HOME
The Info List - Shivaji


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

SHIVAJI BHONSLE (Marathi ; c. 1627/1630 – 3 April 1680), also known as CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI MAHARAJ, was an Indian warrior king and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan . Shivaji
Shivaji
carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur
Bijapur
that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire . In 1674, he was formally crowned as the Chhatrapati (Monarch) of his realm at Raigad .

Shivaji
Shivaji
established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of a disciplined military and well-structured administrative organisations. He innovated military tactics, pioneering non-conventional methods which leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed, and surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies. He revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, rather than Persian , in court and administration.

Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time but began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement , as many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus. Particularly in Maharashtra, debates over his history and role have engendered great passion and sometimes even violence as disparate groups have sought to characterise him and his legacy.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 1.1 Upbringing and concept of Hindavi Swarajya

* 2 Conflict with Adilshahi sultanate

* 2.1 Combat with Afzal Khan * 2.2 Battle of Pratapgarh
Battle of Pratapgarh
* 2.3 Battle of Kolhapur * 2.4 Siege of Panhala and Battle of Pavan Khind

* 3 Clash with the Mughals

* 3.1 Attack on Shaista Khan * 3.2 Treaty of Purandar * 3.3 Arrest in Agra
Agra
and escape

* 4 Peace with Mughals

* 5 Reconquest

* 5.1 Dealings with the English * 5.2 Battle of Nesari

* 6 Coronation
Coronation
* 7 Conquest in Southern India
India

* 8 Death and succession

* 8.1 The Marathas after Shivaji
Shivaji

* 9 Governance

* 9.1 Promotion of Marathi and Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* 9.2 Religious policy

* 9.2.1 Islam

* 10 Military

* 10.1 Forts * 10.2 Navy

* 11 Legacy

* 11.1 Historiography

* 11.2 Commemorations

* 11.2.1 Statues * 11.2.2 Armed forces * 11.2.3 Government * 11.2.4 Airports and railway stations * 11.2.5 Educational institutes

* 11.3 Depiction in popular culture

* 11.3.1 Films

* 11.3.2 Literature

* 11.3.2.1 Biographies * 11.3.2.2 Fictionalized accounts

* 11.3.3 Poetry and music * 11.3.4 Theatre * 11.3.5 Television

* 12 Footnotes * 13 Notes * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

EARLY LIFE

Shivaji's birthplace on Shivneri Fort. Main article: Early life of Shivaji
Shivaji

Shivaji
Shivaji
was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri , near the city of Junnar
Junnar
in Pune district
Pune district
on 6 April 1627 or 19 February 1630. Per legend, his mother named him Shivaji
Shivaji
in honour of the goddess Shivai, to whom she had prayed for a healthy child. Shivaji
Shivaji
was named after this local deity. Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhonsle was a Maratha general who served the Deccan Sultanates . His mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhujirao Jadhav of Sindkhed ( Sindkhed Raja
Sindkhed Raja
). At the time of Shivaji's birth, the power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur
Bijapur
, Ahmednagar , and Golconda
Golconda
. Shahaji often changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur
Bijapur
and the Mughals , but always kept his jagir (fiefdom) at Pune
Pune
and his small army with him. A statue of young Shivaji
Shivaji
with Jijabai installed at the fort of Shivneri in 1960s

UPBRINGING AND CONCEPT OF HINDAVI SWARAJYA

Shivaji
Shivaji
was extremely devoted to his mother Jijabai, who was deeply religious. This religious environment had a great impact on Shivaji, and he carefully studied the two great Hindu
Hindu
epics, Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
; these were to influence his lifelong defence of Hindu values. Throughout his life he was deeply interested in religious teachings, and regularly sought the company of Hindu
Hindu
and Sufi
Sufi
saints.

Shahaji, meanwhile had married a second wife, Tuka Bai from the Mohite family, and moved to Karnataka to lead a military campaign on behalf of Adilshahi. He left Shivaji
Shivaji
and Jijabai in Pune
Pune
in the care of his jagir administrator, Dadoji Konddeo . Dadoji has been credited with overseeing education and training of young Shivaji. Shivaji
Shivaji
as a boy was a keen outdoorsman and, though he received little formal education and most likely could neither read nor write, he is said to have possessed considerable erudition. Shivaji
Shivaji
drew his earliest trusted comrades and a large number of his soldiers from the Maval region, including Yesaji Kank, Suryaji Kakade, Baji Pasalkar, Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Tanaji Malusare . In the company of his Maval comrades, Shivaji
Shivaji
wandered over the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range, hardening himself and acquiring first-hand knowledge of the land, which was to later prove applicable to his military endeavours. However, Shivaji's association with the Maval
Maval
comrades and his independent spirit did not sit well with Dadoji who complained to Shahaji to no avail in making him compliant.

At the age of 12, Shivaji
Shivaji
was taken to Bangalore
Bangalore
where he, his elder brother Sambhaji and his half brother Ekoji I were further formally trained. He married Saibai from the prominent Nimbalkar family in 1640. :60 Around 1645–46, the teenage Shivaji
Shivaji
first expressed his concept for Hindavi Swarajya , in a letter to Dadaji Naras Prabhu.

CONFLICT WITH ADILSHAHI SULTANATE

In 1645, the 15-year-old Shivaji
Shivaji
bribed or persuaded the Bijapuri commander of the Torna Fort , Inayat Khan, to hand over the possession of the fort to him. :26 :61 :268 Firangoji Narsala , who held the Chakan fort professed his loyalty to Shivaji
Shivaji
and the fort of Kondana was acquired by bribing the Adilshahi governor. :26 On 25 July 1648, Shahaji was imprisoned by Baji Ghorpade under the orders of Mohammed Adil Shah , in a bid to contain Shivaji. Accounts vary, with some saying Shahaji was conditionally released in 1649 after Shivaji
Shivaji
and Sambhaji surrendered the forts of Kondana, Bangalore
Bangalore
and Kandarpi, others saying he was imprisoned until 1653 or 1655; during this period Shivaji
Shivaji
maintained a low profile. After his release, Shahaji retired from public life, and died around 1664–1665 during a hunting accident. Following his father's death, Shivaji
Shivaji
resumed raiding, seizing in 1656, the valley of Javali from Chandrarao More , a fellow Maratha
Maratha
feudatory of Adilshah.

COMBAT WITH AFZAL KHAN

Death of Afzal Khan

In 1659, Adilshah sent Afzal Khan , an experienced and veteran general to destroy Shivaji
Shivaji
in an effort to put down what he saw as a regional revolt.

The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, and attended by a follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would attack him :47–52 or secretly planning to attack, wore armour beneath his clothes, concealed a bagh nakh (metal "tiger claw") on his left arm, and had a dagger in his right hand. :22 Accounts vary on whether Shivaji
Shivaji
or Afzal Khan struck the first blow: the Maratha
Maratha
chronicles accuse Afzal Khan of treachery, while the Persian-language chronicles attribute the treachery to Shivaji. In the fight, Afzal Khan's dagger was stopped by Shivaji's armour, and Shivaji's weapons inflicted mortal wounds on the general; Shivaji
Shivaji
then signalled his hidden troops to launch the assault on the Bijapuris.

BATTLE OF PRATAPGARH

Main article: Battle of Pratapgarh
Battle of Pratapgarh
Pratapgad fort

In the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh
Battle of Pratapgarh
fought on 10 November 1659, Shivaji's forces decisively defeated the Bijapur
Bijapur
Sultanate's forces. The agile Maratha
Maratha
infantry and cavalry inflicted rapid strikes on Bijapuri units, attacked the Bijapuri cavalry before it was prepared for battle, and pursued retreating troops toward Wai . More than 3,000 soldiers of the Bijapur
Bijapur
army were killed and two sons of Afzal Khan were taken as prisoners. :53

This unexpected and unlikely victory made Shivaji
Shivaji
a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. The large quantities of captured weapons, horses, armour and other materials helped to strengthen the nascent and emerging Maratha
Maratha
army. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb now identified Shivaji
Shivaji
as a major threat to the mighty Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
. Soon thereafter Shivaji, Shahaji and Netaji Palkar (the chief of the Maratha
Maratha
cavalry) decided to attack and defeat the Adilshahi kingdom at Bijapur.

