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_SHIVA_ (/ˈʃivə/ ; IAST : Śiva, lit. _the auspicious one_) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism . He is the Supreme Being within Shaivism
Shaivism
, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism.

Shiva
Shiva
is the "destroyer and transformer" within the Trimurti
Trimurti
, the Hindu
Hindu
trinity that includes Brahma
Brahma
and Vishnu
Vishnu
. In Shaivism tradition, Shiva
Shiva
is the Supreme being who creates, protects and transforms the universe. In the goddess tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism
Shaktism
, the goddess is described as supreme, yet Shiva
Shiva
is revered along with Vishnu
Vishnu
and Brahma. A goddess is stated to be the energy and creative power (Shakti) of each, with Parvati
Parvati
the equal complementary partner of Shiva. He is one of the five equivalent deities in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta tradition of Hinduism.

At the highest level, Shiva
Shiva
is regarded as formless, limitless, transcendent and unchanging absolute Brahman , and the primal Atman (soul, self) of the universe. Shiva
Shiva
has many benevolent and fearsome depictions. In benevolent aspects, he is depicted as an omniscient Yogi
Yogi
who lives an ascetic life on Mount Kailash as well as a householder with wife Parvati
Parvati
and his two children, Ganesha
Ganesha
and Kartikeya . In his fierce aspects, he is often depicted slaying demons. Shiva
Shiva
is also known as Adiyogi Shiva, regarded as the patron god of yoga , meditation and arts.

The iconographical attributes of Shiva
Shiva
are the serpent around his neck, the adorning crescent moon, the holy river Ganga
Ganga
flowing from his matted hair, the third eye on his forehead, the trishula as his weapon and the damaru . He is usually worshipped in the aniconic form of Lingam
Lingam
. Shiva
Shiva
is a pan- Hindu
Hindu
deity, revered widely by Hindus, in India
India
, Nepal
Nepal
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and other names

* 2 Historical development and literature

* 2.1 Indus Valley origins

* 2.2 Indo-Aryan - Vedic origins

* 2.2.1 Rudra
Rudra
* 2.2.2 Agni
Agni
* 2.2.3 Indra
Indra

* 2.3 Later literature * 2.4 Assimilation of traditions

* 3 Position within Hinduism

* 3.1 Shaivism
Shaivism
* 3.2 Vaishnavism * 3.3 Shaktism
Shaktism
* 3.4 Smarta Tradition * 3.5 Yoga
Yoga
* 3.6 Trimurti
Trimurti

* 4 Attributes

* 5 Forms and depictions

* 5.1 Destroyer and Benefactor * 5.2 Ascetic and householder * 5.3 Iconographic
Iconographic
forms * 5.4 Lingam
Lingam
* 5.5 The five mantras * 5.6 Avatars

* 6 Festivals * 7 Outside Indian subcontinent * 8 Other religions * 9 In contemporary culture * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Sources * 13 External links

ETYMOLOGY AND OTHER NAMES

Main article: Shiva Sahasranama A mukhalinga sculpture of Shiva depicting him with a moustache

The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word "Śiva" ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: शिव, transliterated as Shiva
Shiva
or Siva) means, states Monier Williams, "auspicious, propitious, gracious, benign, kind, benevolent, friendly". The roots of Śiva in folk etymology is "śī" which means "in whom all things lie, pervasiveness" and _va_ which means "embodiment of grace".

The word Shiva
Shiva
is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda (approximately 1700-1100BC), as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities , including Rudra
Rudra
. The term Shiva
Shiva
also connotes "liberation, final emancipation" and "the auspicious one", this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature. The term evolved from the Vedic _Rudra-Shiva_ to the noun _Shiva_ in the Epics and the Puranas, as an auspicious deity who is the "creator, reproducer and dissolver".

Sharma presents another etymology with the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
root _śarv-_, which means "to injure" or "to kill", interprets the name to connote "one who can kill the forces of darkness".

The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word _śaiva_ means "relating to the god Shiva", and this term is the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name both for one of the principal sects of Hinduism and for a member of that sect. It is used as an adjective to characterize certain beliefs and practices, such as Shaivism.

Some authors associate the name with the Tamil word _śivappu_ meaning "red", noting that Shiva
Shiva
is linked to the Sun (_śivan_, "the Red one", in Tamil) and that Rudra
Rudra
is also called _Babhru_ (brown, or red) in the Rigveda. The _ Vishnu
Vishnu
sahasranama _ interprets _Shiva_ to have multiple meanings: "The Pure One", and "the One who is not affected by three Guṇas of Prakṛti ( Sattva , Rajas , and Tamas )".

Shiva
Shiva
is known by many names such Viswanathan (lord of the universe), Mahadeva, Mahesha, Maheshvara, Shankara, Shambhu, Rudra, Hara, Trilochana, Devendra (chief of the gods), Neelakanta, Subhankara, Trilokinatha (lord of the three realms), and Ghrneshwar (lord of compassion). The highest reverence for Shiva
Shiva
in Shaivism
Shaivism
is reflected in his epithets _Mahādeva_ ("Great god"; _mahā_ "Great" and _deva_ "god"), _Maheśvara_ ("Great Lord"; _mahā_ "great" and _īśvara_ "lord"), and _Parameśvara _ ("Supreme Lord").

