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Shivaji
Shivaji
Bhonsle
Bhonsle
(Marathi [ʃiʋaˑɟiˑ bʱoˑs(ə)leˑ]; c. 1627/1630 – 3 April 1680) was an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle
Bhonsle
Maratha
Maratha
clan. Shivaji
Shivaji
carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate
Adilshahi sultanate
of Bijapur
Bijapur
that formed the genesis of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned as the chhatrapati (monarch) of his realm at Raigad. Over the course of his life, Shivaji
Shivaji
engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, Sultanate of Golkonda, and Sultanate of Bijapur, as well as the English, Portuguese, and French colonial powers. Shivaji's military forces expanded the Maratha
Maratha
sphere of influence, capturing and building forts, and forming a Maratha navy. Shivaji
Shivaji
established a competent and progressive civil rule with well-structured administrative organisations. He revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit, rather than Persian, in court and administration. Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time but he began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement, as many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus.[3]:81 Particularly in Maharashtra, debates over his history and role have engendered great passion and sometimes even violence as disparate groups have sought to characterise him and his legacy.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Upbringing

2 Conflict with Bijapur

2.1 Combat with Afzal Khan 2.2 Siege of Panhala 2.3 Battle of Pavan Khind

3 Conflict with the Mughals

3.1 Attacks on Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
and Surat 3.2 Treaty of Purandar 3.3 Arrest in Agra
Agra
and escape 3.4 Peace with the Mughals

4 Reconquest

4.1 Battles
Battles
of Umrani and Nesari

5 Coronation 6 Conquest in Southern India 7 Death and succession

7.1 The Marathas after Shivaji

8 Governance

8.1 Promotion of Marathi and Sanskrit 8.2 Religious policy

9 Military

9.1 Forts 9.2 Navy

10 Legacy

10.1 Early depictions 10.2 Reimagining 10.3 Inspiration 10.4 Controversy

11 Commemorations 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Early life Main article: Early life of Shivaji Shivaji
Shivaji
was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri, near the city of Junnar in what is now Pune district
Pune district
on 6 April 1627 or 19 February 1630.[a][6] Shivaji
Shivaji
was named after a local deity, the goddess Shivai.[1] Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha
Maratha
general who served the Deccan Sultanates.[7] His mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindhkhed, a Mughal-aligned sardar claiming descent from a Yadav
Yadav
royal family of Devagiri.[8][9] At the time of Shivaji's birth, power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golkonda. Shahaji often changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur
Bijapur
and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir (fiefdom) at Pune
Pune
and his small army with him.[7]

A statue of young Shivaji
Shivaji
with Jijabai
Jijabai
installed at the fort of Shivneri
Shivneri
in 1960s

Upbringing Shivaji
Shivaji
was devoted to his mother Jijabai, who was deeply religious. This religious environment had a great impact on Shivaji, and he studied the two great Hindu epics, Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata; these were to influence his lifelong defence of Hindu values.[10]:128 Throughout his life he was deeply interested in religious teachings, and regularly sought the company of Hindu and Sufi
Sufi
saints.[1]:26 Shahaji, meanwhile had married a second wife, Tuka Bai from the Mohite family. Having made peace with the Mughals, ceding them six forts, he went to serve the Sultanate of Bijapur. He moved Shivaji
Shivaji
and Jijabai from Shivneri
Shivneri
to Pune
Pune
and left them in the care of his jagir (estate) administrator, Dadoji Konddeo. Dadoji has been credited with overseeing the education and training of young Shivaji.[11][12][1]:20–25 Shivaji
Shivaji
as a boy was a keen outdoorsman and, though he received little formal education and most likely could neither read nor write, he is said to have possessed considerable erudition.[13]:441[14] Shivaji drew his earliest trusted comrades and later a large number of his soldiers from the Maval
Maval
region, including Yesaji Kank, Suryaji Kakade, Baji Pasalkar, Baji Prabhu Deshpande
Baji Prabhu Deshpande
and Tanaji Malusare.[15] Shivaji wandered the hills and forests of the Sahyadri
Sahyadri
range with his Mavala friends, gaining skills and familiarity with the land that would prove useful in his military career.[10]:128 Shivaji's association with the Maval
Maval
comrades and his independent spirit did not sit well with Dadoji, who complained to Shahaji to no avail in making him compliant.[16]:22–24 In 1638, Shahaji took Bangalore
Bangalore
from the Mughals, and was permantently posted there by Bijapur.[17] Shivaji
Shivaji
was taken to Bangalore
Bangalore
where he, his elder brother Sambhaji
Sambhaji
and his half brother Ekoji I
Ekoji I
were further formally trained. He married Saibai from the prominent Nimbalkar family in 1640.[18]:60 Around 1645–46, the teenage Shivaji
Shivaji
first expressed his concept for Hindavi Swarajya (Hindu self-rule), in a letter to Dadaji Naras Prabhu.[19][14][20] Conflict with Bijapur In 1645, the 15-year-old Shivaji
Shivaji
bribed or persuaded the Bijapuri commander of the Torna Fort, Inayat Khan, to hand over the possession of the fort to him.[1]:32[18]:61[21]:268 The Maratha
Maratha
Firangoji Narsala, who held the Chakan fort professed his loyalty to Shivaji, and the fort of Kondana was acquired by bribing the Bijapuri governor.[1]:34 On 25 July 1648, Shahaji was imprisoned by Baji Ghorpade under the orders of Bijapuri ruler Mohammed Adilshah, in a bid to contain Shivaji.[22] Accounts vary, with some saying Shahaji was conditionally released in 1649 after the capture of Gingee
Gingee
secured the Bijapuri's position in Karnataka,[1]:41 others saying he was imprisoned until 1653 or 1655; during this period Shivaji
Shivaji
maintained a low profile.[23]:134 Since his father's release was conditional, from 1649–1655 Shivaji
Shivaji
paused in his conquests and quietly consolidated his gains.[1]:42 After his release, Shahaji retired from public life, and died around 1664–1665 in a hunting accident. Following his father's release, Shivaji
Shivaji
resumed raiding, and in 1656, under controversial circumstances, killed Raja Chandrarao More, a fellow Maratha
Maratha
feudatory of Bijapur, and seized from him the valley of Javali.[24]:317[25] Combat with Afzal Khan

Death of Afzal Khan

Adilshah was displeased at his losses to Shivaji's forces, which his vassal Shahaji disavowed. Having ended his conflict with the Mughals and having more ability to respond, in 1657 Adilshah sent Afzal Khan, an experienced and veteran general to arrest Shivaji. The Bijapuri forces marched into the Maratha-held Konkan, despoiling the shrine of the goddess Bhavani and other Hindu holy sites.[26] Pursued by Bijapuri forces, Shivaji
Shivaji
retreated to Pratapgad
Pratapgad
fort, where many of his colleagues pressed him to surrender, his position being untenable.[27] The two forces found themselves at a stalemate, with Shivaji
Shivaji
unable to break the siege, while Afzal Khan, having a powerful cavalry but lacking siege equipment, was unable to take the fort. To break the impasse after two months, Afzal Khan sent an envoy to Shivaji
Shivaji
suggesting the two leaders meet in private outside the fort to parley.[28][29]:17– The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad
Pratapgad
fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, and attended by one follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would arrest or attack him[1]:70[30] or secretly planning to attack,[21]:294 wore armour beneath his clothes, concealed a bagh nakh (metal "tiger claw") on his left arm, and had a dagger in his right hand.[21]:22 Accounts vary on whether Shivaji
Shivaji
or Afzal Khan struck the first blow:[30] the Maratha
Maratha
chronicles accuse Afzal Khan of treachery, while the Persian-language chronicles attribute the treachery to Shivaji.[31]:29[32] In the fight, Afzal Khan's dagger was stopped by Shivaji's armour, and Shivaji's weapons inflicted mortal wounds on the general; Shivaji
Shivaji
then fired a cannon to signal his hidden troops to launch the assault on the Bijapuris.[21] In the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh fought on 10 November 1659, Shivaji's forces decisively defeated the Bijapur
Bijapur
Sultanate's forces.[23]:135 More than 3,000 soldiers of the Bijapur
Bijapur
army were killed and two sons of Afzal Khan and two Maratha
Maratha
chiefs were taken as prisoners.[1]:75