BATTLE OF KOLHAPUR

Main article: Battle of Kolhapur

To counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha
Maratha
power, another army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by Bijapur's Abyssinian general Rustam Zaman . With a cavalry force of 5,000 Marathas, Shivaji
Shivaji
attacked them near Kolhapur
Kolhapur
on 28 December 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji
Shivaji
led a full frontal attack at the centre of the enemy forces while two other portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustamjaman fled the battlefield. Adilshahi forces lost about 2,000 horses and 12 elephants to the Marathas. This victory alarmed Aurangzeb, who now derisively referred to Shivaji
Shivaji
as the "Mountain Rat", and prepared to address this rising Maratha
Maratha
threat.

SIEGE OF PANHALA AND BATTLE OF PAVAN KHIND

Main article: Battle of Pavan Khind

In 1660, Adilshah sent his general Siddi Jauhar to attack Shivaji's southern border, in alliance with the Mughals who planned to attack from the north. At that time, Shivaji
Shivaji
was encamped at Panhala fort near present-day Kolhapur
Kolhapur
with his forces. Siddi Jauhar's army besieged Panhala in mid-1660, cutting off supply routes to the fort. During the bombardment of Panhala, Siddhi Jahuar had purchased grenades from the British at Rajapur to increase his efficacy, and also hired some English artillerymen to bombard the fort, conspicuously flying a flag used by the English. This perceived betrayal angered Shivaji, who in December would exact revenge by plundering the English factory at Rajapur and capturing four of the factors, imprisoning them until mid-1663.

Accounts vary as to the end of the siege, with some accounts stating that Shivaji
Shivaji
escaped from the encircled fort and withdrew to Ragna , following which Ali Adil Shah personally came to take charge of the siege, capturing the fort after four months besiegement. Other accounts state that after months of siege, Shivaji
Shivaji
negotiated with Siddhi Jahuar and handed over the fort on 22 September 1660, withdrawing to Vishalgad; Shivaji
Shivaji
would later re-take Panhala in 1673.

There is some dispute over the circumstances of Shivaji's withdrawal (treaty or escape) and his destination (Ragna or Vishalgad), but the popular story details his night movement to Vishalgad
Vishalgad
and a sacrificial rear-guard action to allow him to escape. Per these accounts, Shivaji
Shivaji
withdrew from Panhala by cover of night, and as he was pursued by the enemy cavalry, so his Maratha
Maratha
sardar Baji Prabhu Deshpande of Bandal Deshmukh , along with 300 soldiers, volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at Ghod Khind ("horse ravine") to give Shivaji
Shivaji
and the rest of the army a chance to reach the safety of the Vishalgad
Vishalgad
fort. In the ensuing Battle of Pavan Khind , the smaller Maratha
Maratha
force held back the larger enemy to buy time for Shivaji
Shivaji
to escape. Baji Prabhu Deshpande
Baji Prabhu Deshpande
was wounded but continued to fight until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishalgad, signalling Shivaji
Shivaji
had safely reached the fort, on the evening of 13 July 1660. Ghod Khind (khind meaning "a narrow mountain pass") was later renamed Paavan Khind ("sacred pass") in honour of Bajiprabhu Deshpande, Shibosingh Jadhav, Fuloji, and all other soldiers who fought in there.

CLASH WITH THE MUGHALS

Until 1657, Shivaji
Shivaji
maintained peaceful relations with the Mughal Empire. Shivaji
Shivaji
offered his assistance to Aurangzeb in conquering Bijapur
Bijapur
and in return, he was assured of the formal recognition of his right to the Bijapuri forts and villages under his possession. :37 Shivaji's confrontations with the Mughals began in March 1657, when two of Shivaji's officers raided the Mughal territory near Ahmednagar . This was followed by raids in Junnar
Junnar
, with Shivaji
Shivaji
carrying off 300,000 hun in cash and 200 horses. :38 Mughal viceroy for Deccan at that time, Aurangzeb responded to the raids by sending Nasiri Khan, who defeated the forces of Shivaji
Shivaji
at Ahmednagar. However, Aurangzeb's countermeasures against Shivaji
Shivaji
were interrupted by the rainy season and his battle of succession with his brothers for the Mughal throne following the illness of the emperor Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
. :39–40

ATTACK ON SHAISTA KHAN

Main article: Battle of Chakan

Upon the request of Badi Begum of Bijapur, Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan , with an army numbering over 150,000 along with a powerful artillery division in January 1660 to attack Shivaji
Shivaji
in conjunction with Bijapur's army led by Siddi Jauhar. Shaista Khan, with his better-equipped and -provisioned army of 300,000 seized Pune
Pune
and the nearby fort of Chakan , besieging it for a month and a half until breaching the walls. Shaista Khan pressed his advantage of having a larger, better provisioned and heavily armed Mughal army and made inroads into some of the Maratha
Maratha
territory, seizing the city of Pune
Pune
and establishing his residence at Shivaji's palace of Lal Mahal .

In April 1663, Shivaji
Shivaji
launched a surprise attack on Shaista Khan in Pune; accounts of the story differ in the popular imagination, but there is some agreement that Shivaji
Shivaji
and band of some 200 followers infiltrated Pune, using a wedding procession as cover. They overcame the palace guards, breached the wall, and entered Shaista Khan's quarters, killing those they found there. Shaista Khan escaped, losing his thumb in the melee, but one of his sons and other members of his household were killed. The Khan took refuge with the Moghul forces outside of Pune, and Aurangzeb punished him for this embarrassment with a transfer to Bengal.

An Uzbek general, Kartalab Khan, was sent by Shaista Khan to attack and reduce the number of forts under Shivaji's control in the Konkan region on 3 February 1661. The 30,000 Mughal troops left Pune, marching through the back-country in an attempt to surprise the Marathas. In the Battle of Umberkhind , Shivaji's forces ambushed and enveloped them with infantry and light cavalry in the dense forests of Umberkhind pass near present-day Pen .

In retaliation for Shaista Khan's attacks, and to replenish his now-depleted treasury, in 1664 Shivaji
Shivaji
sacked the port city of Surat , a wealthy Mughal trading centre.

TREATY OF PURANDAR

Raja Jai Singh of Amber receiving Shivaji
Shivaji
a day before concluding the Treaty of Purandar Main article: Treaty of Purandar (1665)

Attack on Shahista khan and Surat, enraged the Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb. In response he sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I
Jai Singh I
with an army numbering around 150,000 to defeat Shivaji. Jai Singh's forces made significant gains and captured many Maratha
Maratha
forts, forcing Shivaji
Shivaji
to come to terms with Aurangzeb rather than lose more forts and men.

In the Treaty of Purandar , signed between Shivaji
Shivaji
and Jai Singh on 11 June 1665, Shivaji
Shivaji
agreed to give up 23 of his forts and pay compensation of 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal sardar, serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb and fight alongside the Mughals against Bijapur. One of Shivaji's commander, Netaji Palkar
Netaji Palkar
joined the Mughals, was rewarded very well for his bravery, converted to Islam, changed his name to Quli Mohammed Khan in 1666 and was sent to the Afghan frontier to fight the restive tribes. He returned to Shivaji's service in 1676 after ten years with the Mughals, and was accepted back as a Hindu
Hindu
on Shivaji's advice.

ARREST IN AGRA AND ESCAPE

A depiction of Shivaji
Shivaji
in Aurangzeb 's court in Agra
Agra
in 1666

In 1666, Aurangzeb invited Shivaji
Shivaji
to Agra
Agra
, along with his nine-year-old son Sambhaji. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji
Shivaji
to Kandahar
Kandahar
, now in Afghanistan, to consolidate the Mughal empire's northwestern frontier. However, in the court, on 12 May 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji
Shivaji
stand behind mansabdārs (military commanders) of his court. Shivaji
Shivaji
took offence and stormed out of court, :78 and was promptly placed under house arrest under the watch of Faulad Khan , Kotwal of Agra.

Shivaji
Shivaji
feigned severe illness and requested to send most of his contingent back to the Deccan, thereby ensuring the safety of his army and deceiving Aurangzeb. Thereafter, on his request, he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints, fakirs, and temples in Agra
Agra
as offerings for his health. After several days and weeks of sending out boxes containing sweets, Sambhaji, being a child had no restrictions and was sent out of the prison camp and Shivaji, disguised as labourer carrying sweet basket escaped on 17 August 1666, according to the Mughal documents. Shivaji
Shivaji
and his son fled to the Deccan disguised as sadhu s (holy men). After the escape, rumours of Sambhaji's death were intentionally spread by Shivaji
Shivaji
himself in order to deceive the Mughals and to protect Sambhaji. Recent research has proposed that Shivaji
Shivaji
simply disguised himself as a Brahmin priest after performance of religious rites at the haveli grounds on 22 July 1666, and escaped by mingling within the departing priestly entourage of Pandit Kavindra Paramananda . Sambhaji was removed from Agra
Agra
and taken to Mathura later by Shivaji's trusted men.