Sahasranama are medieval Indian texts that list a thousand names derived from aspects and epithets of a deity. There are at least eight different versions of the _ Shiva
Shiva
Sahasranama_, devotional hymns (stotras) listing many names of Shiva. The version appearing in Book 13 (Anuśāsanaparvan) of the _Mahabharata_ provides one such list. Shiva
Shiva
also has Dasha-Sahasranamas (10,000 names) that are found in the Mahanyasa. The _Shri Rudram Chamakam_, also known as the _Śatarudriya_, is a devotional hymn to Shiva
Shiva
hailing him by many names.

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND LITERATURE

See also: History of Shaivism
Shaivism

The Shiva-related tradition is a major part of Hinduism, found all over India, Nepal
Nepal
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, and Bali (Indonesia). Its historical roots are unclear and contested. Some scholars such Yashodhar Mathpal and Ali Javid have interpreted early prehistoric paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters , carbon dated to be from pre-10,000 BCE period, as Shiva
Shiva
dancing, Shiva's trident, and his mount Nandi. However, Howard Morphy states that these prehistoric rock paintings of India, when seen in their context, are likely those of hunting party with animals, and that the figures in a group dance can be interpreted in many different ways. Rock paintings from Bhimbetka, depicting a figure with a trishul , have been described as Nataraja
Nataraja
by Erwin Neumayer, who dates them to the mesolithic .

INDUS VALLEY ORIGINS

Main article: Pashupati seal Seal discovered during excavation of the Indus Valley archaeological site in the Indus Valley has drawn attention as a possible representation of a "yogi" or "proto-Shiva" figure.

Of several Indus valley seals that show animals, one seal that has attracted attention shows a large central figure, either horned or wearing a horned headdress and possibly ithyphallic , seated in a posture reminiscent of the Lotus position , surrounded by animals. This figure was named by early excavators of Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro
as _ Pashupati
Pashupati
_ (Lord of Animals, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_paśupati_), an epithet of the later Hindu deities Shiva
Shiva
and Rudra.

Sir John Marshall and others suggested that this figure is a prototype of Shiva, with three faces, seated in a "yoga posture" with the knees out and feet joined. Semi-circular shapes on the head were interpreted as two horns. Scholars such as Gavin Flood , John Keay and Doris Meth Srinivasan have expressed doubts about this suggestion.

Gavin Flood states that it is not clear from the seal that the figure has three faces, is seated in a yoga posture, or even that the shape is intended to represent a human figure. He characterizes these views as "speculative", but adds that it is nevertheless possible that there are echoes of Shaiva iconographic themes, such as half-moon shapes resembling the horns of a bull . John Keay writes that "he may indeed be an early manifestation of Lord Shiva
Shiva
as Pashu-pati", but a couple of his specialties of this figure does not match with Rudra. Writing in 1997, Srinivasan interprets what John Marshall interpreted as facial as not human but more bovine, possibly a divine buffalo-man.

The interpretation of the seal continues to be disputed. McEvilley , for example, states that it is not possible to "account for this posture outside the yogic account". Asko Parpola states that other archaeological finds such as the early Elamite seals dated to 3000-2750 BCE show similar figures and these have been interpreted as "seated bull" and not a yogi, and the bovine interpretation is likely more accurate. Gregory L. Possehl in 2002, associated it with the water buffalo, and concluded that while it would be appropriate to recognize the figure as a deity, and its posture as one of ritual discipline, regarding it as a proto- Shiva
Shiva
would "go too far".

INDO-ARYAN - VEDIC ORIGINS

The Vedic literature refers to a minor atmospheric deity, with fearsome powers called Rudra
Rudra
. The Rigveda, for example, has 3 out of 1,028 hymns dedicated to Rudra, and he finds occasional mention in other hymns of the same text. The term Shiva
Shiva
also appears in the Rigveda, but simply as an epithet that means "kind, auspicious", one of the adjectives used to describe many different Vedic deities. While fierce ruthless natural phenomenon and storm-related Rudra
Rudra
is feared in the hymns of the Rigveda, the beneficial rains he brings are welcomed as Shiva
Shiva
aspect of him. This healing, nurturing, life-enabling aspect emerges in the Vedas
Vedas
as Rudra-Shiva, and in post-Vedic literature ultimately as Shiva
Shiva
who combines the destructive and constructive powers, the terrific and the pacific, as the ultimate recycler and rejuvenator of all existence.

The similarities between the iconography and theologies of Shiva
Shiva
with Greek and European deities have led to proposals for an Indo-European link for Shiva, or lateral exchanges with ancient central Asian cultures. His contrasting aspects such as being terrifying or blissful depending on the situation, are similar to those of the Greek god Dionysus , as are their iconic associations with bull, snakes, anger, bravery, dancing and carefree life. The ancient Greek texts of the time of Alexander the Great call Shiva
Shiva
as "Indian Dionysius", or alternatively call Dionysius as _"god of the Orient"_. Similarly, the use of phallic symbol as an icon for Shiva
Shiva
is also found for Irish, Nordic, Greek ( Dionysus ) and Roman deities, as was the idea of this aniconic column linking heaven and earth among early Indo-Aryans, states Roger Woodward. Others contest such proposals, and suggest Shiva
Shiva
to have emerged from indigenous pre-Aryan tribal origins.

Rudra

Three-headed Shiva, Gandhara, 2nd century AD

Shiva
Shiva
as we know him today shares many features with the Vedic god Rudra
Rudra
, and both Shiva
Shiva
and Rudra
Rudra
are viewed as the same personality in Hindu
Hindu
scriptures . The two names are used synonymously. Rudra, the god of the roaring storm , is usually portrayed in accordance with the element he represents as a fierce, destructive deity.