Pratapgad
Pratapgad
fort

Siege of Panhala Having defeated the Bijapuri forces sent against him, Shivaji's army pressed into the Konkan and Kolhapur, seizing Panhala fort, and defeating Bijapuri forces sent against them under Rustam Zaman and Fazl Khan in 1659.[1]:78 In 1660, Adilshah sent his general Siddi Jauhar to attack Shivaji's southern border, in alliance with the Mughals who planned to attack from the north. At that time, Shivaji was encamped at Panhala fort
Panhala fort
with his forces. Siddi
Siddi
Jauhar's army besieged Panhala in mid-1660, cutting off supply routes to the fort. During the bombardment of Panhala, Siddi
Siddi
Jahuar purchased grenades from the British at Rajapur to increase his efficacy, and also hired some English artillerymen to bombard the fort, conspicuously flying a flag used by the English. This perceived betrayal angered Shivaji, who in December would exact revenge by plundering the English factory at Rajapur and capturing four of the factors, imprisoning them until mid-1663.[1]:266 Accounts vary as to the end of the siege, with some accounts stating that Shivaji
Shivaji
escaped from the encircled fort and withdrew to Ragna, following which Adilshah personally came to take charge of the siege, capturing the fort after four months.[33] Other accounts state that after months of siege, Shivaji
Shivaji
negotiated with Siddi
Siddi
Jahuar and handed over the fort on 22 September 1660, withdrawing to Vishalgad;[34][35]:99 Shivaji
Shivaji
would later re-take Panhala in 1673.[33] Battle of Pavan Khind There is some dispute over the circumstances of Shivaji's withdrawal (treaty or escape) and his destination (Ragna or Vishalgad), but the popular story details his night movement to Vishalgad
Vishalgad
and a sacrificial rear-guard action to allow him to escape.[36] Per these accounts, Shivaji
Shivaji
withdrew from Panhala by cover of night, and as he was pursued by the enemy cavalry, his Maratha
Maratha
sardar Baji Prabhu Deshpande of Bandal Deshmukh, along with 300 soldiers, volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at Ghod Khind ("horse ravine") to give Shivaji
Shivaji
and the rest of the army a chance to reach the safety of the Vishalgad
Vishalgad
fort.[37] In the ensuing Battle of Pavan Khind, the smaller Maratha
Maratha
force held back the larger enemy to buy time for Shivaji
Shivaji
to escape. Baji Prabhu Deshpande was wounded but continued to fight until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishalgad,[38] signalling Shivaji
Shivaji
had safely reached the fort, on the evening of 13 July 1660.[39] Ghod Khind (khind meaning "a narrow mountain pass") was later renamed Paavan Khind ("sacred pass") in honour of Bajiprabhu Deshpande, Shibosingh Jadhav, Fuloji, and all other soldiers who fought in there.[39] Conflict with the Mughals Until 1657, Shivaji
Shivaji
maintained peaceful relations with the Mughal Empire. Shivaji
Shivaji
offered his assistance to Aurangzeb, the Mughal viceroy of the Deccan and son of the Mughal emperor, in conquering Bijapur
Bijapur
in return for formal recognition of his right to the Bijapuri forts and villages under his possession. Disatisfied with the Mughal response, and receiving a better offer from Bijapur, he launched a raid into the Mughal Decccan.[1]:55–56 Shivaji's confrontations with the Mughals began in March 1657, when two of Shivaji's officers raided the Mughal territory near Ahmednagar.[40] This was followed by raids in Junnar, with Shivaji
Shivaji
carrying off 300,000 hun in cash and 200 horses.[1]:57 Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
responded to the raids by sending Nasiri Khan, who defeated the forces of Shivaji
Shivaji
at Ahmednagar. However, Aurangzeb's countermeasures against Shivaji
Shivaji
were interrupted by the rainy season and his battle of succession with his brothers for the Mughal throne following the illness of the emperor Shah Jahan.[1]:60 Attacks on Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
and Surat Main articles: Battle of Chakan and Battle of Surat Upon the request of Badi Begum of Bijapur, Aurangzeb, now the Mughal emperor, sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan, with an army numbering over 150,000 along with a powerful artillery division in January 1660 to attack Shivaji
Shivaji
in conjunction with Bijapur's army led by Siddi Jauhar. Shaista Khan, with his better-equipped and -provisioned army of 80,000 seized Pune
Pune
and the nearby fort of Chakan, besieging it for a month and a half until breaching the walls.[41] Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
pressed his advantage of having a larger, better provisioned and heavily armed Mughal army and made inroads into some of the Maratha
Maratha
territory, seizing the city of Pune
Pune
and establishing his residence at Shivaji's palace of Lal Mahal.[42] In April 1663, Shivaji
Shivaji
launched a surprise attack on Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
in Pune; accounts of the story differ in the popular imagination, but there is some agreement that Shivaji
Shivaji
and band of some 200 followers infiltrated Pune, using a wedding procession as cover. They overcame the palace guards, breached the wall, and entered Shaista Khan's quarters, killing those they found there. Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
escaped, losing his thumb in the melee, but one of his sons and other members of his household were killed. The Khan took refuge with the Mughal forces outside of Pune, and Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
punished him for this embarrassment with a transfer to Bengal.[43]:543 In retaliation for Shaista Khan's attacks, and to replenish his now-depleted treasury, in 1664 Shivaji
Shivaji
sacked the port city of Surat, a wealthy Mughal trading centre.[43][44]:491 Treaty of Purandar

Raja Jai Singh of Amber receiving Shivaji
Shivaji
a day before concluding the Treaty of Purandar

Main article: Treaty of Purandar (1665) The attack on Shaista Khan
Shaista Khan
and Surat enraged Aurangzeb. In response he sent the Rajput
Rajput
Mirza Raja Jai Singh I
Jai Singh I
with an army numbering around 15,000 to defeat Shivaji.[45] Throughout 1665, Jai Singh's forces pressed Shivaji, with their cavalry razing the countryside, and their siege forces investing Shivaji's forts. The Mughal commander succeeded in luring away several of Shivaji's key commanders, and many of his cavalrymen, into Mughal service. By mid-1665, with the fortress at Purandar besieged and near capture, Shivaji
Shivaji
was forced to come to terms with Jai Singh.[45] In the Treaty of Purandar, signed between Shivaji
Shivaji
and Jai Singh on 11 June 1665, Shivaji
Shivaji
agreed to give up 23 of his forts, keeping 12 for himself, and pay compensation of 400,000 gold hun to the Mughals.[21]:258 Shivaji
Shivaji
agreed to become a vassal of the Mughal empire, and to send his son Sambhaji, along with 5,000 horsemen, as a mansabdar to fight for the Mughals in the Deccan.[16]:77[21][18] Arrest in Agra
Agra
and escape