PEACE WITH MUGHALS

Statue of Shivaji
Shivaji
opposite Gateway of India
India
in South Mumbai

After Shivaji's escape, hostilities with the Mughals ebbed with Mughal sardar Jaswant singh acting as intermediary between Shivaji
Shivaji
and Aurangzeb for new peace proposals. During the period between 1668 and 1670, Aurangzeb conferred the title of Raja on Shivaji. Sambhaji was also restored as a Mughal mansabdar with 5000 horses. Shivaji
Shivaji
at that time sent Sambhaji with General Prataprao Gujar to serve with Mughal viceroy in Aurangabad, Prince Muazzam. Sambhaji was also granted territory in Berar for revenue collection. Aurangzeb also permitted Shivaji
Shivaji
to attack the decaying Adil Shahi. The weakened Sultan Ali Adil Shah II sued for peace and granted the rights of Sardeshmukhi and Chauthai to Shivaji.

RECONQUEST

The peace between Shivaji
Shivaji
and the Moghuls lasted until the end of 1670. At that time Aurangzeb got suspicious of the close ties between Shivaji
Shivaji
and Prince Muazzam who he thought might usurp his throne. Also at that time, Aurangzeb greatly reduced his army in the Deccan.The disbanded soldiers quickly joined Maratha
Maratha
service.The Mughals also took away the jagir of Berar from Shivaji
Shivaji
to recover the money lent to him a few years earlier. In response to this situation, Shivaji
Shivaji
launched an offensive against the Moghuls and recovered a major portion of the territories surrendered to them in a span of four months. During this phase, Tanaji Malusare won the fort of Sinhgad in the Battle of Sinhagad on 4 Feb 1670, dying in the process. Shivaji sacked Surat for second time in 1670; while he was returning from Surat, Mughals under Daud Khan tried to intercept him, but were defeated in the Battle of Vani-Dindori near present-day Nashik .

DEALINGS WITH THE ENGLISH

In October 1670, Shivaji
Shivaji
sent his forces to harass the English at Bombay; as they had refused to sell him war material, his forces blocked Bombay's woodcutting parties. In September 1671, Shivaji
Shivaji
sent an ambassador to Bombay, again seeking material, this time for the fight against Danda-Rajpuri; the English had misgivings of the advantages Shivaji
Shivaji
would gain from this conquest, but also did not want to lose any chance of receiving compensation for his looting their factories at Rajapur. The English sent Lieutenant Stephen Ustick to treat with Shivaji, but negotiations failed over the issue of the Rajapur indemnity. Numerous exchanges of envoys followed over the coming years, with some agreement as to the arms issues in 1674, but Shivaji
Shivaji
was never to pay the Rajpur indemnity before his death, and the factory there dissolved at the end of 1682.

When Shivaji
Shivaji
went to Tanjore
Tanjore
to fight his half-brother Venkoji (Ekoji I), he met the English at Madras (then known as Madraspatnam) on 3 October 1677 as stated in a plaque in the Kalikambal temple, located on Thambu Chetty Street in George Town. The East India
India
Company officials who looked after the fort at that time have recorded that Shivaji
Shivaji
came up to the gates of Fort St. George and had sought the services of the English engineers but the request was politely turned down.

BATTLE OF NESARI

In 1674, Prataprao Gujar , the then commander-in chief of the Maratha forces, was sent to push back the invading force led by the Adilshahi general, Bahlol Khan . Prataprao's forces defeated and captured the opposing general in the battle, after cutting-off their water supply by encircling a strategic lake, which prompted Bahlol Khan to sue for peace. In spite of Shivaji's specific warnings against doing so Prataprao released Bahlol Khan, who started preparing for a fresh invasion. Raigad Fort
Raigad Fort

Shivaji
Shivaji
sent a displeased letter to Prataprao, refusing him audience until Bahlol Khan was re-captured. In the ensuing days, Shivaji
Shivaji
learnt of Bahlol Khan having camped with 15,000 force at Nesari near Kolhapur. Not wanting to risk losing his much smaller Maratha
Maratha
force entirely, Prataprao and six of his sardars attacked in a suicide mission, buying time for Anandrao Mohite to withdraw the remainder of the army to safety. The Marathas avenged the death of Prataprao by defeating Bahlol Khan and capturing his jagir (fiefdom) under the leadership of Anaji and Hambirao Mohite . Shivaji
Shivaji
was deeply grieved on hearing of Prataprao's death; he arranged for the marriage of his second son, Rajaram , to Prataprao's daughter. Anandrao Mohite became Hambirrao Mohite , the new sarnaubat (commander-in-chief of the Maratha
Maratha
forces). Raigad Fort
Raigad Fort
was newly built by Hiroji Indulkar as a capital of nascent Maratha
Maratha
kingdom.

CORONATION

The coronation of Shivaji
Shivaji

Shivaji
Shivaji
had acquired extensive lands and wealth through his campaigns, but lacking a formal title he was still technically a Mughal zamindar or the son of an Adilshahi jagirdar, with no legal basis to rule his de facto domain. A kingly title could address this, and also prevent any challenges by other Maratha
Maratha
leaders, to whom he was technically equal ; it would also provide the Hindu
Hindu
Marathas with a fellow Hindu
Hindu
sovereign in a region otherwise ruled by Muslims. :238

Shivaji
Shivaji
was crowned king of the Marathas in a lavish ceremony at Raigad on 6 June 1674. In the Hindu calendar it was on the 13th day (trayodashi) of the first fortnight of the month of Jyeshtha in the year 1596. Pandit Gaga Bhatt officiated, holding a gold vessel filled with the seven sacred waters of the rivers Yamuna
Yamuna
, Indus
Indus
, Ganges
Ganges
, Godavari , Krishna and Kaveri
Kaveri
over Shivaji's head, and chanted the coronation mantras. After the ablution, Shivaji
Shivaji
bowed before Jijabai and touched her feet. Nearly fifty thousand people gathered at Raigad for the ceremonies. Shivaji
Shivaji
was bestowed with the sacred thread jaanva , with the Vedas
Vedas
and was bathed in an abhisheka . Shivaji
Shivaji
was entitled Shakakarta ("founder of an era") and Kshatriya
Kshatriya
Kulavantas ("head of Kshatriyas "), and Chhatrapati ("paramount sovereign"). He also took the title of "Haindava Dharmodhhaarak".

His mother Jijabai died on 18 June 1674, within a few days of the coronation. Considering this a bad omen, a second coronation was carried out 24 September 1674, this time according to the Bengali school of Tantricism and presided over by Nischal Puri .

The state as Shivaji
Shivaji
founded it was a Maratha
Maratha
kingdom comprising about 4.1% of the subcontinent at the time he died, but over time it was to increase in size and heterogeneity, and by the time of the Peshwas in the early 18th century the Marathas were dominant across the northern and central regions of the Indian subcontinent.

CONQUEST IN SOUTHERN INDIA

Beginning in 1674, the Marathas undertook an aggressive campaign, raiding Khandesh
Khandesh
(October), capturing Bijapuri Ponda (April 1675), Karwar
Karwar
(mid-year), and Kolhapur
Kolhapur
(July). In November the Maratha
Maratha
navy skirmished with the Siddis of Janjira , and in early 1676 Peshwa Pingale, en route to Surat, engaged the Raja of Ramnagar in battle. Shivaji
Shivaji
raided Athani in March 1676, and by year's end besieged Belgaum
Belgaum
and Vayem Rayim in modern-day northern Karnataka. At the end of 1676, Shivaji
Shivaji
launched a wave of conquests in southern India, with a massive force of 30,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry. He captured the Adilshahi forts at Vellore and Gingee , in modern-day Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. In the run-up to this expedition Shivaji
Shivaji
appealed to a sense of Deccani patriotism, that the "Deccan" or Southern India
India
was a homeland that should be protected from outsiders., His appeal was somewhat successful and he entered into a treaty with the Qutubshah of the Golconda
Golconda
sultanate that covered the eastern Deccan. Shivají's conquests in the south proved quite crucial during future wars; Gingee served as Maratha
Maratha
capital for nine years during the Maratha
Maratha
War of Independence.