The oldest surviving text of Hinduism is the Rig Veda , which is dated to between 1700 and 1100 BC based on linguistic and philological evidence. A god named Rudra
Rudra
is mentioned in the Rig Veda. The name Rudra
Rudra
is still used as a name for Shiva. In RV 2.33, he is described as the "Father of the Rudras
Rudras
", a group of storm gods.

The hymn 10.92 of the Rigveda
Rigveda
states that deity Rudra
Rudra
has two natures, one wild and cruel (rudra), another that is kind and tranquil (shiva). The Vedic texts do not mention bull or any animal as the transport vehicle (_vahana_) of Rudra
Rudra
or other deities. However, post-Vedic texts such as the Mahabharata and the Puranas state the Nandi bull, the Indian zebu, in particular, as the vehicle of Rudra and of Shiva, thereby unmistakably linking them as same.

Agni

Rudra
Rudra
and Agni
Agni
have a close relationship. The identification between Agni
Agni
and Rudra
Rudra
in the Vedic literature was an important factor in the process of Rudra's gradual development into the later character as Rudra-Shiva. The identification of Agni
Agni
with Rudra
Rudra
is explicitly noted in the _ Nirukta _, an important early text on etymology, which says, " Agni
Agni
is also called Rudra." The interconnections between the two deities are complex, and according to Stella Kramrisch:

The fire myth of Rudra-Śiva plays on the whole gamut of fire, valuing all its potentialities and phases, from conflagration to illumination.

In the _Śatarudrīya_ , some epithets of Rudra, such as Sasipañjara ("Of golden red hue as of flame") and Tivaṣīmati ("Flaming bright"), suggest a fusing of the two deities. Agni
Agni
is said to be a bull, and Lord Shiva
Shiva
possesses a bull as his vehicle, Nandi . The horns of Agni, who is sometimes characterized as a bull, are mentioned. In medieval sculpture, both Agni
Agni
and the form of Shiva known as Bhairava
Bhairava
have flaming hair as a special feature.

Indra

Vima Kadphises with ithyphallic Shiva. Coin of the Kushan Empire (1st-century BCE to 2nd-century CE). The right image has been interpreted as Shiva
Shiva
with trident and bull.

According to Wendy Doniger , the Puranic Shiva
Shiva
is a continuation of the Vedic Indra. Doniger gives several reasons for her hypothesis. Both are associated with mountains, rivers, male fertility, fierceness, fearlessness, warfare, transgression of established mores, the Aum sound, the Supreme Self. In the Rig Veda the term _śiva_ is used to refer to Indra. (2.20.3, 6.45.17, and 8.93.3. ) Indra, like Shiva, is likened to a bull. In the Rig Veda, Rudra
Rudra
is the father of the Maruts , but he is never associated with their warlike exploits as is Indra.

The Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era were closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion
Proto-Indo-European religion
, and the pre-Islamic Indo-Iranian religion. The earliest iconic artworks of Shiva
Shiva
may be from Gandhara and northwest parts of ancient India. There is some uncertainty as the artwork that has survived is damaged and they show some overlap with meditative Buddha-related artwork, but the presence of Shiva's trident and phallic symbolism in this art suggests it was likely Shiva. Numismatics research suggests that numerous coins of the ancient Kushan Empire that have survived, were images of a god who is probably Shiva. The Shiva
Shiva
in Kushan coins is referred to as Oesho of unclear etymology and origins, but the simultaneous presence of Indra
Indra
and Shiva
Shiva
in the Kushan era artwork suggest that they were revered deities by the start of the Kushan Empire.

The texts and artwork of Jainism
Jainism
show Indra
Indra
as a dancer, although not identical but generally resembling the dancing Shiva
Shiva
artwork found in Hinduism, particularly in their respective mudras. For example, in the Jain caves at Ellora , extensive carvings show dancing Indra
Indra
next to the images of Tirthankaras in a manner similar to Shiva
Shiva
Nataraja. The similarities in the dance iconography suggests that there may be a link between ancient Indra
Indra
and Shiva.

LATER LITERATURE

Rudra's evolution from a minor Vedic deity to a supreme being is first evidenced in the _ Shvetashvatara Upanishad
Shvetashvatara Upanishad
_ (400–200 BC), according to Gavin Flood. Prior to it, the Upanishadic literature is monistic , and the _Shvetashvatara_ text presents the earliest seeds of theistic devotion to Rudra-Shiva. Here Rudra- Shiva
Shiva
is identified as the creator of the cosmos and liberator of souls from the birth-rebirth cycle. The period of 200 BC to 100 AD also marks the beginning of the Shaiva tradition focused on the worship of Shiva
Shiva
as evidenced in other literature of this period. Shaiva devotees and ascetics are mentioned in Patanjali
Patanjali
's _ Mahābhāṣya _ (2nd-century BC) and in the _ Mahabharata _. Other scholars such as Robert Hume and Doris Srinivasan state that the _Shvetashvatara Upanishad_ presents pluralism, pantheism , or henotheism , rather than being a text just on Shiva
Shiva
theism. SELF-REALIZATION AND SHAIVA UPANISHADS

He who sees himself in all beings, And all beings in him, attains the highest Brahman , not by any other means. —_ Kaivalya Upanishad 10_

The Shaiva Upanishads are a group of 14 minor Upanishads of Hinduism variously dated from the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE through the 17th century. These extol Shiva
Shiva
as the metaphysical unchanging reality Brahman and the Atman (soul, self), and include sections about rites and symbolisms related to Shiva.