A depiction of Shivaji
Shivaji
in Aurangzeb's court in Agra
Agra
in 1666

In 1666, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
summoned Shivaji
Shivaji
to Agra
Agra
(though some sources instead state Delhi), along with his nine-year-old son Sambhaji. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji
Shivaji
to Kandahar, now in Afghanistan, to consolidate the Mughal empire's northwestern frontier. However, in the court, on 12 May 1666, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
made Shivaji
Shivaji
stand behind mansabdārs (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji
Shivaji
took offence and stormed out of court,[18]:78 and was promptly placed under house arrest under the watch of Faulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra. Shivaji's position under house arrest was perilous, as Aurangzeb's court debated whether to kill him or continue to employ him, and Shivaji
Shivaji
used his dwindling funds to bribe courtiers to support his case. Orders came from the emperor to station Shivaji
Shivaji
in Kabul, which Shivaji
Shivaji
refused. Instead he asked for his forts to be returned and to serve the Mughals as a mansabdar; Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
rebutted that he must surrender his remaining forts before returning to Mughal service. Shivaji
Shivaji
managed to escape from Agra, likely by bribing the guards, though the emperor was never able to ascertain how he escaped despite an investigation.[18]:78–79 Popular legend, however, ascribes Shivaji's escape to a clever ruse, in which he smuggled himself and his son out of the house in large baskets claimed to be sweets to be gifted to religious figures in the town.[23]:138–139 Peace with the Mughals After Shivaji's escape, hostilities with the Mughals ebbed, with Mughal sardar Jaswant Singh acting as intermediary between Shivaji
Shivaji
and Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
for new peace proposals.[16]:98 During the period between 1666 and 1668, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
conferred the title of raja on Shivaji. Sambhaji
Sambhaji
was also restored as a Mughal mansabdar with 5000 horses.[10]:139 Shivaji
Shivaji
at that time sent Sambhaji
Sambhaji
with general Prataprao Gujar
Prataprao Gujar
to serve with the Mughal viceroy in Aurangabad, Prince Mu'azzam. Sambhaji
Sambhaji
was also granted territory in Berar for revenue collection.[1] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
also permitted Shivaji
Shivaji
to attack the decaying Adil Shahi; the weakened Sultan Ali Adil Shah II
Ali Adil Shah II
sued for peace and granted the rights of sardeshmukhi and chauthai to Shivaji.[46] Reconquest

Statue of Shivaji
Shivaji
opposite Gateway of India
India
in South Mumbai

The peace between Shivaji
Shivaji
and the Mughals lasted until 1670. At that time Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
became suspicious of the close ties between Shivaji
Shivaji
and Mu'azzam, who he thought might usurp his throne, and may even have been receiving bribes from Shivaji.[47][13]:460 Also at that time, Aurangzeb, occupied in fighting the Afghans, greatly reduced his army in the Deccan; many of the disbanded soldiers quickly joined Maratha service.[13]:461 The Mughals also took away the jagir of Berar from Shivaji
Shivaji
to recover the money lent to him a few years earlier.[16]:173–174 In response to this situation, Shivaji
Shivaji
launched an offensive against the Mughals and recovered a major portion of the territories surrendered to them in a span of four months.[16]:175 Shivaji
Shivaji
sacked Surat for second time in 1670; the British and Dutch factories were able to repel his attack, but he managed to sack the city itself, including plundering the goods of a Muslim prince from Mawara-un-Nahr
Mawara-un-Nahr
who was returning from Mecca.[10]:139 Angered by the renewed attacks, the Mughals resumed hostilities with the Marathas, sending a force under Daud Khan to intercept Shivaji
Shivaji
on his return home from Surat, but were defeated in the Battle of Vani-Dindori near present-day Nashik.[16]:189 In October 1670, Shivaji
Shivaji
sent his forces to harass the English at Bombay; as they had refused to sell him war materiel, his forces blocked Bombay's woodcutting parties. In September 1671, Shivaji
Shivaji
sent an ambassador to Bombay, again seeking materiel, this time for the fight against Danda-Rajpuri. The English had misgivings of the advantages Shivaji
Shivaji
would gain from this conquest, but also did not want to lose any chance of receiving compensation for his looting their factories at Rajapur. The English sent Lieutenant Stephen Ustick to treat with Shivaji, but negotiations failed over the issue of the Rajapur indemnity. Numerous exchanges of envoys followed over the coming years, with some agreement as to the arms issues in 1674, but Shivaji
Shivaji
was never to pay the Rajapur indemnity before his death, and the factory there dissolved at the end of 1682.[1]:393 Battles
Battles
of Umrani and Nesari In 1674, Prataprao Gujar, the commander-in-chief of the Maratha forces, was sent to push back the invading force led by the Bijapuri general, Bahlol Khan. Prataprao's forces defeated and captured the opposing general in the battle, after cutting-off their water supply by encircling a strategic lake, which prompted Bahlol Khan to sue for peace. In spite of Shivaji's specific warnings against doing so, Prataprao released Bahlol Khan, who started preparing for a fresh invasion.[16]:230–233 Shivaji
Shivaji
sent a displeased letter to Prataprao, refusing him audience until Bahlol Khan was re-captured. Upset by his commander's rebuke, Prataprao found Bahlol Khan and charged his position with only six other horsemen, leaving his main force behind. Prataprao was killed in combat; Shivaji
Shivaji
was deeply grieved on hearing of Prataprao's death, and arranged for the marriage of his second son, Rajaram, to Prataprao's daughter. Anandrao Mohite became Hambirrao Mohite, the new sarnaubat (commander-in-chief of the Maratha
Maratha
forces). Raigad Fort
Raigad Fort
was newly built by Hiroji Indulkar as a capital of nascent Maratha kingdom.[14] Coronation

The coronation of Shivaji

Shivaji
Shivaji
had acquired extensive lands and wealth through his campaigns, but lacking a formal title he was still technically a Mughal zamindar or the son of an Bijapuri jagirdar, with no legal basis to rule his de facto domain. A kingly title could address this and also prevent any challenges by other Maratha
Maratha
leaders, to whom he was technically equal.[b] Controversy erupted amongst the Brahmins of Shivaji's court: they refused to crown Shivaji
Shivaji
as a king because that status was reserved for those of the kshatriya (warrior) varna in Hindu society.[48] Shivaji
Shivaji
was descended from a line of headmen of farming villages, and the Brahmins accordingly categorised him as being of the shudra (cultivator) varna.[18]:88[49] They noted that Shivaji
Shivaji
had never had a sacred thread ceremony, and did not wear the thread, which a kshatriya would.[18]:88 Shivaji
Shivaji
summoned Gaga Bhatt, a pandit of Varanasi, who stated that he had found a genealogy proving that Shivaji
Shivaji
was descended from the Sisodia
Sisodia
Rajputs, and thus indeed a kshatriya, albeit one in need of the ceremonies befitting his rank.[50]:7– To enforce this status, Shivaji
Shivaji
was given a sacred thread ceremony, and re-married his spouses under the Vedic rites expected of a kshatriya.[24]:321[51] Shivaji
Shivaji
was crowned king of the Marathas in a lavish ceremony at Raigad on 6 June 1674.[19][14][52] In the Hindu calendar
Hindu calendar
it was on the 13th day (trayodashi) of the first fortnight of the month of Jyeshtha in the year 1596.[53] Gaga Bhatt officiated, holding a gold vessel filled with the seven sacred waters of the rivers Yamuna, Indus, Ganges, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri
Kaveri
over Shivaji's head, and chanted the Vedic coronation mantras. After the ablution, Shivaji
Shivaji
bowed before Jijabai
Jijabai
and touched her feet. Nearly fifty thousand people gathered at Raigad for the ceremonies.[1][54] Shivaji
Shivaji
was entitled Shakakarta ("founder of an era")[37]:222 and Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
("paramount sovereign"). He also took the title of Haindava Dharmodhhaarak (protector of the Hindu faith).[55] Shivaji's mother Jijabai
Jijabai
died on 18 June 1674. The Marathas summoned Bengali Tantrik goswami Nischal Puri, who declared that the original coronation had been held under inauspicious stars, and a second coronation was needed. This second coronation on 24 September 1674 had a dual use, mollifying those who still believed that Shivaji
Shivaji
was not qualified for the Vedic rites of his first coronation, by performing a less-contestable additional ceremony.[56][57][58] Conquest in Southern India Beginning in 1674, the Marathas undertook an aggressive campaign, raiding Khandesh
Khandesh
(October), capturing Bijapuri Ponda (April 1675), Karwar
Karwar
(mid-year), and Kolhapur
Kolhapur
(July).[1]:17 In November the Maratha navy skirmished with the Siddis of Janjira, but failed to dislodge them.[59] Having recovered from an illness, and taking advantage of a conflict between the Afghans and Bijapur, Shivaji
Shivaji
raided Athani in April 1676.[1]:258 In the run-up to his expedition Shivaji
Shivaji
appealed to a sense of Deccani patriotism, that Southern India
India
was a homeland that should be protected from outsiders.[60][61] His appeal was somewhat successful, and in 1677 Shivaji
Shivaji
visited Hyderabad for a month and entered into a treaty with the Qutubshah
Qutubshah
of the Golkonda sultanate, agreeing to reject his alliance with Bijapur
Bijapur
and jointly oppose the Mughals. In 1677 Shivaji
Shivaji
invaded Karnataka with 30,000 cavalry and 40,000 infantry, backed by Golkonda artillery and funding.[21]:276 Proceeding south, Shivaji
Shivaji
seized the forts of Vellore and Gingee;[62] the latter would later serve as a capital of the Marathas during the reign of his son Rajaram I.[21]:290 Shivaji
Shivaji
intended to reconcile with his half-brother Venkoji
Venkoji
(Ekoji I), Shahaji's son by his second wife, Tukabai (née Mohite), who ruled Thanjavur (Tanjore) after Shahaji. The initially promising negotiations were unsuccessful, so whilst returning to Raigad Shivaji defeated his half-brother's army on 26 November 1677 and seized most of his possessions in the Mysore
Mysore
plateau. Venkoji's wife Dipa Bai, whom Shivaji
Shivaji
deeply respected, took up new negotiations with Shivaji, and also convinced her husband to distance himself from Muslim advisors. In the end Shivaji
Shivaji
consented to turn over to her and her female descendants many of the properties he had seized, with Venkoji consenting to a number of conditions for the proper administration of the territories and maintenance of Shivaji's future memorial (samadhi).[63][37]:251[64] Death and succession

Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder son who succeeded him

The question of Shivaji's heir-apparent was complicated by the misbehaviour of his eldest son, Sambhaji, who was irresponsible and "addicted to sensual pleasures." Unable to curb this, Shivaji
Shivaji
confined his son to Panhala in 1678, only to have the prince escape with his wife and defect to the Mughals for a year. Sambhaji
Sambhaji
then returned home, unrepentant, and was again confined to Panhala.[44]:551 In late March 1680, Shivaji
Shivaji
fell ill with fever and dysentery,[1]:382 dying around 3–5 April 1680 at the age of 52,[21]:278 on the eve of Hanuman Jayanti. Putalabai, the childless eldest of the surviving wives of Shivaji
Shivaji
committed sati by jumping into his funeral pyre. Another surviving spouse, Sakwarbai, was not allowed to follow suit because she had a young daughter.[44]:47 Rumours followed Shivaji's death, with some Muslims opining he had died of a curse from Jan Muhammad of Jalna, as punishment for Shivaji's troops attacking merchants who had taken refuge in his hermitage.[29]:18– There were also allegations, though doubted by later scholars, that his second wife Soyarabai had poisoned him in order to put her 10-year old son Rajaram on the throne.[65]:53[66] After Shivaji's death, Soyarabai made plans with various ministers of the administration to crown her son Rajaram rather than her prodigal stepson Sambhaji. On 21 April 1680, ten-year-old Rajaram was installed on the throne. However, Sambhaji
Sambhaji
took possession of Raigad Fort
Raigad Fort
after killing the commander, and on 18 June acquired control of Raigad, and formally ascended the throne on 20 July.[44]:48 Rajaram, his wife Janki Bai, and mother Soyrabai were imprisoned, and Soyrabai executed on charges of conspiracy that October.[67] The Marathas after Shivaji See also: Maratha
Maratha
War of Independence Shivaji
Shivaji
died in 1680, leaving behind a state always at odds with the Mughals. Soon after his death, in 1681, the Mughals under Aurangzeb launched an offensive in the South to capture territories held by the Marathas, Bijapur
Bijapur
and Golkonda. He was successful in obliterating the Sultanates but could not subdue the Marathas after spending 27 years in the Deccan. The period saw the capture, torture, and execution of Sambhaji
Sambhaji
in 1689, and the Marathas offering strong resistance under the leadership of Sambhaji's successor, Rajaram and then Rajaram's widow Tarabai. Territories changed hands repeated between the Mughals and the Marathas; the conflict ended in defeat for the Mughals in 1707. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji
Shivaji
and son of Sambhaji, was kept prisoner by Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
during a 27-year period. After the latter's death, his successor released Shahu. After a brief power struggle over succession with his aunt Tarabai, Shahu ruled the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
from 1707 to 1749. Early in his reign, he appointed Balaji Vishwanath
Balaji Vishwanath
Bhat and later his descendants, as the Peshwas (prime ministers) of the Maratha Empire. The empire expanded greatly under the rule of the Peshwas. The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu[44]:204[68] in the south, to Peshawar (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) in the north, and Bengal. In 1761, the Maratha
Maratha
army lost the Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat
to Ahmed Shah Abdali of the Afghan Durrani Empire, which halted their imperial expansion in northwestern India. Ten years after Panipat, young Madhavrao Peshwa
Peshwa
reinstated Maratha
Maratha
authority over North India. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, Shahu and the Peshwas gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights, creating the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy.[35]:110 They became known as Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore
Indore
and Malwa, the Scindias of Gwalior
Gwalior
and Bhonsales of Nagpur. In 1775, the British East India
India
Company intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, which became the First Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War. The Marathas remained the preeminent power in India
India
until their defeat by the British East India
India
Company in the Second and Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
wars (1805–1818), which left the Company in control of most of India.[69][70] Governance Promotion of Marathi and Sanskrit Though Persian was a common courtly language in the region, Shivaji replaced it with Marathi in his own court, and emphasised Hindu political and courtly traditions.[13] The house of Shivaji
Shivaji
was well acquainted with Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and promoted the language; his father Shahaji had supported scholars such as Jayram Pindye, who prepared Shivaji's seal. Shivaji
Shivaji
continued this Sanskrit
Sanskrit
promotion, giving his forts names such as Sindhudurg, Prachandgarh, and Suvarndurg. He named the Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit
Sanskrit
nomenclature with terms such as nyayadhish, and senapat, and commissioned the political treatise Rajyavyavahar Kosh. His Rajpurohit, Keshav Pandit, was himself a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholar and poet.[71] Religious policy

Sajjangad, where Samarth Ramdas
Samarth Ramdas
was invited by Shivaji
Shivaji
to reside, now a place of pilgrimage

Shivaji
Shivaji
was known for his liberal and tolerant religious policy; while Hindus were relieved to practice their religion freely under a Hindu ruler, Shivaji
Shivaji
not only allowed Muslims to practice without harassment, but supported their ministries with endowments,[1]:421 and had many prominent Muslims in his military service.[72] While some accounts of Shivaji
Shivaji
state that he was greatly influenced by the Brahmin guru Samarth Ramdas, others have rebutted that Ramdas' role has been over-emphasized by later Brahmin commentators to enhance their position.[73][74]:158– Though many of Shivaji's enemy states were Muslim, he treated Muslims under his rule with tolerance for their religion. Shivaji's sentiments of inclusivity and tolerance of other religions can be seen in an admonishing letter to Aurangzeb, in which he wrote:

Verily, Islam and Hinduism
Hinduism
are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of God. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for God alone.[72]

Noting however that Shivaji
Shivaji
had stemmed the spread of the neighboring Muslim states, his contemporary, the poet Kavi Bhushan
Kavi Bhushan
stated: Had not there been Shivaji, Kashi would have lost its culture, Mathura would have been turned into a mosque and all would have been circumcised".[75] There is less evidence of Shivaji's attitude towards the Christians. To one side, in 1667 several Portuguese Catholic priests were killed during Shivaji's raid on Bardes.[76] However, during the sack of Surat in 1664, Shivaji
Shivaji
was approached by Ambrose, a Capuchin monk who asked him to spare the city's Christians. Shivaji
Shivaji
left the mission untouched, saying "the Frankish Padrys are good men."[77] Military