Shivaji
Shivaji
intended to reconcile with his half-brother Venkoji (Ekoji I), Shahaji's son by his second wife, Tukabai (née Mohite ), who ruled Thanjavur (Tanjore) after Shahaji. The initially promising negotiations were unsuccessful, so whilst returning to Raigad Shivaji defeated his half-brother's army on 26 November 1677 and seized most of his possessions in the Mysore plateau. Venkoji's wife Dipa Bai, whom Shivaji
Shivaji
deeply respected, took up new negotiations with Shivaji, and also convinced her husband to distance himself from Muslim advisors. In the end Shivaji
Shivaji
consented to turn over to her and her female descendants many of the properties he had seized, with Venkoji consenting to a number of conditions for the proper administration of the territories and maintenance of Shivaji's future Memorial (Samadhi).

DEATH AND SUCCESSION

Sambhaji , Shivaji's elder son who succeeded him See also: Maratha
Maratha
War of Independence

The question of Shivaji's heir-apparent was complicated by the misbehaviour of his eldest son Sambhaji, who was irresponsible and "addicted to sensual pleasures." Unable to curb this, Shivaji
Shivaji
confined his son to Panhala in 1678, only to have the prince escape with his wife and defect to the Mughals for a year. Sambhaji then returned home, unrepentant, and was again confined to Panhala. :551

In late March 1680, Shivaji
Shivaji
fell ill with fever and dysentery, :383 dying around 3–5 April 1680 at the age of 52, :278 on the eve of Hanuman Jayanti . Putalabai , the childless eldest of the surviving wives of Shivaji
Shivaji
committed sati by jumping in his funeral pyre. The other surviving spouse, Sakwarbai, was not allowed to follow suit because she had a young daughter. Rumours followed Shivaji's death, with Muslims opining he had died of a curse from Jan Muhammad of Jalna , and some Marathas whispering that Soyarabai , the youngest of the three wives who survived him, had poisoned him so that his crown might pass to her 10-year-old son Rajaram . :383After Shivaji's death, Soyarabai made plans with various ministers of the administration to crown her son Rajaram rather than her prodigal stepson Sambhaji. On 21 April 1680, ten-year-old Rajaram was installed on the throne. However, Sambhaji took possession of the Raigad Fort
Raigad Fort
after killing the commander, and on 18 June acquired control of Raigad, and formally ascended the throne on 20 July. Rajaram, his wife Janki Bai, and mother Soyrabai were imprisoned, and Soyrabai executed on charges of conspiracy that October.

THE MARATHAS AFTER SHIVAJI

Shivaji
Shivaji
died in 1680, leaving behind a state always at odds with the Mughals. Soon after his death, in 1681, the Mughals under Aurangzeb launched an offensive in the South to capture territories held by the Marathas, the Adil Shahi and Golkonda . He was successful in obliterating the Sultanates but could not subdue the Marathas after spending 27 years in the Deccan. The period saw brutal execution of Sambhaji in 1689, and the Marathas offering strong resistance under the leadership of Sambhaji's successor, Rajaram and then Rajaram's widow Tarabai . Territories changed hands repeated between the Mughals and the Marathas. The conflicted ended in the defeat for the Mughals in 1707.

Shahu , a grandson of Shivaji
Shivaji
and son of Sambhaji, was kept prisoner by Aurangzeb during the 27-year period. After the latter's death, his successor released Shahu. After a brief power struggle over succession with his aunt Tarabai, Shahu ruled the Maratha Empire from 1707 to 1749. During this period, he appointed Balaji Vishwanath Bhat and later his descendants as the Peshwas or the prime ministers of the Maratha
Maratha
Empire.The empire expanded greatly under the rule of the Peshwas. The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
in the south, to Peshawar (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ) in the north, and Bengal . In 1761, the Maratha
Maratha
army lost the Third Battle of Panipat
Third Battle of Panipat
to Ahmed Shah Abdali
Ahmed Shah Abdali
of the Afghan Durrani Empire which halted their imperial expansion in North western India. Ten years after Panipat, young Madhavrao Peshwa reinstated the Maratha
Maratha
authority over North India.

In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, Shahu and the Peshwas gave semi-autonomy to the strongest of the knights, which created a confederacy of Maratha
Maratha
states. They became known as Gaekwads of Baroda , the Holkars of Indore and Malwa , the Scindias of Gwalior and Ujjain , Bhonsales of Nagpur . In 1775, the British East India Company intervened in a succession struggle in Pune
Pune
, which became the First Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War . The Marathas remained the preeminent power in India
India
until their defeat in the Second and Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
wars (1805–1818), which left the British East India
India
Company in control of most of India.

GOVERNANCE

PROMOTION OF MARATHI AND SANSKRIT

Though Persian was a common courtly language in the region, Shivaji replaced it with Marathi in his own court, and emphasised Hindu political and courtly traditions. The house of Shivaji
Shivaji
was well acquainted with Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and promoted the language; his father Shahaji had supported scholars such as Jayram Pindye , who prepared Shivaji's seal. Shivaji
Shivaji
continued this Sanskrit
Sanskrit
promotion, giving his forts names such as Sindhudurg , Prachandgarh, and Suvarndurg. He named the Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit
Sanskrit
nomenclature with terms such as nyayadhish, and senapat, and commissioned the political treatise Rajyavyavahar Kosh. His Rajpurohit , Keshav Pandit , was himself a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scholar and poet.

RELIGIOUS POLICY

Sajjangad
Sajjangad
, where Samarth Ramdas was invited by Shivaji
Shivaji
to reside, now a place of pilgrimage

Shivaji
Shivaji
was a devout Hindu
Hindu
, but respected all religions within the region. Shivaji
Shivaji
had great respect for other contemporary saints, especially Samarth Ramdas , to whom he gave the fort of Parali, later renamed as ' Sajjangad
Sajjangad
'. Among the various poems written on Shivaji, Ramdas' Shivastuti ("Praise of King Shivaji") is the most famous. Shivaji's son Sambhaji later built a samadhi for Ramdas Swami on Sajjangad
Sajjangad
upon the latter's death. Samarth Ramdas had also written a letter to Sambhaji guiding him on what to do and what not to do after death of Shivaji.

Shivaji
Shivaji
allowed his subjects freedom of religion and opposed forced conversion . Shivaji
Shivaji
also promulgated other enlightened values, and condemned slavery. He applied a humane and liberal policy to the women of his state. Kafi Khan, the Mughal historian, and Francois Bernier , a French traveller, spoke highly of his religious policy. He also brought converts like Netaji Palkar
Netaji Palkar
and Bajaji back into Hinduism.

Shivaji's contemporary, the poet Kavi Bhushan stated: Had not there been Shivaji, Kashi would have lost its culture, Mathura would have been turned into a mosque and all would have been circumcised".

Islam

Though many of Shivaji's enemy states were Muslim, he treated Muslims under his rule with tolerance for their religion. Shivaji's sentiments of inclusivity and tolerance of other religions can be seen in an admonishing letter to Aurangzeb, in which he wrote:

Verily, Islam and Hinduism
Hinduism
are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of God. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for God alone.

Shivaji
Shivaji
had several noteworthy Muslim soldiers, especially in his Navy. Siddi Sanbal, Noor Khan, Daulat Khan, and Siddi Misri were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibrahim Khan was chief of artillery. Muslim soldiers were known for their superior skills in naval and artillery combat.

