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SHIVA SAMHITA ( IAST
IAST
: śivasaṁhitā, also Siva Samhitā, meaning "Shiva's Compendium") is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text on yoga , written by an unknown author. The text is addressed by the Hindu
Hindu
god Shiva
Shiva
to his consort Parvati
Parvati
. The text consists of five chapters, with the first chapter a treatise that summarizes nondual Vedanta
Vedanta
( Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
) philosophy with influences from the Sri Vidya
Sri Vidya
school of South India. The remaining chapters discuss yoga, the importance of a guru (teacher) to a student, various asanas, mudras and siddhis (powers) attainable with yoga and tantra.

The Shiva
Shiva
Samhita
Samhita
is one of three major surviving classical treatises on hatha yoga , the other two being Gheranda Samhita
Samhita
and Hatha Yoga Pradipika . It is considered the most comprehensive treatise on hatha yoga, one that recommends that all householders practice and benefit from yoga. Over a dozen variant manuscripts of the text are known, and a critical edition of the text was published in 1999 by Kaivalya Dham Yoga
Yoga
Research Institute.

CONTENTS

* 1 Date and location * 2 Content * 3 Translations * 4 References * 5 External links

DATE AND LOCATION

Shiva
Shiva
Samhita
Samhita
has been dated by some scholars to be a 17th century text, while others such as James Mallinson – a scholar of Sanskrit and Oriental Studies known for his Hatha Yoga
Yoga
publications, dates the text to be pre-1500 CE , probably between 1300 and 1500 CE. Based on statements contained within the text, Mallinson also believes that the Shiva
Shiva
Samhita
Samhita
was composed in or around Varanasi
Varanasi
.

CONTENT

ATMAN

The gods and everything else in the entire universe are totally pervaded by the self (atman). It is one, it is truth, consciousness and bliss (satcitananda ), and it is whole and free of duality. —Siva Samhita, 1.53 Translator: James Mallinson

Shiva
Shiva
Samhita
Samhita
declares itself to be a yoga text, but also refers to itself as a tantra in its five chapters. The first chapter starts with the statement, states Mallinson, that "there is one eternal true knowledge", then discusses various doctrines of self liberation (moksha ) followed by asserting that Yoga
Yoga
is the highest path. The opening chapter largely presents the Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
philosophy, but in the Sri Vidya
Sri Vidya
tantra format and style.

The second chapter describes how the external observable macro-phenomenon are internalized and have equivalents within one's body, how the outside world is within in the form of nadis (rivers, channels), fire, jiva and others. The third chapter explains the importance of a guru (teacher, advisor), its various physiological theories including five elements that constitute the body, stages of yoga practice and a theory asanas (postures). MICROCOSM

In this body, the mount Meru – i.e., the vertebral column – is surrounded by seven islands; there are rivers, seas, mountains, fields; and lords of the fields too. —Siva Samhita, 2.1 Translator: Rai Vasu

The fourth chapter presents mudras and states that yoga practice can lead to special siddhis (powers) and awakening of the kundalini (inner dormant energy). The fifth chapter is the longest of five chapters in the text. It discusses what prevents an individual's self-liberation, types of students, inner energies and sounds, a theory and description of chakras and mantras .

The Shiva
Shiva
Samhita
Samhita
talks about the complex physiology, names 84 different asanas (only four of which are described in detail), describes five specific types of prana , and provides techniques to regulate them. It also deals with abstract yogic philosophy, mudras , tantric practices, and meditation . The text states that a householder can practice yoga and benefit from it. The Shiva Samhita
Samhita
is a yoga text. Included in it are asanas, such as Paschimottanasana (above).

TRANSLATIONS

Many English translations of Shiva
Shiva
Samhita
Samhita
have been made. The earliest known English translation is by Shri Chandra Vasu (1884, Lahore) in the series known as "The Sacred Books of the Hindus" The translation by Rai Bahadur and Srisa Chandra Vasu in 1914, also in the series known as "The Sacred Books of the Hindus", was the first translation to find a global audience. However, it omits certain sections (such as vajroli mudra ) and is considered inaccurate by some. In 2007, James Mallinson made a new translation to address these issues. The new translation is based on the only available critical edition of the text — the one publIshed in 1999 by the Kaivalya Dham Yoga
Yoga
Research Institute.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F James Mallinson (2007). The Shiva
Shiva
Samhita: A Critical Edition. Yoga
Yoga
Vidya. pp. ix–x. ISBN 978-0-9716466-5-0 . * ^ Ellen Goldberg (2002). The Lord Who Is Half Woman: Ardhanarisvara in Indian and Feminist Perspective. State University of New York Press. pp. 57–59. ISBN 978-0-7914-5326-1 . * ^ A B C Linda Sparrowe. "The History of Yoga". Yoga
Yoga
Journal. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-02-13. * ^ James Mallinson (2007). The Shiva
Shiva
Samhita: A Critical Edition. Yoga
Yoga
Vidya. p. xi. ISBN 978-0-9716466-5-0 . * ^ Kurt Keutzer. " Kundalini
Kundalini
Bibliography". Retrieved 2007-02-13. * ^ " Hindu
Hindu
Timeline #4". Himalayan Academy. Retrieved 2007-02-13. * ^ James Mallinson (2007). The Shiva
Shiva
Samhita: A Critical Edition. Yoga
Yoga
Vidya. p. x. ISBN 978-0-9716466-5-0 . * ^ A B C "The Shiva
Shiva
Samhita, translated by James Mallinson" (PDF). Yoga
Yoga
Vidya. Retrieved 2007-02-13. * ^ James Mallinson (2007). The Shiva
Shiva
Samhita: A Critical Edition. Yoga
Yoga
Vidya. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-9716466-5-0 . * ^ Mikel Burley (2000). Haṭha-Yoga: Its Context, Theory, and Practice. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 59. ISBN 978-81-208-1706-7 . * ^ Rai Bahadur Srisa Chandra Vasu (1915). The Shiva
Shiva
Samhita. p. 8.

* ^ James Mallinson (2007). The Shiva
Shiva
Samhita: A Critical Edition. Yoga
Yoga
Vidya. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-0-9716466-5-0 . * ^ Mikel Burley (2000). Haṭha-Yoga: Its Context, Theory, and Practice. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 9–10, 59, 73–74, 145–152. ISBN 978-81-208-1706-7 . * ^ " Shiva