Sivaji and Army

Shivaji
Shivaji
demonstrated great skill in creating his military organisation, which lasted until the demise of the Maratha
Maratha
empire. His strategy rested on leveraging his ground forces, naval forces, and series of forts across his territory. The Maval
Maval
infantry served as the core of his ground forces (reinforced with Telangi musketeers from Karnataka), supported by Maratha
Maratha
cavalry. His artillery however was relatively underdeveloped and reliant on European suppliers, further inclining him to a very mobile form of warfare.[78]:9[79] Forts

Suvela Machi, view of southern sub-plateaux, as seen from Ballekilla, Rajgad

Main article: Shivaji's forts Forts played a key role in Shivaji's strategy, and he captured strategically important forts at Murambdev (Rajgad), Torna, Kondhana (Sinhagad) and Purandar. He also rebuilt or repaired many forts in advantageous locations.[31]:21 In addition, Shivaji
Shivaji
built a number of forts; the number "111" is reported in some accounts, but it is likely the actual number "did not exceed 18".[80] Sarkar assessed that Shivaji
Shivaji
owned some 240–280 forts at the time of his death.[1]:408 Each was placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor be bribed or tempted to deliver it to the enemy. The officers (sabnis, havaldar, sarnobat) acted jointly and provided mutual checks and balance.[16]:414 Navy

Sindudurg Fort provided anchorages for Shivaji's Navy

Aware of the need for naval power to maintain control along the Konkan coast, Shivaji
Shivaji
began to build his navy in 1657 or 1659, with the purchase of twenty galivats from the Portuguese shipyards of Bassein.[81] Marathi chronicles state that at its height his fleet counted some 400 military ships, though British chronicles counter that the number never exceeded 160 ships.[16]:59 With the Marathas being accustomed to a land-based military, Shivaji widened his search for qualified crews for his ships, taking on lower-caste Hindus of the coast who were long familiar with naval operations (the famed "Malabar pirates") as well as Muslim mercenaries.[16]:59 Noting the power of the Portuguese navy, Shivaji hired a number of Portuguese sailors and Goan Christian converts, and made Rui Leitao Viegas commander of his fleet. Viegas was later to defect back to the Portuguese, taking 300 sailors with him.[82] Shivaji
Shivaji
fortified his coastline by seizing coastal forts and refurbishing them, and built his first marine fort at Sindhudurg, which was to become the headquarters of the Maratha
Maratha
navy.[83] The navy itself was a coastal navy, focused on travel and combat in the littoral areas, and not intended to go far out to sea.[84] Legacy Shivaji's role in the research and the popular conception has developed over time and place, ranging from early British and Mughal depiction of him as a bandit or a "mountain mouse",[85] to modern near-deification as a hero of India. Early depictions Mughal depictions of Shivaji
Shivaji
were largely negative, referring to him simply as "Shiva" without the honorific "-ji". One Mughal writer in the early 1700s described Shivaji's death as kafir bi jahannum raft ("the infidel went to Hell").[65] Muslim writers of the day generally described him as a plunderer and marauder.[10]:141 English and Portuguese contemporary writers likewise described him as a brigand and robber.[86] Reimagining In the mid-19th century, Maharashtrian social reformer Jyotirao Phule wrote his own interpretation of the Shivaji
Shivaji
legend, portraying Shivaji as a hero of the shudras and Dalits.[87] Phule sought to use the Shivaji
Shivaji
mythos to undermine the Brahmins he accused of hijacking the narrative, and uplift the lower classes; his 1869 ballad-form story of Shivaji
Shivaji
was met with great hostility by the Brahim-dominated media.[87] At the end of the 19th century, Shivaji's memory was leveraged by the non-Brahmin intellectuals of Bombay, who identified as his descendants and through him claimed the kshatriya varna.[88] While some Brahmins rebutted this identity, defining them as of the lower shudra varna, other Brahmins recognised the Maratha's utility to the Indian independence movement, and endorsed this kshatriya legacy and the significance of Shivaji.[88] In 1895, Indian nationalist leader, Lokmanya Tilak
Lokmanya Tilak
organised an annual festival to mark the birthday celebrations of Shivaji.[3]:79–81 Tilak portrayed Shivaji
Shivaji
as the opponent of the oppressor, opening loaded implications for the British Raj.[89] Tilak denied any suggestion that his festival was anti-Muslim or disloyal to the government, but simply a celebration of a hero.[50]:106– These celebrations prompted a British commentator in 1906 to note: "Cannot the annals of the Hindu race point to a single hero whom even the tongue of slander will not dare call a chief of dacoits ...?"[90] One of the early commentators who challenged the negative British view was M. G. Ranade, whose Rise of the Maratha
Maratha
Power (1900) declared Shivaji's achievements as the beginning of modern nation-building. Ranade criticised earlier British portrayals of Shivaji's state as "a freebooting Power, which thrived by plunder and adventure, and succeeded only because it was the most cunning and adventurous ... This is a very common feeling with the readers, who derive their knowledge of these events solely from the works of English historians."[91]:121 In 1919, Sir Jadunath Sarkar
Jadunath Sarkar
published the seminal Shivaji
Shivaji
and His Times, hailed as the most authoritative biography of the king since James Grant Duff's 1826 A History of the Mahrattas. A respected scholar, Sarkar was able to read primary sources in Persian, Marathi, and Arabic, but was challenged for his criticism of the "chauvinism" of Marathi historians' views of Shivaji.[92] Likewise, though supporters cheered his depiction of the killing of Afzal Khan as justified, they decried Sarkar's terming as "murder" the killing of the Hindu raja Chandrao More and his clan.[93] Inspiration

Statue of Shivaji
Shivaji
at Raigad Fort

As political tensions rose in India
India
in the early 20th century, some Indian leaders came to re-work their earlier stances on Shivaji's role. Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
had in 1934 noted "Some of the Shivaji's deeds, like the treacherous killing of the Bijapur
Bijapur
general, lower him greatly in our estimation." Following public outcry from Pune
Pune
intellectuals, Congress leader T. R. Deogirikar noted that Nehru had admitted he was wrong regarding Shivaji, and now endorsed Shivaji
Shivaji
as great nationalist.[94] In 1966, the Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
(Army of Shivaji) party formed to promote the interests of Maharashtrians in the face of migration to the region from other parts of India, and the accompanying loss of power for locals. His image adorns literature, propaganda and icons of the Maratha-centric party.[95] In modern times, Shivaji
Shivaji
is considered as a national hero in India,[91]:137 especially in the state of Maharashtra, where he remains arguably the greatest figure in the state's history. Stories of his life form an integral part of the upbringing and identity of the Marathi people. Further, he is also recognised as a warrior legend, who sowed the seeds of Indian independence.[91]:137 Shivaji
Shivaji
is upheld as an example by the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party, and also of the Maratha
Maratha
caste dominated Congress parties in Maharashtra, such as the Indira Congress and the Nationalist Congress Party.[96] Past Congress party leaders in the state such as Yashwantrao Chavan
Yashwantrao Chavan
were considered political descendants of Shivaji.[97] In the late 20th century, Babasaheb Purandare
Babasaheb Purandare
became one of the most significant artists in portraying Shivaji
Shivaji
in his writings, leading him to be declared in 1964 as the Shiv-Shahir ("Bard of Shivaji").[98][99] However, Purandare, a Brahmin, was also accused of over-emphasizing the influence of Brahmin gurus on Shivaji,[74]:164 and his Maharashtra Bhushan award ceremony in 2015 was protested by those claiming he had defamed Shivaji.[100] Purandare has, on the other end, been accused of a communalist and anti-Muslim portrayal of Shivaji
Shivaji
at odds with the king's own actions.[101] Controversy In 1993, the Illustrated Weekly published an article by a young scholar suggesting that Shivaji
Shivaji
was not opposed to Muslims per so, and was influenced by their form of governance. Congress Party members called for legal actions against the publisher and writer, Maharathi newspapers accused them of "imperial prejudice" and Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
called for the writer's public flogging. Maharashtra
Maharashtra
brought legal action against the publisher under regulations prohibiting enmity between religious and cultural groups, but a High Court found the Illustrated Weekly had operated within the bounds of freedom of expression.[102][103] In 2003, American academic James W. Laine published his book Shivaji: Hindu King in Islamic India, which was followed by heavy criticism including threats of arrest.[104] As a result of this publication, the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute
in Pune
Pune
where Laine had researched was attacked by a group of Maratha
Maratha
activists calling itself the Sambhaji
Sambhaji
Brigade.[105] The book was banned in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
in January 2004, but the ban was lifted by the Bombay High Court
Bombay High Court
in 2007, and in July 2010 the Supreme Court of India
India
upheld the lifting of ban.[106][107] This lifting was followed by public demonstrations against the author and the decision of the Supreme Court.[108][109] Commemorations Commemorations of Shivaji
Shivaji
are found throughout India, most notably in Maharashtra. Shivaji's statues and monuments are found almost in every town and city in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
as well as in different places across India.[110][111][112] Other commemorations include the Indian Navy's ship the INS Shivaji,[113] numerous postage stamps,[114] and the main airport and railway headquarters in Mumbai.[115][116]. In Maharashtra, there has been a long tradition of children building a replica fort with toy soldiers and other figures during the festival of Diwali
Diwali
in memory of Shivaji.[117] See also