MILITARY

Sivaji and Army

Shivaji
Shivaji
demonstrated great skill in creating his military organisation, which lasted till the demise of the Maratha
Maratha
empire. He also built a powerful navy. Maynak Bhandari was one of the first chiefs of the Maratha
Maratha
Navy under Shivaji, and helped in both building the Maratha
Maratha
Navy and safeguarding the coastline of the emerging Maratha
Maratha
Empire. He built new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijaydurg on the west coast. The Maratha
Maratha
navy held its own against the British , Portuguese and Dutch. Many Dalit warriors joined Shivaji's Maratha Empire forces as scouts and fort guards. Shivaji
Shivaji
was responsible for many significant changes in military organisation:

* A standing army belonging to the state, called paga. * All war horses belonged to the state; responsibility for their upkeep rested on the Sovereign. * Creation of part-time soldiers from peasants who worked for eight months in their fields and supported four months in war for which they were paid. * Highly mobile and light infantry and cavalry excelling in commando tactics. * The introduction of a centralised intelligence department; Bahirjee Naik was the foremost spy who provided Shivaji
Shivaji
with enemy information in all of Shivaji's campaigns. * A potent and effective navy. * Introduction of field craft like commando actions, and swift flanking attacks. * Innovation of weapons and firepower, innovative use of traditional weapons like the tiger claw (vaghnakh) and vita. * Militarisation of large swathes of society, across all classes, with the entire peasant population of settlements and villages near forts actively involved in their defence.

Shivaji
Shivaji
realised the importance of having a secure coastline and protecting the western Konkan coastline from the attacks of Siddi's fleet. His strategy was to build a strong navy to protect and bolster his kingdom. He was also concerned about the growing dominance of British Indian naval forces in regional waters and actively sought to resist it. For this reason he is also referred to as the "Father of Indian Navy".

FORTS

Suvela Machi , view of southern sub-plateaux, as seen from Ballekilla , Rajgad
Rajgad
Main article: Shivaji\'s forts

Shivaji
Shivaji
captured strategically important forts at Murambdev (Rajgad ), Torna , Kondhana ( Sinhagad ) and Purandar and laid the foundation of swaraj or self-rule. Toward the end of his career, he had a control of 360 forts to secure his growing kingdom. Shivaji
Shivaji
himself constructed about 15–20 totally new forts (including key sea forts like Sindhudurg), but he also rebuilt or repaired many strategically placed forts to create a chain of 300 or more, stretched over a thousand kilometres across the rugged crest of the Western Ghats . Each were placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor be bribed or tempted to deliver it to the enemy. The officers (sabnis, havaldar, sarnobat) acted jointly and provided mutual checks and balance.

NAVY

Sindudurg Fort provided anchorages for Shivaji's Navy

Shivaji
Shivaji
built a strong naval presence across long coast of Konkan and Goa
Goa
to protect sea trade, to protect the lands from sack of prosperity of subjects from coastal raids, plunder and destruction by Arabs, Portuguese, British, Abyssinians and pirates. Shivaji
Shivaji
built ships in towns such as Kalyan , Bhivandi , and Goa
Goa
for building fighting navy as well as trade. He also built a number of sea forts and bases for repair, storage and shelter. Shivaji
Shivaji
fought many lengthy battles with Siddis of Janjira on coastline. The fleet grew to reportedly 160 to 700 merchant, support and fighting vessels. He started trading with foreigners on his own after possession of eight or nine ports in the Deccan. Shivaji's admiral Kanhoji Angre
Kanhoji Angre
is often said to be the "Father of Indian Navy".

LEGACY

Statue of Shivaji
Shivaji
at Raigad Fort
Raigad Fort

Nineteenth century Hindu
Hindu
revivalist Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
considered Shivaji
Shivaji
a hero and paid glowing tributes to his wisdom. When Indian Nationalist leader, Lokmanya Tilak
Lokmanya Tilak
organised a festival to mark the birthday celebrations of Shivaji, Vivekananda agreed to preside over the festival in Bengal in 1901. He wrote about Shivaji:

" Shivaji
Shivaji
is one of the greatest national saviours who emancipated our society and our Hindu
Hindu
dharma when they were faced with the threat of total destruction. He was a peerless hero, a pious and God-fearing king and verily a manifestation of all the virtues of a born leader of men described in our ancient scriptures. He also embodied the deathless spirit of our land and stood as the light of hope for our future."

Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
wrote in his famous poem "Shivaji":

In what far-off country, upon what obscure day I know not now, Seated in the gloom of some Mahratta mountain-wood O King Shivaji, Lighting thy brow, like a lightning flash, This thought descended, "Into one virtuous rule, this divided broken distracted India, I shall bind."

Field-Marshal Bernard Montgomery , in his History of Warfare (1983), while generally dismissive of the quality of generalship in the military history of the Indian subcontinent, makes an exception for Shivaji
Shivaji
and Bajirao I . He says Shivaji
Shivaji
had a "mastery of guerilla tactics " and was a "military genius".

In modern times, Shivaji
Shivaji
is considered as a national hero in India
India
, especially in the state of Maharashtra , where he remains arguably the greatest figure in the state's history. Stories of his life form an integral part of the upbringing and identity of the Marathi people. Further, he is also recognised as a warrior legend, who sowed the seeds of Indian independence. His image adorns literature, propaganda and icons of the Maratha-centric Shiv Sena ("Army of Shivaji" ) party, the Hindu
Hindu
nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party and also of the Maratha caste dominated Congress parties (namely, NCP and Indira) in Maharashtra. Past Congress party leaders in the state such as Yashwantrao Chavan were considered political descendants of Shivaji.

HISTORIOGRAPHY

Shivaji's role in the research and the popular conception has developed over time and place, ranging from early British and Moghul depiction of him as a bandit or a "mountain mouse", to modern near-deification as a hero of all Indians.

One of the early commentators who challenged the negative British view was M. G. Ranade , whose Rises of the Maratha
Maratha
Power (1900) declared Shivaji's achievements as the beginning of modern nation-building. Ranade criticised earlier British portrayals of Shivaji's state as "a freebooting Power, which thrived by plunder and adventure, and succeeded only because it was the most cunning and adventurous... This is a very common feeling with the readers, who derive their knowledge of these events solely from the works of English historians."

At the end of the 19th century, Shivaji's memory was leveraged by the non-Brahmin intellectuals of Bombay, who identified as his descendants and through him claimed the Kshatriya
Kshatriya
varna. While some Brahmins rebutted this identity, defining them as of the lower Shudra varna, other Brahmins recognised the Maratha's role in the Indian independence movement, and endorsed this Kshatriya
Kshatriya
legacy and the significance of Shivaji. . Lokmanya Tilak
Lokmanya Tilak
played the leading role in making Shivaji's birthday and coronation an annual festival

As political tensions rose in India
India
in the early 20th century, some Indian leaders came to re-work their earlier stances on Shivaji's role. Jawaharlal Nehru had in 1934 noted "Some of the Shivaji's deeds, like the treacherous killing of the Bijapur
Bijapur
general, lower him greatly in our estimation." Following public outcry from Pune
Pune
intellectuals, Congress leader Deogirikar noted that Nehru had admitted he was wrong regarding Shivaji, and now endorsed Shivaji
Shivaji
as great nationalist.

In 2003, American academic James W. Laine published his book Shivaji: Hindu
Hindu
King in Islamic India, which was followed by heavy criticism including threats of arrest. As a result of this publication, the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute in Pune
Pune
where Laine had researched was attacked by a group of Maratha
Maratha
activists calling itself the Sambhaji Brigade . The book was banned in Maharashtra in January 2004, but the ban was lifted by the Bombay High Court
Bombay High Court
in 2007, and in July 2010 the Supreme Court of India
India
upheld the lifting of ban. This lifting was followed by public demonstrations against the author and the decision of the Supreme Court.

COMMEMORATIONS

Statues

* Shivaji's statues and monuments are found almost in every town and city in Maharashtra as well as in different places across India including Goa
Goa
, Bangalore
Bangalore
, Vadodara
Vadodara
, Surat , Indore , Agra
Agra
, Arunachal Pradesh , and Delhi
Delhi
. * There is a statue of Shivaji
Shivaji
inside the premises of the National Defence Academy (NDA) , Pune
Pune
. * An equestrian statue can be seen inside the Parliament House complex in Delhi
Delhi
. * A statue of Shivaji
Shivaji
was proposed in 2014, to be built on the Mumbai
Mumbai
coastline by the Maharashtra government by 2020, with a planned height of 312 feet (95.0976 metre). If built it would be among the tallest statues in the world.

Armed Forces

* The Indian Navy
Indian Navy
has named one of its bases after Shivaji, christening it as INS Shivaji
INS Shivaji
.

Government

* The Government of India
India
issued postage stamps commemorating Shivaji
Shivaji
in 1961, 1974, 1980 and a definitive postage stamp in the "Makers of India" definitive series in 2015.

