-filled shmoos were air-dropped to hungry West Berliners from transport planes by America's 17th Military Airport Squadron. The commanders of the Berlin airlift had cabled Capp, requesting the inflatable shmoos as part of Operation: Little Vittles. "When the candy-chocked shmoos were dropped, a near-riot resulted...." * Shmoos invaded the 1948 presidential election , as challenger Thomas Dewey accused incumbent Harry S. Truman of "promising everything, including the Shmoo!" * Capp periodically reintroduced the Shmoos in Li'l Abner, sometimes with significant variations. "Bad" Shmoos (called "Nogoodniks") debuted in a series of Sunday strips in 1949. The nasty cousin of the good-natured Shmoo, Nogoodniks were a sickly shade of green, and had "li'l red eyes, sharp yaller teeth, an' a dirty look." Frequently sporting 5 o\'clock shadows , eye patches, scars, bandages and other ruffian attributes—they devoured "good" Shmoos, were the sworn enemies of "hoomanity," and wreaked havoc on Dogpatch.

REFERENCES

* ^ Michael Pakenham (2002-11-29). "Editor\'s Choice: The Short Life and Happy Times of the Shmoo, by Al Capp, with an introduction by Harlan Ellison". Baltimore
Baltimore
Sun. Retrieved 2017-05-08. * ^ Search Site (1934-08-13). "Exile in Dogpatch: The Curious Neglect of Cartoonist
Cartoonist
Al Capp, City Journal, Spring 2010". City-journal.org. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ Arthur Asa Berger
Arthur Asa Berger
(2004-07-15). Media Analysis Techniques, 3rd ed. Sage Publications, Inc. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ "Future Hi " Shmoo
Shmoo
Technology", 25 April 2004". Archived from the original on 2004-10-27. Retrieved 2010-01-18. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ Capp-italist Revolution: Al Capp\'s Shmoo
Shmoo
Offers a Parable of Plenty, Life editorial, 20 December 1948. Books.google.com. 1948-12-20. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ "Book review by KNS Maré, Mountain Area Information Network 2002". Main.nc.us. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ "Berkeley Sociology 298 Lecture 4: Class, Exploitation, Oppression; 5 March 2002" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ iPad iPhone Android TIME TV Populist The Page (1948-09-13). "Harvest Shmoon, Time, 13 September 1948". Time.com. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ "Everything and the Kitchen Shmoo: Interview with Denis Kitchen, April 2003". Archived from the original on June 23, 2007. Retrieved August 30, 2016. * ^ Perspectives On American English by J.L. Dillard, published by Walter de Gruyter 1980. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ The Sensitivity Function in Variability Analysis, Charles Belove, IEEE
IEEE
Transactions on Reliability, Volume R-15, Issue 2, August 1966. * ^ "The Hooded Utilitarian looks at comics’ contributions to colloquial English, 18 December 2010". Tcj.com. 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ Wright, Erik Olin, Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis, 1997 Cambridge University Press. Books.google.com. 1996-11-28. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ Gregory A. Wray. "Parallel Evolution of Nonfeeding Larvae in Echinoids". Sysbio.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ Higgins, William S. "Shmoos of the Tevatron
Tevatron
by Wm. S. Higgins (Symmetry, June 2012)". Symmetrymagazine.org. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ Steven Pinker (1994). "The Big Bang". The Language Instinct
The Language Instinct
. New York: William Morrow. p. 358. ISBN 0-688-12141-1 . Daniel Dennett (1995). "Controversies Contained". Darwin\'s Dangerous Idea:Evolution and the Meanings of Life . New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 330. ISBN 978-0-684-82471-0 . * ^ The U.S. Becomes Shmoo-Struck!, Life, 20 September 1948. Books.google.com. 1948-09-20. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ "Al Capp\'s Shmoo". Essortment.com. 1986-05-16. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ Newsweek, 5 September 1949; and Editor & Publisher
Editor & Publisher
, 16 July 1949 * ^ "The Shmoo
Shmoo
Fact Sheet". Deniskitchen.com. Retrieved 2012-12-10.

* ^ Teal (2008-09-10). " Shmoo
Shmoo
Plug Bait Fishing Lure History by Dr. T.E.A. Larson". Fishinghistory.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ iPad iPhone Android TIME TV Populist The Page (1948-12-27). "The Miracle of Dogpatch, Time, 27 December 1948". Time.com. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ Thompson, Steven (2012-05-26). "Four-Color Shadows (26 May 2012), "Al Capp\'s Super Shmoo, 1949"". Fourcolorshadows.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ "I.T.C.H. "Oddly Compelling Interview: Denis Kitchen," 6 August 2010". Superitch.com. 2010-08-06. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ A B C Muldavin, Peter (2007). The Complete Guide to Vintage Children's Records. Paducah, Kentucky
Paducah, Kentucky
: Collector Books. pp. 134–135. ISBN 9781574325096 . * ^ Fearless Fosdick (TV show) at IMDB * ^ "G. A. Cohen - Against Capitalism - Part 1". YouTube. 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2012-12-10. * ^ Newsweek , 11 October 1948 * ^ Newsweek, 5 September 1948 * ^ "Bad Shmoos from The Scoop Archive, 24 August 2002". Scoop.diamondgalleries.com. Retrieved 2012-12-10.