A few texts such as _ Atharvashiras Upanishad _ mention Rudra
Rudra
, and assert all gods are Rudra, everyone and everything is Rudra, and Rudra is the principle found in all things, their highest goal, the innermost essence of all reality that is visible or invisible. The _Kaivalya Upanishad_ similarly, states Paul Deussen – a German Indologist and professor of Philosophy, describes the self-realized man as who "feels himself only as the one divine essence that lives in all", who feels identity of his and everyone's consciousness with Shiva
Shiva
(highest Atman), who has found this highest Atman within, in the depths of his heart.

The Shaiva Puranas , particularly the Shiva Purana
Shiva Purana
and the Linga Purana , present the various aspects of Shiva, mythologies, cosmology and pilgrimage (_Tirtha _) associated with him. The Shiva-related Tantra
Tantra
literature, composed between the 8th and 11th centuries, are regarded in devotional dualistic Shaivism
Shaivism
as Sruti . Dualistic Shaiva Agamas which consider soul within each living being and Shiva
Shiva
as two separate realities (dualism, _dvaita_), are the foundational texts for Shaiva Siddhanta . Other Shaiva Agamas teach that these are one reality (monism, _advaita_), and that Shiva
Shiva
is the soul, the perfection and truth within each living being. In Shiva
Shiva
related sub-traditions, there are ten dualistic Agama texts, eighteen qualified monism-cum-dualism Agama texts and sixty four monism Agama texts.

Shiva-related literature developed extensively across India
India
in the 1st millennium CE and through the 13th century, particularly in Kashmir and Tamil Shaiva traditions. The monist Shiva
Shiva
literature posit absolute oneness, that is Shiva
Shiva
is within every man and woman, Shiva
Shiva
is within every living being, Shiva
Shiva
is present everywhere in the world including all non-living being, and there is no spiritual difference between life, matter, man and Shiva. The various dualistic and monist Shiva-related ideas were welcomed in medieval southeast Asia, inspiring numerous Shiva-related temples, artwork and texts in Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia, with syncretic integration of local pre-existing theologies.

ASSIMILATION OF TRADITIONS

See also: Roots of Hinduism

The figure of Shiva
Shiva
as we know him today may be an amalgamation of various older deities into a single figure. How the persona of Shiva converged as a composite deity is not understood, a challenge to trace and has attracted much speculation. According to Vijay Nath, for example:

Vishnu
Vishnu
and Siva began to absorb countless local cults and deities within their folds. The latter were either taken to represent the multiple facets of the same god or else were supposed to denote different forms and appellations by which the god came to be known and worshipped. Siva became identified with countless local cults by the sheer suffixing of _Isa_ or _Isvara_ to the name of the local deity, e.g., Bhutesvara, Hatakesvara, Chandesvara."

An example of assimilation took place in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
, where a regional deity named Khandoba
Khandoba
is a patron deity of farming and herding castes . The foremost center of worship of Khandoba
Khandoba
in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
is in Jejuri
Jejuri
. Khandoba
Khandoba
has been assimilated as a form of Shiva
Shiva
himself, in which case he is worshipped in the form of a lingam. Khandoba's varied associations also include an identification with Surya
Surya
and Karttikeya .

POSITION WITHIN HINDUISM

Lingodbhava is a Shaiva sectarian icon where Shiva
Shiva
is depicted rising from the Lingam
Lingam
(an infinite fiery pillar) that narrates how Shiva
Shiva
is the foremost of the Trimurti; Brahma
Brahma
and Vishnu
Vishnu
are depicted bowing to Lingodbhava Shiva
Shiva
in the centre.

SHAIVISM

Main articles: Shaivism
Shaivism
and History of Shaivism
Shaivism

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SHAIVISM

Deities SHIVAM SHAKTI

* Sadasiva * Rudra
Rudra
* Bhairava
Bhairava
* Parvati
Parvati
* Durga
Durga
* Kali
Kali

* Ganesha
Ganesha
* Murugan
Murugan
* Others

Scriptures and texts

* Agamas and Tantras

* Vedas
Vedas
* Svetasvatara

* Tirumurai
Tirumurai
* Shivasutras * Vachanas

Philosophy and practices Three Components

* Pati * Pashu * Pasam

Three bondages

* Anava * Karma
Karma
* Maya * 36 Tattvas * Yoga
Yoga
* Yama
Yama
-Nyamas

* Guru
Guru
- Linga
Linga
- Jangam
Jangam

Schools ------------------------- ADI MARGAM

* Pashupata * Kalamukha * Kapalika

------------------------- MANTRA MARGAM

_Saiddhantika_

* Siddhantism

_Non - Saiddhantika_

* Kashmir Shaivism
Shaivism

* Pratyabhijna * Vama * Dakshina * Kaula : Trika -Yamala - Kubjika - Netra

------------------------- RELATED

* Lingayatism * Nath
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Scholars

* Lakulisa * Abhinavagupta * Vasugupta * Utpaladeva * Nayanars * Meykandar * Nirartha * Basava * Sharana * Srikantha * Appayya * Navnath

Others

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Temples * Nandi * Tantrism * Jyotirlinga * Maha Shivaratri

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* v * t * e

Shaivism
Shaivism
is one of the four major sects of Hinduism, the others being Vaishnavism , Shaktism
Shaktism
and the Smarta Tradition . Followers of Shaivism, called "Shaivas", revere Shiva
Shiva
as the Supreme Being. Shaivas believe that Shiva
Shiva
is All and in all, the creator, preserver, destroyer, revealer and concealer of all that is. He is not only the creator in Shaivism, he is the creation that results from him, he is everything and everywhere. Shiva
Shiva
is the primal soul, the pure consciousness and Absolute Reality in the Shaiva traditions.