Airports And Railway Stations

* Mumbai
Mumbai
international airport (then known as Bombay International) was renamed the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport
in 1996. A statue of Shivaji
Shivaji
was also placed within the forecourts of the international terminal, however it was removed in 2011 to make way for the extension of the terminal. * The Victoria Terminus railway station was similarly renamed as the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus .

Educational Institutes

* The Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute was renamed after Shivaji's mother, to the Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute . The renaming retained the acronym, VJTI, by which the institute is popularly known. * Shivaji University
Shivaji University
in Kolhapur
Kolhapur
is named after Shivaji.

DEPICTION IN POPULAR CULTURE

Main article: Shivaji in popular culture

Films

* Me Shivajiraje Bhosale Boltoy (Marathi ) * Chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
(Marathi ) * Maratha
Maratha
Tituka Melavava (Marathi) * Baghtos Kay Mujra Kar
Baghtos Kay Mujra Kar
(Marathi)

Literature

Biographies

* Siva Chhtrapati, a Bakhar written soon after Shivaji's death by Krshnajl Anant Sabhasad in Marathi * Grant Duff, James. A History of the Mahrattas. (1826) * Raja Shivchhatrapati in Marathi by Babasaheb Purandare
Babasaheb Purandare
* Shivaji
Shivaji
and His Times by Jadunath Sarkar

Fictionalized Accounts

* Shivaji, a biography by Setu Madhavrao Pagdi * Shriman yogi, a historical novel in Marathi by Ranjit Desai * Yugavatara in Kannada
Kannada
by H. V. Sheshadri * Sadhan Chikitsa by Vasudeo Sitaram Bendrey

Poetry And Music

* Shivraj Bhushan by Kavi Bhushan (in Hindi)

Theatre

* Raigadala Jevha Jaag Yete (When Raigad Awakens), by Marathi playwright Vasant Kanetkar * Jaanta Raja (The Knowing King), by Babasaheb Purandare
Babasaheb Purandare

Television

* Veer Shivaji , a Hindi television series on Colors TV channel * Raja Shiv Chhatrapati , a Marathi television serial by Nitin Chandrakant Desai

FOOTNOTES

* ^ most of the great Maratha
Maratha
Jahagirdar families in the service of Adilshahi strongly opposed Shivaji
Shivaji
in his early years.These included families such as the Ghadge, More, Mohite, Ghorpade, Shirke, and Nimbalkar

NOTES

* ^ The Government of Maharashtra accepts 19 February 1630 as his birthdate; other suggested dates include 6 April 1627 or other dates near this day.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Indu Ramchandani, ed. (2000). Student\'s Britannica: India (Set of 7 Vols.) 39. Popular Prakashan. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5 .

* ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1973). Shivaji
Shivaji
and his times. Hyderabad : Orient Longman. p. 260. ISBN 9788125013471 . * ^ Feldhaus, Anne (Editor); Laine, James (1996). Images of women in Maharashtrian literature and religion. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 183. ISBN 9780791428375 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Univ of California Press, 1962, page 81,. * ^ Sen, Siba Pada (1973). Historians and historiography in modern India. Institute of Historical Studies. p. 106. ISBN 9788120809000 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Jadunath Sarkar (1992). Shivaji and his times (5 ed.). Orient Longman . ISBN 81-250-1347-4 . * ^ N. Jayapalan (2001). History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Distri. p. 211. ISBN 978-81-7156-928-1 . * ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 196–199. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4 . * ^ S. N. Sadasivan (October 2000). A social history of India. APH Publishing. pp. 245–. ISBN 978-81-7648-170-0 . Retrieved 6 March 2012. * ^ Jadunath Sarkar (1919). Shivaji
Shivaji
and His Times (Second ed.). London: Longmans, Green and Co. ISBN 1178011569 . * ^ H. S. Sardesai (2002). Shivaji, the great Maratha. Cosmo Publ. p. 47. ISBN 978-81-7755-285-0 . Retrieved 6 March 2012. * ^ A B Richard M. Eaton (17 November 2005). A Social History of the Deccan, 1300–1761: Eight Indian Lives. 1. Location: Cambridge University Press. pp. 128–221. ISBN 978-0-521-25484-7 . * ^ A B Stephen Meredyth Edwardes and Herbert Leonard Offley Garrett (1930). Mughal Rule In India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 128–. ISBN 978-81-7156-551-1 . * ^ Duff, Esq. Captain in the first, or grenadier, regiment of Bombay Native Infantry, and late political resident at Satara. In three volumes, James Grant (1826). A History of the Mahrattas Volume 1 (1921 ed.). London: Oxford University Press. pp. 126–128. Retrieved 27 January 2017. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Haig, Wolseley (June 27, 1930). "The Maratha
Maratha
Nation". Journal of Royal Society of Arts. 78 (4049): 873. * ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (2010). Shivāji and his times. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan. p. 25. ISBN 978-8125040262 . Retrieved 27 January 2017. * ^ Abraham Eraly (2000). Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals. Penguin Books India. pp. 441–. ISBN 978-0-14-100143-2 . * ^ Vartak, Malavika (1999). " Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj: growth of a symbol -". Economic and Political Weekly. 34 (19 (May 8–14)): 11. doi :10.2307/4407933 . * ^ Sardesai, H. S. Shivaji, the Great Maratha, Volume 1 By H. S. Sardesai - pg 86-87. pp. 86–87. * ^ Shivaram Shankar Apte (1965). Samarth Ramdas, Life & Mission. Vora. p. 105. * ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1920). History of Aurangzib based on original sources. London :: Longmans, Green. pp. 22–24. ISBN 9781152297449 . Retrieved 25 December 2016. * ^ A B C Stewart Gordon (16 September 1993). The Marathas 1600–1818. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-26883-7 . Retrieved 13 October 2012. * ^ Caturbhuja (1987). The Great Historical Dramas. Mittal Publications. pp. 11–. GGKEY:UAKYDL2S8LK. Retrieved 28 September 2012. * ^ A B C M.N. Pearson (February 1976). " Shivaji
Shivaji
and the Decline of the Mughal Empire". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 35 (2): 221–235. JSTOR
JSTOR
2053980 . doi :10.2307/2053980 . * ^ A B C Malavika Vartak (May 1999). " Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj: Growth of a Symbol". Economic and Political Weekly. Economic and Political Weekly. 34 (19): 1126–1134. JSTOR
JSTOR
4407933 . * ^ William Joseph Jackson (2005). Vijayanagara voices: exploring South Indian history and Hindu
Hindu
literature. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 0-7546-3950-9 . * ^ A B C The Cambridge History of India. * ^ W. Loch (1989). Dakhan History Musalman And Maratha, A.D. 1300 To 1818. p. 592. ISBN 9788120604674 . * ^ R. M. Betham (1908). Maráthas and Dekhani Musalmáns. Asian Educational Services. pp. 134–. ISBN 978-81-206-1204-4 . Retrieved 27 September 2012. * ^ Farooqui Salma Ahmed and Salma Ahmed Farooqui. A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson Education India. pp. 317–. ISBN 978-81-317-3202-1 . Retrieved 27 September 2012. * ^ A B J. Nazareth (2008). Creative Thinking in Warfare (illustrated ed.). Lancer. pp. 174–176. ISBN 978-81-7062-035-8 . * ^ A B Sir Mortimer Wheeler (1953). The Cambridge History of India: The Indus
Indus
civilization. Supplementary volume. CUP Archive. pp. 294–. GGKEY:96PECZLGTT6. * ^ Setumadhava Rao Pagdi (1983). Shivaji. National Book Trust, India. p. 29. * ^ Vidya Dhar Mahajan (1967). India
India
since 1526. S. Chand. p. 174. * ^ R M Bentham (1908). Maráthas and Dekhani Musalmáns. p. 135. ISBN 9788120612044 . * ^ James Talboys Wheeler (1878). Early Records of British India: A History of the English Settlements in India, as Told in the Government Records, the Works of Old Travellers and Other Contemporary Documents, from the Earliest Period Down to the Rise of British Power in India. Superintendent of Government Printing. pp. 15–. * ^ Sir Jadunath Sarkar (1920). Shivaji
Shivaji
and His Times. Longmans, Green and Company. pp. 266–. * ^ A B Bombay ( India
India
: State) (1886). Gazetteer. Government Central Press. pp. 314–. * ^ Shanti Sadiq Ali (1 January 1996). The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times. Orient Blackswan. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-81-250-0485-1 . Retrieved 4 August 2013. * ^ C.A. Kincaid. Tale of the Tulsi Plant and Other Studies. Asian Educational Services. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-81-206-0344-8 . * ^ A B Govind Sakharam Sardesai (1957). New History of the Marathas: Shivaji
Shivaji
and his line (1600–1707). Phoenix Publications. p. 222. * ^ V. B. Kulkarni (1963). Shivaji: The Portrait of a Patriot. Orient Longmans. Retrieved 4 August 2013. * ^ A B Shripad Dattatraya Kulkarni (1992). The Struggle for Hindu supremacy. Shri Bhagavan Vedavyasa Itihasa Samshodhana Mandira (Bhishma). p. 90. ISBN 978-81-900113-5-8 . * ^ S.R. Sharma (1999). Mughal empire in India: a systematic study including source material, Volume 2. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 59. ISBN 9788171568185 . * ^ A B Jl Mehta. Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 543–. ISBN 978-81-207-1015-3 . * ^ David Mumford (1993). The Marathas 1600–1818, Part 2, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press . p. 71. * ^ Benei, Véronique (2008). Schooling Passions: Nation, History, and Language in Contemporary Western India
India
By Béné. Stanford California: Stanford University press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-8047-5905-2 . Retrieved 6 November 2014. * ^ "Shivaji's Visit to Aurangzib at Agra
Agra
– Rajasthani Records (Rajasthani & English)". Indian History Congress Research Series No. 1, Calcutta. 1963. * ^ Ajit Joshi (June 1997). "Agryahun Sutka (Marathi)". Shivapratap Prakashan. Retrieved 29 March 2013. * ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1920). History of Aurangzib: based on original sources (Vol. 4). Longmans, Green and Company. p. 98. Retrieved 15 September 2016. * ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (2010). Shivāji and his times. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan. pp. 183–186. ISBN 978-8125040262 . Retrieved 27 January 2017. * ^ Kincaid, Charles Augustus; Parasnis, Rao Bahadur Dattatraya Balavant (1918). History of the Maratha
Maratha
People Volume 1 (2010 ed.). London: Oxford University press. p. 224. ISBN 978-1176681996 . Retrieved 31 January 2017. * ^ Sabhasad, Krishnaji Anant (Author); Sen, Surendranath (Translator) (2016). Siva Chhatrapati (Reprint ed.). ENTWORTH Press,. p. 82. ISBN 9781371468125 . * ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1920). History of Aurangzib: based on original sources (Vol. 4). Longmans, Green and Company. pp. 173–174. Retrieved 15 September 2016. * ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1920). History of Aurangzib: based on original sources (Vol. 4). Longmans, Green and Company. p. 175. Retrieved 15 September 2016. * ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1920). History of Aurangzib: based on original sources (Vol. 4). Longmans, Green and Company. p. 189. Retrieved 15 September 2016. * ^ Sir Jadunath Sarkar (1920). Shivaji
Shivaji
and His Times. Longmans, Green and Company. pp. 393–. * ^ http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/a-fusion-of-cultures-and-persuasions/article9027175.ece?theme=true * ^ Mahadeo Govind Ranade (2006) . Rise of the Maratha
Maratha
Power. Read Books. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-4067-3642-7 . * ^ Ranade, M.G. (1900). Rise of the Maratha
Maratha
power (Vol. 1). Punalekar & Company. p. 68. ISBN 9781230453606 . * ^ Pradeep Barua (1 May 2005). The state at war in South Asia. University of Nebraska Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8032-1344-9 . Retrieved 6 March 2012. * ^ Mallavarapu Venkata Siva Prasada Rau (Andhra Pradesh Archives) (1980). Archival organization and records management in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Published under the authority of the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh by the Director of State Archives (Andhra Pradesh State Archives). p. 393. * ^ Jadunath Sarkar (11 January 2015). Shivaji
Shivaji
And His Times. Orient Blackswan Pvt Ltd. p. 159. ISBN 8125013474 . * ^ Yuva Bharati (Volume 1 ed.). Vivekananda Rock Memorial Committee. p. 13. Retrieved 10 January 2015. About 50,000 people witnessed the coronation ceremony and arrangements were made for their boarding and lodging. * ^ Muslim India. Muslim India. 2004. p. 1250. * ^ S. N. Sadasivan (October 2000). A social history of India. APH Publishing. p. 247. ISBN 978-81-7648-170-0 . Retrieved 6 March 2012. * ^ M. R. Kantak (1993). The First Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War, 1774–1783: A Military Study of Major Battles. Popular Prakashan. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-81-7154-696-1 . * ^ J. L. Mehta (2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707–1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 707–. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6 . – It explains the rise to power of his Peshwa (prime minister) Buluji Vishwanath (171 3–20) and the transformation of the Maratha
Maratha
kingdom into a vast empire, by the collective action of all the Maratha
Maratha
stalwarts. * ^ Archived 24 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Gijs Kruijtzer (2009). Xenophobia in Seventeenth-Century India. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 153–190. ISBN 978-90-8728-068-0 . * ^ Kulkarni, A. R. (1990). "MARATHA POLICY TOWARDS THE ADIL SHAHI KINGDOM". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 49: 221–226. JSTOR
JSTOR
42930290 . * ^ Kr̥shṇājī Ananta Sabhāsada (1920). Śiva Chhatrapati. University of Calcutta. pp. 235–. – Therefore you will not have to serve the Bijapur
Bijapur
Government personally, but in lieu of personal service you will have to send an army whenever ... These I have conferred on Ghimujlv Saubhagyavatl Dipa Bai for cholibangdl (pin money). * ^ Govind Sakharam Sardesai (1957). New History of the Marathas: Shivaji
Shivaji
and his line (1600–1707). Phoenix Publications. p. 251. * ^ Maya Jayapal (1997). Bangalore: the story of a city. Eastwest Books (Madras). p. 20. ISBN 978-81-86852-09-5 . – Shivaji's and Ekoji's armies met in battle on 26 November 1677, and Ekoji was defeated. By the treaty he signed, Bangalore
Bangalore
and the adjoining areas were given to Shivaji, who then made them over to Ekoji's wife Deepabai to be held by her, with the proviso that Ekoji had to ensure that Shahaji's Memorial was well tended. * ^ A B J. L. Mehta (1 January 2005). Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707–1813. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-932705-54-6 . Retrieved 27 September 2012. * ^ A B Jaswant Lal Mehta. Advanced study in the history of modern India
India
1707-1813. p. 47. * ^ "History-Adilshahis, 1489–1686.". Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency . Retrieved 27 February 2012. * ^ Sunita Sharma, K̲h̲udā Bak̲h̲sh Oriyanṭal Pablik Lāʼibrerī (2004). Veil, sceptre, and quill: profiles of eminent women, 16th- 18th centuries. Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library. p. 139. – By June 1680 three months after Shivaji's death Rajaram was made a prisoner in the fort of Raigad, along with his mother Soyra Bai and his wife Janki Bai. Soyra Bai was put to death on charge of conspiracy * ^ Patil, Vishwas. Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj. * ^ Mehta, J. L. Advanced study in the history of modern India 1707–1813 * ^ Mackenna, P. J. et al. Ancient and modern India * ^ Black, Jeremy (2006). A Military History of Britain: from 1775 to the Present. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-99039-8 . * ^ Spear, Percival (1990) . A History of India. Volume 2. Penguin Books. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-14-013836-8 . * ^ Literature and Nation (2000), p. 30, Harish Trivedi, Richard Allen * ^ Abraham Eraly (2000). Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-14-100143-2 . Retrieved 27 September 2012. * ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1974). The Mughul Empire. B.V. Bhavan. pp. 609, 634. * ^ "Ramdas Swami's Letter to Sambhaji Maharaj" * ^ Charles Kincaid and Dattaray Parasnis (1918). "A History of the Maratha
Maratha
People". 1. London: Oxford University Press: 183–194. * ^ Stephen Meredyth Edwardes and Herbert Leonard Offley Garrett (1930). Mughal Rule In India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 978-81-7156-551-1 . * ^ "Shivaji, the Great Maratha, Volume 4", p. 1038, by H. S. Sardesai, ISBN 978-8177552881 * ^ A B C Rafiq Zakaria (2002). Communal Rage In Secular India. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7991-070-2 . Retrieved 26 September 2012. * ^ American Oriental Society (1963). Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. p. 476. Retrieved 27 September 2012. * ^ "Indian Naval Hospital Ship INHS Dhanvantari". Indiannavy.nic.in. 25 August 2010. Archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2010. * ^ "How history has systematically distorted the figure of Shivaji: Excerpt from Govind Pansare\'s book". * ^ "Why lakhs of Indians celebrate the British victory over the Maratha
Maratha
Peshwas every New Year". * ^ A B Kantak, M. R. (1978). "THE POLITICAL ROLE OF DIFFERENT HINDU CASTES AND COMMUNITIES IN MAHARASHTRA IN THE FOUNDATION OF SHIVAJI'S SWARAJYA". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research ... Vol. 38, No. 1/4, 1978-79 THE POLITICAL ROLE O... Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 38 (1/4): 40–56. JSTOR
JSTOR
42931051 . * ^ Setumadhavarao S. Pagadi., Setumadhavarao S (1993). Shivaji. National Book Trust. p. 21. ISBN 81-237-0647-2 . * ^ Setumadhava Rao Pagdi (1983). Shivaji. India: National Book Trust, India. * ^ Bharat Verma (2008) Indian Armed Forces, Lancer Publishers, ISBN 0-9796174-2-1 * ^ A B G. S Banhatti (1995). Life And Philosophy Of Swami Vivekananda. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 201. ISBN 978-81-7156-291-6 . * ^ Jayasree Mukherjee (1997). The Ramakrishna-Vivekananda movement impact on Indian society and politics (1893–1922): with special reference to Bengal. Firma KLM. ISBN 978-81-7102-057-7 . * ^ Rabindranath Tagore: The Poet of India
India
By A. K. Basu Majumdar * ^ Field-Marshal Montgomery of Alamein. History of Warfare. William Morrow & Sons. (1983) * ^ A B Karline McLain (2009). India\'s Immortal Comic Books: Gods, Kings, and Other Heroes. Indiana University Press. pp. 137–. ISBN 978-0-253-22052-3 . * ^ V.S. Naipaul (6 April 2011). India: A Wounded Civilization. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-0-307-78934-1 . Retrieved 10 August 2013. * ^ Matthew N. Schmalz (2011). Engaging South Asian Religions: Boundaries, Appropriations, and Resistances. SUNY Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-4384-3325-7 . Retrieved 10 August 2013. * ^ R. D. Pradhan and Madhav Godbole (1999). Debacle to Revival: Y.B. Chavan as Defence Minister, 1962–65. Orient Blackswan. p. 46. ISBN 978-81-250-1477-5 . * ^ Singh, Shiv Charan (13 May 2006). "State to dial NCERT on history book". The Telegraph, Calcutta, India: 1. Retrieved October 24, 2013. * ^ Karline McLain (2009). India\'s Immortal Comic Books: Gods, Kings, and Other Heroes. Indiana University Press. pp. 121–. ISBN 978-0-253-22052-3 . * ^ A B Donald V. Kurtz (1993). Contradictions and Conflict: A Dialectical Political Anthropology of a University in Western India. BRILL. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-90-04-09828-2 . * ^ Wolpert, Stanley A. Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India. Univ of California Press, 1962, page 79-81,. * ^ Girja Kumar (1997). The Book on Trial: Fundamentalism and Censorship in India. Har-Anand Publications. pp. 431–. ISBN 978-81-241-0525-2 . * ^ India
India
seeks to arrest US scholar. BBC News (23 March 2004). Retrieved on 25 September 2013. * ^ \'Maratha\' activists vandalise Bhandarkar Institute. Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com (6 January 2004). Retrieved on 25 September 2013. * ^ Supreme Court lifts ban on James Laine\'s book on Shivaji. Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com (9 July 2010). Retrieved on 25 September 2013. * ^ Rakesh Bhatnagar, Rahul Chandawarkar (9 July 2010) Supreme Court upholds lifting of ban on Shivaji
Shivaji
book. Dnaindia.com. Retrieved on 25 September 2013. * ^ Protests over James Laine\'s book across Mumbai. News.webindia123.com (10 July 2010). Retrieved on 25 September 2013. * ^ Rahul Chandawarkar (10 July 2010) Hard-liners slam state, Supreme Court decision on Laine\'s Shivaji
Shivaji
book. Dnaindia.com. Retrieved on 25 September 2013. * ^ http://www.goanews.com/news_disp.php?newsid=2903 * ^ "comments : Modi unveils Shivaji
Shivaji
statue at Limbayat". The Indian Express. Retrieved 17 September 2012. * ^ Karline McLain (11 February 2009). India\'s Immortal Comic Books: Gods, Kings, and Other Heroes. Indiana University Press. pp. 137–. ISBN 978-0-253-22052-3 . Retrieved 26 September 2012. * ^ "The Governor of Arunachal Pradesh :: Press Release: Governor dedicates a statue of Shivaji
Shivaji
at Tawang". Arunachalgovernor.nic.in. Retrieved 2015-06-24. * ^ J. J. Singh (21 November 2012). A Soldier\'s General: An Autobiography. HarperCollins Publishers. p. 212. ISBN 978-93-5029-515-1 . * ^ "When Khandu charmed jawans of Maratha
Maratha
Light Infantry in Tawang". Zeenews.india.com. 7 May 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2015. * ^ PTI (15 September 2009). "News / National : President inaugurates Shivaji
Shivaji
memorial building in Delhi". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 September 2012. * ^ Pune
Pune
Mirror (16 May 2012). "New Shivaji
Shivaji
statue faces protests". Punemirror.in. Retrieved 17 September 2012. * ^ "Kalam unveils Shivaji
Shivaji
statue". The Hindu. 29 April 2003. Retrieved 17 September 2012. * ^ Firstpost (5 December 2014). "Mumbai: It will take Rs 2,000 cr to make Shivaji
Shivaji
statue environment friendly". * ^ " INS Shivaji
INS Shivaji
(Engineering Training Establishment) : Training". Indian Navy. Retrieved 17 September 2012. * ^ " Chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj". Indianpost.com. 21 April 1980. Retrieved 17 September 2012. * ^ http://www.betterphilately.com/2015/12/indias-xi-definitive-stamp-series.html * ^ "Politics over Shivaji
Shivaji
statue delays Mumbai
Mumbai
airport expansion". Business Standard. 25 June 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2015. * ^ Sen, Surendranath (1920). Siva Chhtrapati. Calcutta: University of Calcutta.