FURTHER READING

* Capp, Al, The Life and Times of the Shmoo
Shmoo
(1948) Simon & Schuster * Capp, Al, "There Is a Real Shmoo" (The Nation, 21 March 1949) * Capp, Al, "I Don't Like Shmoos" (Cosmopolitan, June 1949) * Al Capp
Al Capp
Studios, Al Capp's Shmoo
Shmoo
Comics (1949–1950) 5 issues (Toby Press) * Al Capp
Al Capp
Studios, Al Capp's Shmoo
Shmoo
in Washable Jones' Travels (1950) ( Oxydol premium) * Al Capp
Al Capp
Studios, Washable Jones and the Shmoo
Shmoo
(1953) (Toby Press) * Capp, Al, Al Capp's Bald Iggle: The Life It Ruins May Be Your Own (1956) Simon & Schuster * Capp, Al, The Return of the Shmoo
Shmoo
(1959) Simon & Schuster * Capp, Al, Charlie Mensuel #2 (March 1969) (A French monthly periodical devoted to comics) * Capp, Al, The Best of Li'l Abner
Li'l Abner
(1978) Holt, Rinehart ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Al Capp
Al Capp
's Li\'l Abner

CHARACTERS AND ELEMENTS

* Dogpatch * Joe Btfsplk * Fearless Fosdick * Lower Slobbovia * Sadie Hawkins Day * Salomey
Salomey
* Shmoo

ADAPTATIONS AND SPIN-OFFS

* Dogpatch USA * 1940 film * 1959 film * The Flintstone Comedy Show * Fred and Barney Meet the Shmoo * Kickapoo Joy Juice * Shelly Manne album * Musical * Sadie Hawkins dance * Skunkworks project
Skunkworks project
* The New Shmoo

RELATED ARTICLES

* Abbie an\' Slats * Elliott Caplin * Comic Strip Classics * double-whammy * Frank Frazetta * Imagine: John Lennon * Long Sam
Long Sam
* Bob Lubbers * -nik * Shmoo plot
Shmoo plot
* Toby Press * Basil Wolverton
Basil Wolverton

* v * t * e

The Flintstones

CHARACTERS

THE FLINTSTONES

* Fred Flintstone * Wilma Flintstone * Pebbles Flintstone
Pebbles Flintstone
* Dino
Dino

THE RUBBLES

* Barney Rubble * Betty Rubble
Betty Rubble
* Bamm-Bamm Rubble
Bamm-Bamm Rubble

OTHER CHARACTERS

* Pearl Slaghoople * Captain Caveman
Captain Caveman
* The Frankenstones * The Great Gazoo * The Gruesomes * Shmoo

LOCATIONS

* Bedrock

Television series

* The Flintstones (1960–1966) * The Pebbles and Bamm-Bamm Show (1971–1972) * The Flintstone Comedy Hour
The Flintstone Comedy Hour
/ The Flintstone Comedy Show (1972–1974) * Fred Flintstone and Friends (1977–1978) * The New Fred and Barney Show (1979) * Fred and Barney Meet The Thing
Fred and Barney Meet The Thing
(1979) * Fred and Barney Meet the Shmoo (1979–1980) * The Flintstone Comedy Show (1980–1982) * The Flintstone Funnies (1982–1984) * The Flintstone Kids (1986–1988)

* The What a Cartoon! Show

* Dino: Stay Out! (1995) * Dino: The Great Egg-Scape (1997)

* Cave Kids (1996)

Television specials and films

* Alice in Wonderland or What\'s a Nice Kid Like You Doing in a Place Like This? (1966) * The Flintstones on Ice (1973) * Energy: A National Issue (1977) * A Flintstone Christmas
Christmas
(1977) * Hanna-Barbera\'s All-Star Comedy Ice Revue (1978) * The Flintstones: Little Big League (1978) * The Flintstones Meet Rockula and Frankenstone (1979)

* The Flintstone Primetime Specials

* The Flintstones\' New Neighbors (1980) * Fred\'s Final Fling (1980) * Wind-Up Wilma (1981) * Jogging Fever (1981)

* Yogi Bear\'s All Star Comedy Christmas
Christmas
Caper (1982) * The Flintstones\' 25th Anniversary Celebration (1986) * The Jetsons Meet the Flintstones
The Jetsons Meet the Flintstones
(1987) * The Flintstone Kids\' "Just Say No" Special
Special
(1988) * Hanna-Barbera\'s 50th: A Yabba Dabba Doo Celebration (1989) * I Yabba-Dabba Do! (1993) * Hollyrock-a-Bye Baby
Hollyrock-a-Bye Baby
(1993) * A Flintstone Family Christmas
Christmas
(1993) * A Flintstones Christmas
Christmas
Carol (1994) * The Flintstones: On the Rocks (2001)

THEATRICAL FILMS

ANIMATED

* The Man Called Flintstone
The Man Called Flintstone
(1966)

LIVE-ACTION

* The Flintstones (1994) * The Flintstones in Viva Rock Vegas (2000)

DIRECT-TO-VIDEO FILMS

* The Flintstones border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* The Flintstones (1988) * The Flintstones: The Rescue of Dino border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* The Flintstones (2016)

OTHER MEDIA

* Meet the Flintstones * Pinball * Pebbles cereal
Pebbles cereal
* Flintstones Chewable Vitamins * The Funtastic World of Hanna-Barbera (1990)

SEE ALSO

* The Jetsons

* Category

* v * t * e

Hanna-Barbera

FOUNDERS

* William Hanna * Joseph Barbera

ORIGINAL PRODUCTIONS

* The Atom Ant/Secret Squirrel Show * Birdman * Captain Caveman
Captain Caveman
* CB Bears * The Flintstones * The Funky Phantom * Grape Ape * Hong Kong Phooey * Huckleberry Hound * Jabberjaw * The Jetsons * Jonny Quest * Loopy De Loop
Loopy De Loop
* Magilla Gorilla * The Hanna-Barbera New Cartoon
Cartoon
Series * Peter Potamus * Quick Draw McGraw
Quick Draw McGraw
* The Ruff and Reddy Show * Scooby-Do