The Shaivism
Shaivism
theology is broadly grouped into two: the popular theology influenced by Shiva- Rudra
Rudra
in the Vedas, Epics and the Puranas; and the esoteric theology influenced by the Shiva
Shiva
and Shakti-related Tantra
Tantra
texts. The Vedic-Brahmanic Shiva
Shiva
theology includes both monist (_advaita_) and devotional traditions (_dvaita_) such as Tamil Shaiva Siddhanta and Lingayatism with temples featuring items such as linga, Shiva- Parvati
Parvati
iconography, bull Nandi within the premises, relief artwork showing mythologies and aspects of Shiva.

The Tantric Shiva
Shiva
tradition ignored the mythologies and Puranas related to Shiva, and depending on the sub-school developed a spectrum of practices. For example, historical records suggest the tantric Kapalikas (literally, the "skull-men") co-existed with and shared many Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhist rituals, engaged in esoteric practices that revered Shiva
Shiva
and Shakti
Shakti
wearing skulls, begged with empty skulls, used meat, alcohol and sexuality as a part of ritual. In contrast, the esoteric tradition within Kashmir Shaivism
Shaivism
has featured the _Krama_ and _Trika_ sub-traditions. The Krama sub-tradition focussed on esoteric rituals around Shiva- Kali
Kali
pair. The Trika sub-tradition developed a theology of triads involving Shiva, combined it with an ascetic lifestyle focusing on personal Shiva
Shiva
in the pursuit of monistic self liberation.

VAISHNAVISM

The Vaishnava (Vishnu-oriented) literature acknowledges and discusses Shiva. Like Shaiva literature that presents Shiva
Shiva
as supreme, the Vaishnava literature presents Vishnu
Vishnu
as supreme. However, both traditions are pluralistic and revere both Shiva
Shiva
and Vishnu
Vishnu
(along with Devi), their texts do not show exclusivism, and Vaishnava texts such as the _Bhagavata Purana_ while praising Krishna
Krishna
as the Ultimate Reality, also present Shiva
Shiva
and Shakti
Shakti
as a personalized form and equivalent to the same Ultimate Reality. The texts of Shaivism tradition similarly praise Vishnu. The Skanda Purana, for example, states:

Vishnu
Vishnu
is nobody but Shiva, and he who is called Shiva
Shiva
is but identical with Vishnu. — Skanda Purana, 1.8.20–21

Mythologies of both traditions include legends about who is superior, about Shiva
Shiva
paying homage to Vishnu, and Vishnu
Vishnu
paying homage to Shiva. However, in texts and artwork of either tradition, the mutual salutes are symbolism for complementarity. The Mahabharata declares the unchanging Ultimate Reality (Brahman) to be identical to Shiva
Shiva
and to Vishnu, that Vishnu
Vishnu
is the highest manifestation of Shiva, and Shiva
Shiva
is the highest manifestation of Vishnu.

SHAKTISM

Ardhanarishvara sculpture, Khajuraho
Khajuraho
, depicting Shiva
Shiva
with goddess Parvati
Parvati
as his equal half.

The goddess-oriented Shakti
Shakti
tradition of Hinduism is based on the premise that the Supreme Principle and the Ultimate Reality called Brahman is female ( Devi
Devi
), but it treats the male as her equal and complementary partner. This partner is Shiva.

The earliest evidence of the tradition of reverence for the feminine with Rudra- Shiva
Shiva
context, is found in the Hindu
Hindu
scripture _ Rigveda
Rigveda
_, in a hymn called the Devi
Devi
Sukta:

I am the Queen, the gatherer-up of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship. Thus gods have established me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in. Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, – each man who sees, breathes, hears the word outspoken. They know it not, yet I reside in the essence of the Universe. Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it.

I, verily, myself announce and utter the word that gods and men alike shall welcome. I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him nourished, a sage, and one who knows Brahman. I bend the bow for Rudra
Rudra
, that his arrow may strike, and slay the hater of devotion. I rouse and order battle for the people, I created Earth and Heaven and reside as their Inner Controller. (...) —  Devi
Devi
Sukta, _Rigveda_ 10.125.3 – 10.125.8,

The _ Devi
Devi
Upanishad _ in its explanation of the theology of Shaktism, mentions and praises Shiva
Shiva
such as in its verse 19. Shiva, along with Vishnu, is a revered god in the _ Devi
Devi
Mahatmya _, a text of Shaktism
Shaktism
considered by the tradition to be as important as the _ Bhagavad Gita _. The Ardhanarisvara concept co-mingles god Shiva and goddess Shakti
Shakti
by presenting an icon that is half man and half woman, a representation and theme of union found in many Hindu
Hindu
texts and temples.

SMARTA TRADITION

Oleograph by Raja Ravi Varma
Raja Ravi Varma
depicting a Shiva-centric Panchayatana. A bearded Shiva
Shiva
sits in the centre with his wife Parvati and their infant son Ganesha; surrounded by (clockwise from left upper corner) Ganesha, Devi, Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva. Shiva's mount is the bull Nandi below Shiva. Main article: Panchayatana puja

In the Smarta tradition of Hinduism, Shiva
Shiva
is a part of its Panchayatana puja . This practice consists of the use of icons or anicons of five deities considered equivalent, set in a quincunx pattern. Shiva
Shiva
is one of the five deities, others being Vishnu, Devi (such as Parvati
Parvati
), Surya
Surya
and Ganesha
Ganesha
or Skanda or any personal god of devotee's preference ( Ishta Devata ).