FURTHER READING

* Sardesai, Govind Sakharam. New history of the Marathas, vol. I: Shivaji
Shivaji
and his line, 1600-1707 (Phoenix publications, 1946). * Jasper, Daniel. "Commemorating the 'golden age' of Shivaji
Shivaji
in Maharashtra, India
India
and the development of Maharashtrian public politics." Journal of Political and Military Sociology 31.2 (2003): 215. * James Grant Duff (1826). A History of the Mahrattas. London: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. * Jyotirao Phule (1869). Chatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
Raje Bhosale Yanche Powade (in Marathi). * Jadunath Sarkar (1920). Shivaji
Shivaji
and his times. Calcutta: Longmans, Green and Co. ISBN 1-178-01156-9 . * B. K. Apte (editor) (1974–75). Chhatrapati Shivaji: Coronation Tercentenary Commemoration Volume. Bombay: University of Bombay . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * James W. Laine (2003). Shivaji: Hindu
Hindu
King in Islamic India. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-514126-9 . * Laine, James W. (2011). "Resisting My Attackers; Resisting My Defenders". In Schmalz, Matthew N.; Gottschalk, Peter. Engaging South Asian Religions: Boundaries, Appropriations, and Resistances. Albany: SUNY Press. pp. 153–172. ISBN 978-1-4384-3323-3 . Retrieved 27 September 2012. * Rafique Zakaria (2003). Communal Rage in Secular India. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan . * Vishwas Patil (2006). Sambhaji. Pune: Mehta Publishing House . ISBN 81-7766-651-7 . * The hijacking of Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj by vested interests by François Gautier , Daily News and Analysis , 23 November 2011. * Coronation
Coronation
of Shivaji
Shivaji
the great or the producer of the religious ceremony performed by Gagabhatta for the consecration of Shivaji
Shivaji
as a hindu king * The life of Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj, Founder of Maratha
Maratha
Empire

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SHIVAJI .

* Shivaji
Shivaji
at DMOZ
DMOZ

Preceded by new state Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire 1674–1680

.