Shivaji
Shivaji
in popular culture Early life of Shivaji

Notes

^ The Government of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
accepts 19 February 1630 as his birthdate; other suggested dates include 6 April 1627 or other dates near this day.[4][5] ^ Most of the great Maratha
Maratha
Jahagirdar families in the service of Adilshahi strongly opposed Shivaji
Shivaji
in his early years. These included families such as the Ghadge, More, Mohite, Ghorpade, Shirke, and Nimbalkar[35]:68 it would also provide the Hindu Marathas with a fellow Hindu sovereign in a region otherwise ruled by Muslims.[1]:239–240

References

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Maharaj: Growth of a Symbol". Economic and Political Weekly. Economic and Political Weekly. 34 (19): 1126–1134. JSTOR 4407933.  ^ Shivaram Shankar Apte (1965). Samarth Ramdas, Life & Mission. Vora. p. 105.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sir Jadunath Sarkar
Jadunath Sarkar
(1920). History of Aurangzib: Based on Original Sources. Longmans, Green and Company.  ^ Prof. A. R. Kulkarni (1 July 2008). The Marathas. Diamond Publications. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-81-8483-073-6.  ^ a b c d e f g Stewart Gordon (16 September 1993). The Marathas 1600–1818. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7. Retrieved 13 October 2012.  ^ a b M.N. Pearson (February 1976). " Shivaji
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and the Decline of the Mughal Empire". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 35 (2): 221–235. doi:10.2307/2053980. JSTOR 2053980. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ William Joseph Jackson (2005). Vijayanagara voices: exploring South Indian history and Hindu literature. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 0-7546-3950-9.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Edward James Rapson; Sir Wolseley Haig; Sir Richard Burn (1960). The Cambridge History of India. CUP Archive.  ^ W. Loch (1989). Dakhan History Musalman And Maratha, A.D. 1300 To 1818. p. 592. ISBN 9788120604674.  ^ a b c R. M. Betham (1908). Maráthas and Dekhani Musalmáns. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-1204-4. Retrieved 27 September 2012.  ^ a b Salma Ahmed Farooqui (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India. ISBN 978-81-317-3202-1.  ^ Dipesh Chakrabarty (15 July 2015). The Calling of History: Sir Jadunath Sarkar
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and His Empire of Truth. University of Chicago Press. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-0-226-24024-4.  ^ John F. Richards (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 208–. ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2.  ^ Abraham Eraly (14 October 2000). Last Spring: The Lives and Times of Great Mughals. Penguin Books Limited. p. 550. ISBN 978-93-5118-128-6.  ^ Kaushik Roy (15 October 2012). Hinduism
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since 1526. S. Chand. p. 174.  ^ a b Bombay (India : State) (1886). Gazetteer. Government Central Press. pp. 314–.  ^ Shanti Sadiq Ali (1 January 1996). The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times. Orient Blackswan. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-81-250-0485-1. Retrieved 4 August 2013.  ^ a b c Ranade, M.G. (1900). Rise of the Maratha
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(1957). New History of the Marathas: Shivaji
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the Great Liberator. Prabhat Prakashan. p. 69.  ^ a b Jaswant Lal Mehta. Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-207-1015-3.  ^ a b c d e J. L. Mehta (1 January 2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707–1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6.  ^ a b David Mumford
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(1993). The Marathas 1600–1818, Part 2, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 71-75.  ^ Kincaid, Charles Augustus; Parasnis, Rao Bahadur Dattatraya Balavant (1918). History of the Maratha
Maratha
People Volume 1 (2010 ed.). London: Oxford University press. p. 224. ISBN 978-1176681996. Retrieved 31 January 2017.  ^ Murlidhar Balkrishna Deopujari (1973). Shivaji
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and the Maratha
Maratha
Art of War. Vidarbha Samshodhan Mandal. p. 138.  ^ Rajmohan Gandhi (1999). Revenge and Reconciliation. Penguin Books India. pp. 110–. ISBN 978-0-14-029045-5. On the ground that Shivaji
Shivaji
was merely a Maratha
Maratha
and not a kshatriya by caste, Maharashtra's Brahmins had refused to conduct a sacred coronation.  ^ B. S. Baviskar; D. W. Attwood (30 October 2013). Inside-Outside: Two Views of Social Change in Rural India. SAGE Publications. pp. 395–. ISBN 978-81-321-1865-7.  ^ a b Richard I. Cashman (1975). The Myth of the Lokamanya: Tilak and Mass Politics in Maharashtra. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02407-6.  ^ Oliver Godsmark (29 January 2018). Citizenship, Community and Democracy in India: From Bombay to Maharashtra, c. 1930 - 1960. Taylor & Francis. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-1-351-18821-0.  ^ Pradeep Barua (1 May 2005). The state at war in South Asia. University of Nebraska Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8032-1344-9. Retrieved 6 March 2012.  ^ Mallavarapu Venkata Siva Prasada Rau (Andhra Pradesh Archives) (1980). Archival organization and records management in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Published under the authority of the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh by the Director of State Archives (Andhra Pradesh State Archives). p. 393.  ^ Yuva Bharati (Volume 1 ed.). Vivekananda Rock Memorial Committee. p. 13. Retrieved 10 January 2015. About 50,000 people witnessed the coronation ceremony and arrangements were made for their boarding and lodging.  ^ Satish Chandra (1982). Medieval India: Society, the Jagirdari Crisis, and the Village. Macmillan. p. 140.  ^ Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava (1964). The History of India, 1000 A.D.-1707 A.D. Shiva Lal Agarwala. p. 701. Shivaji
Shivaji
was obliged to undergo a second coronation ceremony on 4th October, 1674, on the suggestion of a well-known Tantrik priest, named Nishchal Puri Goswami, who said that Gaga Bhatta had performed the ceremony at an inauspicious hour and neglected to propitiate the spirits adored in the Tantra. That was why, he said, the queen mother Jija Bai had died within twelve days of the ceremony and similar other mishaps had occurred.  ^ Indian Institute of Public Administration. Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Regional Branch (1975). Shivaji
Shivaji
and swarajya. Orient Longman. p. 61. one to establish that Shivaji
Shivaji
belonged to the Kshatriya
Kshatriya
clan and that he could be crowned a Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
and the other to show that he was not entitled to the Vedic form of recitations at the time of the coronation  ^ Shripad Rama Sharma (1951). The Making of Modern India: From A. D. 1526 to the Present Day. Orient Longmans. p. 223. The coronation was performed at first according to the Vedic rites, then according to the Tantric. Shivaji
Shivaji
was anxious to satisfy all sections of his subjects. There was some doubt about his Kshatriya
Kshatriya
origin (see note at the end of this chapter). This was of more than academic interest to his contemporaries, especially Brahmans. Traditionally considered the highest caste in the Hindu social heirarchy. the Brahmans would submit to Shivaji, and officiate at his coronation, only if his  ^ Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(India) (1967). Maharashtra
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State Gazeteers: Maratha period. Directorate of Government Printing, Stationary and Publications, Maharashtra
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State. p. 23.  ^ Gijs Kruijtzer (2009). Xenophobia in Seventeenth-Century India. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 153–190. ISBN 978-90-8728-068-0.  ^ Kulkarni, A. R. (1990). " Maratha
Maratha
Policy Towards the Adil Shahi Kingdom". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 49: 221–226. JSTOR 42930290.  ^ Everett Jenkins, Jr. (12 November 2010). The Muslim Diaspora (Volume 2, 1500–1799): A Comprehensive Chronology of the Spread of Islam in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas. McFarland. pp. 201–. ISBN 978-1-4766-0889-1.  ^ Kr̥shṇājī Ananta Sabhāsada (1920). Śiva Chhatrapati. University of Calcutta. pp. 235–. Therefore you will not have to serve the Bijapur
Bijapur
Government personally, but in lieu of personal service you will have to send an army whenever ... These I have conferred on Ghimujlv Saubhagyavatl Dipa Bai for cholibangdl (pin money).  ^ Maya Jayapal (1997). Bangalore: the story of a city. Eastwest Books (Madras). p. 20. ISBN 978-81-86852-09-5. Shivaji's and Ekoji's armies met in battle on 26 November 1677, and Ekoji was defeated. By the treaty he signed, Bangalore
Bangalore