Philosophically, the Smarta tradition emphasizes that all idols (murti ) are icons to help focus on and visualize aspects of Brahman, rather than distinct beings. The ultimate goal in this practice is to transition past the use of icons, recognize the Absolute symbolized by the icons, on the path to realizing the nondual identity of one's Atman (soul, self) and the Brahman. Popularized by Adi Shankara , many Panchayatana mandalas and temples have been uncovered that are from the Gupta Empire period, and one Panchayatana set from the village of Nand (about 24 kilometers from Ajmer
Ajmer
) has been dated to belong to the Kushan Empire era (pre-300 CE). The Kushan period set includes Shiva, Vishnu, Surya, Brahma
Brahma
and one deity whose identity is unclear.

YOGA

Shiva
Shiva
is considered the Great Yogi
Yogi
who is totally absorbed in himself – the transcendental reality. He is the Lord of Yogis , and the teacher of Yoga
Yoga
to sages. As Shiva
Shiva
Dakshinamurthi, states Stella Kramrisch, he is the supreme guru who "teaches in silence the oneness of one's innermost self (_atman_) with the ultimate reality (_brahman_)."

The theory and practice of Yoga, in different styles, has been a part of all major traditions of Hinduism, and Shiva
Shiva
has been the patron or spokesperson in numerous Hindu
Hindu
Yoga
Yoga
texts. These contain the philosophy and techniques for Yoga. These ideas are estimated to be from or after the late centuries of the 1st millennium CE, and have survived as Yoga
Yoga
texts such as the _Isvara Gita_ (literally, "Shiva's song"), which Andrew Nicholson – a professor of Hinduism and Indian Intellectual History – states have had "a profound and lasting influence on the development of Hinduism".

Other famed Shiva-related texts influenced Hatha Yoga
Yoga
, integrated monistic (_ Advaita Vedanta_) ideas with Yoga
Yoga
philosophy and inspired the theoretical development of Indian classical dance
Indian classical dance
. These include the _ Shiva
Shiva
Sutras_, the _ Shiva
Shiva
Samhita_, and those by the scholars of Kashmir Shaivism
Shaivism
such as the 10th-century scholar Abhinavagupta . Abhinavagupta writes in his notes on the relevance of ideas related to Shiva
Shiva
and Yoga, by stating that "people, occupied as they are with their own affairs, normally do nothing for others", and Shiva
Shiva
and Yoga spirituality helps one look beyond, understand interconnectedness, and thus benefit both the individual and the world towards a more blissful state of existence.

TRIMURTI

Main article: Trimurti
Trimurti

The Trimurti
Trimurti
is a concept in Hinduism in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified by the forms of Brahma
Brahma
the creator, Vishnu
Vishnu
the maintainer or preserver and Shiva the destroyer or transformer. These three deities have been called "the Hindu
Hindu
triad" or the "Great Trinity". However, the ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism feature many triads of gods and goddesses, some of which do not include Shiva.

ATTRIBUTES

_ Shiva
Shiva
with Parvati. Shiva
Shiva
is depicted three-eyed, the Ganges flowing through his matted hair, wearing ornaments of serpents and a skull garland, covered in ashes, and seated on a tiger skin A seated Shiva
Shiva
holds an axe and deer in his hands.