and the adjoining areas were given to Shivaji, who then made them over to Ekoji's wife Deepabai to be held by her, with the proviso that Ekoji had to ensure that Shahaji's Memorial was well tended.  ^ a b Audrey Truschke (16 May 2017). Aurangzeb: The Life and Legacy of India's Most Controversial King. Stanford University Press. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-1-5036-0259-5.  ^ Shyam Singh Shashi (2004). Encyclopaedia Indica: The Maratha. Anmol Publications. p. 78. ISBN 978-81-7041-859-7.  ^ Sunita Sharma, K̲h̲udā Bak̲h̲sh Oriyanṭal Pablik Lāʼibrerī (2004). Veil, sceptre, and quill: profiles of eminent women, 16th- 18th centuries. Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library. p. 139. By June 1680 three months after Shivaji's death Rajaram was made a prisoner in the fort of Raigad, along with his mother Soyra Bai and his wife Janki Bai. Soyra Bai was put to death on charge of conspiracy.  ^ William Cooke Taylor (1851). Ancient and Modern India. James Madden. pp. 98–.  ^ Jeremy Black (2006). A Military History of Britain: from 1775 to the Present. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-99039-8.  ^ Percival Spear (1990) [First published 1965]. A History of India. Volume 2. Penguin Books. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-14-013836-8.  ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1974). The Mughul Empire. B.V. Bhavan. pp. 609, 634.  ^ a b Rafiq Zakaria (2002). Communal Rage In Secular India. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7991-070-2. Retrieved 26 September 2012.  ^ Mariam Dossal; Ruby Maloni (1999). State Intervention and Popular Response: Western India
India
in the Nineteenth Century. Popular Prakashan. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-81-7154-855-2.  ^ a b Mathew N. Schmalz; Peter Gottschalk (2 January 2012). Engaging South Asian Religions: Boundaries, Appropriations, and Resistances. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-1-4384-3325-7.  ^ American Oriental Society (1963). Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. p. 476. Retrieved 27 September 2012.  ^ Prof. A. R. Kulkarni (1 July 2008). Medieval Maratha
Maratha
Country. Diamond Publications. pp. 120–. ISBN 978-81-8483-072-9.  ^ Panduronga S. S. Pissurlencar (1975). The Portuguese and the Marathas: Translation of Articles of the Late Dr. Pandurang S. Pissurlenkar's Portugueses E Maratas in Portuguese Language. State Board for Literature and Culture, Government of Maharashtra. p. 152.  ^ M. R. Kantak (1993). The First Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War, 1774–1783: A Military Study of Major Battles. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7154-696-1.  ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Sátára. Government Central Press. 1885. pp. 239–.  ^ M. S. Naravane (1 January 1995). Forts of Maharashtra. APH Publishing Corporation. p. 14. ISBN 978-81-7024-696-1.  ^ Kaushik Roy (30 March 2011). War, Culture and Society in Early Modern South Asia, 1740–1849. Taylor & Francis. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-1-136-79087-4.  ^ Bhagamandala Seetharama Shastry (1981). Studies in Indo-Portuguese History. IBH Prakashana.  ^ Kaushik Roy; Peter Lorge (17 December 2014). Chinese and Indian Warfare – From the Classical Age to 1870. Routledge. pp. 183–. ISBN 978-1-317-58710-1.  ^ Raj Narain Misra (1986). Indian Ocean and India's Security. Mittal Publications. pp. 13–. GGKEY:CCJCT3CW16S.  ^ Shiv Charan Singh (13 May 2006). "State to dial NCERT on history book". The Telegraph, Calcutta, India: 1. Retrieved October 24, 2013.  ^ Y. G. Bhave (2000). From the Death of Shivaji
Shivaji
to the Death of Aurangzeb: The Critical Years. Northern Book Centre. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-81-7211-100-7.  ^ a b Uma Chakravarti (27 October 2014). Rewriting History: The Life and Times of Pandita Ramabai. Zubaan. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-93-83074-63-1.  ^ a b Donald V. Kurtz (1993). Contradictions and Conflict: A Dialectical Political Anthropology of a University in Western India. BRILL. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-90-04-09828-2.  ^ Biswamoy Pati (2011). Bal Gangadhar Tilak: Popular Readings. Primus Books. pp. 101–. ISBN 978-93-80607-18-4.  ^ Indo-British Review. Indo-British Historical Society. p. 75.  ^ a b c Karline McLain (2009). India's Immortal Comic Books: Gods, Kings, and Other Heroes. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-22052-3.  ^ Prachi Deshpande (2007). Creative Pasts: Historical Memory and Identity in Western India, 1700–1960. Columbia University Press. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-0-231-12486-7. Shivaji
Shivaji
and His Times, was widely regarded as the authoritative follow-up to Grant Duff. An erudite, painstaking Rankean scholar, Sarkar was also able to access a wide variety of sources through his mastery of Persian, Marathi, and Arabic, but as explained in the last chapter, he earned considerable hostility from the Poona school for his sharp criticism of the “chauvinism” he saw in Marathi historians' appraisals of the Marathas  ^ C. A. Bayly (10 November 2011). Recovering Liberties: Indian Thought in the Age of Liberalism and Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 282–. ISBN 978-1-139-50518-5.  ^ Girja Kumar (1997). The Book on Trial: Fundamentalism and Censorship in India. Har-Anand Publications. pp. 431–. ISBN 978-81-241-0525-2.  ^ V.S. Naipaul (6 April 2011). India: A Wounded Civilization. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-0-307-78934-1. Retrieved 10 August 2013.  ^ Matthew N. Schmalz (2011). Engaging South Asian Religions: Boundaries, Appropriations, and Resistances. SUNY Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-4384-3325-7. Retrieved 10 August 2013.  ^ R. D. Pradhan and Madhav Godbole (1999). Debacle to Revival: Y.B. Chavan as Defence Minister, 1962–65. Orient Blackswan. p. 46. ISBN 978-81-250-1477-5.  ^ Lok Sabha Debates. Lok Sabha Secretariat. 1952. p. 121. Will the Minister of EDUCATION, SOCIAL WELFARE AND CULTURE be pleased to state: (a) whether Shri Shivshahir Bawa Saheb Purandare of Maharashtra has sought the permission of Central Government ...  ^ The Indian P.E.N. P.E.N. All- India
India
Centre. 1964. p. 32. Sumitra Raje Bhonsale
Bhonsale
of Satara honoured Shri Purandare with the title of "Shiva-shahir" and donated Rs. 301 for the proposed publication.  ^ Krishna Kumar (20 August 2015). "Writer Babasaheb Purandare
Babasaheb Purandare
receives ' Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Bhushan' despite protests" – via The Economic Times.  ^ Ram Puniyani (2010). Communal Threat to Secular Democracy. Gyan Publishing House. pp. 302–. ISBN 978-81-7835-861-1.  ^ Thomas Blom Hansen (18 November 2001). Wages of Violence: Naming and Identity in Postcolonial Bombay. Princeton University Press. pp. 22–. ISBN 0-691-08840-3.  ^ Raminder Kaur; William Mazzarella (2009). Censorship in South Asia: Cultural Regulation from Sedition to Seduction. Indiana University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 0-253-35335-1.  ^ India
India
seeks to arrest US scholar. BBC News (23 March 2004). Retrieved on 25 September 2013. ^ "'Maratha' activists vandalise Bhandarkar Institute". Times of India. 6 January 2004.  ^ "Supreme Court lifts ban on James Laine's book on Shivaji". Times of India. 9 July 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  ^ Rakesh Bhatnagar, Rahul Chandawarkar (9 July 2010). "Supreme Court upholds lifting of ban on Shivaji
Shivaji
book". DNA India. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  ^ "Protests over James Laine's book across Mumbai". webindia123.com. 10 July 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  ^ Rahul Chandawarkar (10 July 2010). "Hard-liners slam state, Supreme Court decision on Laine's Shivaji
Shivaji
book". DNA India. Retrieved 25 September 2013.  ^ "comments : Modi unveils Shivaji
Shivaji
statue at Limbayat". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.  ^ "New Shivaji
Shivaji
statue faces protests". Pune
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Mirror. 16 May 2012. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2012.  ^ "Kalam unveils Shivaji
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statue". The Hindu. 29 April 2003. Retrieved 17 September 2012.  ^ " INS Shivaji
INS Shivaji
(Engineering Training Establishment) : Training". Indian Navy. Retrieved 17 September 2012.  ^ " Chhatrapati
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Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj". Indianpost.com. 21 April 1980. Retrieved 17 September 2012.  ^ "Politics over Shivaji
Shivaji
statue delays Mumbai airport expansion". Business Standard. 25 June 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2015.  ^ Times, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(2017). "Mumbai Railway station renamed to Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj Terminus" (June 30). Times of India. Retrieved 14 January 2018.  ^ " Shivaji
Shivaji
killas express pure reverence". The Times of India. 29 October 2010. 