* THIRD EYE: Shiva
Shiva
is often depicted with a third eye , with which he burned Desire ( Kāma ) to ashes, called "Tryambakam" (Sanskrit: त्र्यम्बकम्_ ), which occurs in many scriptural sources. In classical Sanskrit, the word _ambaka_ denotes "an eye", and in the _Mahabharata_, Shiva
Shiva
is depicted as three-eyed, so this name is sometimes translated as "having three eyes". However, in Vedic Sanskrit, the word _ambā_ or _ambikā_ means "mother", and this early meaning of the word is the basis for the translation "three mothers". These three mother-goddesses who are collectively called the Ambikās. Other related translations have been based on the idea that the name actually refers to the oblations given to Rudra, which according to some traditions were shared with the goddess Ambikā. * CRESCENT MOON: Shiva
Shiva
bears on his head the crescent moon. The epithet Candraśekhara (Sanskrit: चन्द्रशेखर "Having the moon as his crest" – _candra _ = "moon"; _śekhara_ = "crest, crown") refers to this feature. The placement of the moon on his head as a standard iconographic feature dates to the period when Rudra
Rudra
rose to prominence and became the major deity Rudra-Shiva. The origin of this linkage may be due to the identification of the moon with Soma, and there is a hymn in the Rig Veda where Soma and Rudra
Rudra
are jointly implored, and in later literature, Soma and Rudra came to be identified with one another, as were Soma and the moon. * ASHES: Shiva
Shiva
iconography shows his body covered with ashes (bhasma , vibhuti). The ashes represent a reminder that all of material existence is impermanent, comes to an end becoming ash, and the pursuit of eternal soul and spiritual liberation is important. * MATTED HAIR: Shiva's distinctive hair style is noted in the epithets Jaṭin, "the one with matted hair", and Kapardin, "endowed with matted hair" or "wearing his hair wound in a braid in a shell-like (kaparda) fashion". A kaparda is a cowrie shell, or a braid of hair in the form of a shell, or, more generally, hair that is shaggy or curly. * BLUE THROAT: The epithet Nīlakaṇtha (Sanskrit नीलकण्ठ; _nīla_ = "blue", _kaṇtha_ = "throat"). Since Shiva
Shiva
drank the Halahala poison churned up from the Samudra Manthan to eliminate its destructive capacity. Shocked by his act, Parvati
Parvati
squeezed his neck and stopped it in his neck to prevent it from spreading all over the universe, supposed to be in Shiva's stomach. However the poison was so potent that it changed the color of his neck to blue. * MEDITATING YOGI: his iconography often shows him in a Yoga
Yoga
pose, meditating, sometimes on a symbolic Himalayan Mount Kailasha as the Lord of Yoga. * SACRED GANGA: The epithet _Gangadhara_, "Bearer of the river Ganga " (Ganges). The Ganga
Ganga
flows from the matted hair of Shiva. The _Gaṅgā_ (Ganga), one of the major rivers of the country, is said to have made her abode in Shiva's hair. * TIGER SKIN: Shiva
Shiva
is often shown seated upon a tiger skin. * SERPENTS: Shiva
Shiva
is often shown garlanded with a snake . * TRIDENT: Shiva
Shiva
typically carries a trident called _ Trishula _. The trident is a weapon or a symbol in different Hindu
Hindu
texts. As a symbol, the _Trishul_ represents Shiva's three aspects of "creator, preserver and destroyer", or alternatively it represents the equilibrium of three Gunas of "sattva, rajas and tamas". * DRUM: A small drum shaped like an hourglass is known as a _damaru _. This is one of the attributes of Shiva
Shiva
in his famous dancing representation known as Nataraja
Nataraja
. A specific hand gesture (mudra ) called _ḍamaru-hasta_ ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "ḍamaru-hand") is used to hold the drum. This drum is particularly used as an emblem by members of the Kāpālika sect. * AXE (_ Parashu _) and DEER are held in Shiva's hands in south Indian icons. * ROSARY BEADS: he is garlanded with or carries a string of rosary beads in his right hand, typically made of _ Rudraksha
Rudraksha
_. This symbolises grace, mendicant life and meditation. * NANDī: Nandī , also known as "Nandin", is the name of the bull that serves as Shiva's mount (Sanskrit: _vāhana _). Shiva's association with cattle is reflected in his name Paśupati, or Pashupati
Pashupati
(Sanskrit: पशुपति), translated by Sharma as "lord of cattle" and by Kramrisch as "lord of animals", who notes that it is particularly used as an epithet of Rudra. * MOUNT KAILāSA: Mount Kailash in the Himalayas
Himalayas
is his traditional abode. In Hindu
Hindu
mythology, Mount Kailāsa is conceived as resembling a _ Linga
Linga
_, representing the center of the universe. * GAṇA: The Gaṇas are attendants of Shiva
Shiva
and live in Kailash. They are often referred to as the bhutaganas, or ghostly hosts, on account of their nature. Generally benign, except when their lord is transgressed against, they are often invoked to intercede with the lord on behalf of the devotee. His son Ganesha
Ganesha
was chosen as their leader by Shiva, hence Ganesha's title _gaṇa-īśa_ or _gaṇa-pati_, "lord of the gaṇas". * VARANASI: Varanasi
Varanasi
(Benares) is considered to be the city specially loved by Shiva, and is one of the holiest places of pilgrimage in India. It is referred to, in religious contexts, as Kashi.

FORMS AND DEPICTIONS

According to Gavin Flood , " Shiva
Shiva
is a god of ambiguity and paradox," whose attributes include opposing themes. The ambivalent nature of this deity is apparent in some of his names and the stories told about him.

DESTROYER AND BENEFACTOR

Shiva
Shiva
is represented in his many aspects. Left: Bhairava icon of the fierce form of Shiva, from 17th/18th century Nepal; Right: Shiva
Shiva
as a meditating yogi in Rishikesh
Rishikesh
.

In Yajurveda
Yajurveda
, two contrary sets of attributes for both malignant or terrifying (Sanskrit: _rudra_) and benign or auspicious (Sanskrit: _śiva_) forms can be found, leading Chakravarti to conclude that "all the basic elements which created the complex Rudra-Śiva sect of later ages are to be found here". In the Mahabharata, Shiva
Shiva
is depicted as "the standard of invincibility, might, and terror", as well as a figure of honor, delight, and brilliance.

The duality of Shiva's fearful and auspicious attributes appears in contrasted names. The name Rudra
Rudra
reflects Shiva's fearsome aspects. According to traditional etymologies, the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name _Rudra_ is derived from the root _rud-_, which means "to cry, howl". Stella Kramrisch notes a different etymology connected with the adjectival form _raudra_, which means "wild, of _rudra_ nature", and translates the name _ Rudra
Rudra
_ as "the wild one" or "the fierce god". R. K. Sharma follows this alternate etymology and translates the name as "terrible". Hara is an important name that occurs three times in the Anushasanaparvan version of the _ Shiva
Shiva
sahasranama _, where it is translated in different ways each time it occurs, following a commentorial tradition of not repeating an interpretation. Sharma translates the three as "one who captivates", "one who consolidates", and "one who destroys". Kramrisch translates it as "the ravisher". Another of Shiva's fearsome forms is as Kāla "time" and Mahākāla "great time", which ultimately destroys all things. The name Kāla appears in the _ Shiva
Shiva
Sahasranama_, where it is translated by Ram Karan Sharma as "(the Supreme Lord of) Time". Bhairava
Bhairava
"terrible" or "frightful" is a fierce form associated with annihilation.In contrast, the name Śaṇkara, "beneficent" or "conferring happiness" reflects his benign form. This name was adopted by the great Vedanta philosopher Adi Shankara (c. 788–820), who is also known as Shankaracharya. The name Śambhu (Sanskrit: शम्भु swam-on its own; bhu-burn/shine) "self-shining/ shining on its own", also reflects this benign aspect.