Further reading

Govind Sakharam Sardesai
Govind Sakharam Sardesai
(1946). New history of the Marathas, vol. I: Shivaji
Shivaji
and his line, 1600–1707. Phoenix Publications Daniel Jasper (2003). "Commemorating the 'golden age' of Shivaji
Shivaji
in Maharashtra, India
India
and the development of Maharashtrian public politics." Journal of Political and Military Sociology 31.2 : 215. James Grant Duff (1826). A History of the Mahrattas. London: Oxford University Press.  Jyotirao Phule
Jyotirao Phule
(1869). Chatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
Raje Bhosale Yanche Powade (in Marathi).  Jadunath Sarkar
Jadunath Sarkar
(1920). Shivaji
Shivaji
and his times. Calcutta: Longmans, Green and Co. ISBN 1-178-01156-9.  B. K. Apte (editor) (1974–75). Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
Shivaji: Coronation Tercentenary Commemoration Volume. Bombay: University of Bombay. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) James W. Laine (2003). Shivaji: Hindu King in Islamic India. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-514126-9.  James W. Laine (2011). "Resisting My Attackers; Resisting My Defenders". In Matthew N. Schmalz; Peter Gottschalk. Engaging South Asian Religions: Boundaries, Appropriations, and Resistances. Albany: SUNY Press. pp. 153–172. ISBN 978-1-4384-3323-3. Retrieved 27 September 2012.  Rafique Zakaria
Rafique Zakaria
(2003). Communal Rage in Secular India. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shivaji.

Shivaji
Shivaji
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

Preceded by new state Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire 1674–1680 Succeeded by Sambhaji

v t e

Shivaji

Ancestry and family

Maloji Bhosale Shahaji Jijabai Sambhaji Rajaram I Tarabai Shahu I

Comrades

Dadoji Konddev Baji Prabhu Deshpande Tanaji Malusare Firangoji Narsala Netaji Palkar Prataprao Gujar Hambirao Mohite

Battles

Pratapgarh Kolhapur Pavan Khind Chakan Surat Purandar Sinhagad Kalyan Sangamner Jinji

Forts

Karnala Fort Panhala Pratapgad Purandar Raigad Rajgad Sajjangad Shivneri Sindhudurg Sinhagad Torna Vishalgad

v t e

Maratha
Maratha
Empire

Rulers

Shivaji Sambhaji Rajaram I Tarabai Shahu I Rajaram II Shahu II Pratap Singh

Peshwas

Moropant Trimbak Pingle Moreshvar Pingale Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bahiroji Pingale Parashuram Trimbak Kulkarni Balaji Vishwanath Baji Rao I Balaji Baji Rao Madhavrao Ballal Narayan Rao Raghunathrao Sawai Madhavrao Baji Rao II Amrut Rao Nana Sahib Bhat family

Women

Ahilyabai Holkar Anandibai Gopikabai Jankibai Jijabai Kashibai Mastani Muddupalani Parvatibai Putalabai Radhikabai Ramabai Saibai Sakvarbai Soyarabai Umabai Dabhade Tulsi Bai Holkar

Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy

Bhonsle
Bhonsle
of Nagpur Gaekwad
Gaekwad
of Baroda Scindia
Scindia
of Gwalior Holkar
Holkar
of Indore
Indore
(subsidiary or feudatory states)

Battles

Pratapgarh Kolhapur Pavan Khind Chakan Surat Purandar Sinhagad Kalyan Bhupalgarh Sangamner Bijapur Raigarh (1689) Jinji Satara Khelna Raigarh Torna Palkhed Mandsaur 1st Delhi Bhopal Vasai Gajendragad 1st Trichinopoly Katwa (1st) 2nd Trichinopoly Katwa (2nd) Invasions of Bengal Burdwan Udgir 2nd Delhi Attock Peshawar 3rd Panipat Alegaon Rakshabhuvan Panchgaon Saunshi Adoni Badami Savanur Bahadur Benda Lalsot Chaksana Patan Kharda Poona 3rd Delhi Assaye Laswari Farrukhabad Bharatpur Khadki Koregaon Mahidpur

Wars

Maratha-Mughal War of 27 years Maratha– Mysore
Mysore
War First Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War Second Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War

Adversaries

Adilshahi Nizamshahi Berar Sultanate Bidar Sultanate Qutbshahi Mughal Empire Durrani Empire British Empire Portuguese Empire Nizam of Hyderabad Mysore

Forts

Fort Mangad Panhala Pratapgad Purandar Raigad Rajgad Shaniwar Wada Shivneri Sindhudurg Sinhagad Torna

Coins

Shivrai

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 50467615 LCCN: n50023241 ISNI: 0000 0000 6677 4616 GND: 118820974 SUDOC: 074181661 BNF: cb14472266t (d

.