ASCETIC AND HOUSEHOLDER

Shiva
Shiva
is depicted both as an ascetic yogi, and as a householder with goddess Parvati
Parvati
.

Shiva
Shiva
is depicted as both an ascetic yogi and as a householder, roles which have been traditionally mutually exclusive in Hindu
Hindu
society. When depicted as a yogi, he may be shown sitting and meditating. His epithet Mahāyogi ("the great Yogi: _Mahā_ = "great", _Yogi_ = "one who practices Yoga") refers to his association with yoga. While Vedic religion was conceived mainly in terms of sacrifice, it was during the Epic period that the concepts of tapas , yoga, and asceticism became more important, and the depiction of Shiva
Shiva
as an ascetic sitting in philosophical isolation reflects these later concepts.

As a family man and householder, he has a wife, Parvati
Parvati
and two sons, Ganesha
Ganesha
and Kartikeya. His epithet Umāpati ("The husband of Umā") refers to this idea, and Sharma notes that two other variants of this name that mean the same thing, Umākānta and Umādhava, also appear in the sahasranama. Umā in epic literature is known by many names, including the benign Pārvatī. She is identified with Devi
Devi
, the Divine Mother; Shakti
Shakti
(divine energy) as well as goddesses like Tripura Sundari , Durga
Durga
, Kali
Kali
, Kamakshi and Minakshi . The consorts of Shiva
Shiva
are the source of his creative energy. They represent the dynamic extension of Shiva
Shiva
onto this universe. His son Ganesha
Ganesha
is worshipped throughout India
India
and Nepal
Nepal
as the Remover of Obstacles, Lord of Beginnings and Lord of Obstacles. Kartikeya is worshipped in South India
India
(especially in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, Kerala
Kerala
and Karnataka
Karnataka
) by the names Subrahmanya, Subrahmanyan, Shanmughan, Swaminathan and Murugan, and in Northern India
India
by the names Skanda, Kumara, or Karttikeya.

Some regional deities are also identified as Shiva's children. As one story goes, Shiva
Shiva
is enticed by the beauty and charm of Mohini , Vishnu's female avatar, and procreates with her. As a result of this union, Shasta – identified with regional deities Ayyappan and Aiyanar – is born. In some traditions, Shiva
Shiva
has daughters like the serpent-goddess Manasa
Manasa
and Ashokasundari .

ICONOGRAPHIC FORMS

Chola dynasty statue depicting Shiva
Shiva
dancing as Nataraja
Nataraja
(Los Angeles County Museum of Art )

The depiction of Shiva
Shiva
as Nataraja
Nataraja
(Sanskrit: _naṭarāja_, "Lord of Dance") is popular. The names Nartaka ("dancer") and Nityanarta ("eternal dancer") appear in the Shiva
Shiva
Sahasranama. His association with dance and also with music is prominent in the Puranic period. In addition to the specific iconographic form known as Nataraja, various other types of dancing forms (Sanskrit: _nṛtyamūrti_) are found in all parts of India, with many well-defined varieties in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
in particular. The two most common forms of the dance are the Tandava , which later came to denote the powerful and masculine dance as Kala-Mahakala associated with the destruction of the world. When it requires the world or universe to be destroyed, Shiva
Shiva
does it by the Tandava, and Lasya , which is graceful and delicate and expresses emotions on a gentle level and is considered the feminine dance attributed to the goddess Parvati. _Lasya_ is regarded as the female counterpart of _Tandava_. The _Tandava_-_Lasya_ dances are associated with the destruction-creation of the world.

Dakshinamurthy _(Dakṣiṇāmūrti)_ literally describes a form (_mūrti_) of Shiva
Shiva
facing south (_dakṣiṇa_). This form represents Shiva
Shiva
in his aspect as a teacher of yoga, music, and wisdom and giving exposition on the shastras. This iconographic form for depicting Shiva
Shiva
in Indian art is mostly from Tamil Nadu. Elements of this motif can include Shiva
Shiva
seated upon a deer-throne and surrounded by sages who are receiving his instruction.

An iconographic representation of Shiva
Shiva
called Ardhanarishvara (_Ardhanārīśvara_) shows him with one half of the body as male and the other half as female. According to Ellen Goldberg, the traditional Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name for this form is best translated as "the lord who is half woman", not as "half-man, half-woman".

Shiva
Shiva
is often depicted as an archer in the act of destroying the triple fortresses, _Tripura_, of the Asuras. Shiva's name Tripurantaka ( _Tripurāntaka_), "ender of Tripura", refers to this important story.

LINGAM

Traditional flower offering to a lingam in Varanasi
Varanasi
Main article: Lingam
Lingam

Apart from anthropomorphic images of Shiva, he is also represented in aniconic form of a lingam. These are depicted in various designs. One common form is the shape of a vertical rounded column in the centre of a lipped, disk-shaped object, the _yoni_, symbolism for the goddess Shakti. In Shiva
Shiva
temples, the _linga_ is typically present in its sanctum sanctorum and is the focus of votary offerings such as milk, water, flower petals, fruit, fresh leaves, and rice. According to Monier Williams and Yudit Greenberg, _linga_ literally means "mark, sign or emblem", and also refers to a "mark or sign from which the existence of something else can be reliably inferred". It implies the regenerative divine energy innate in nature, symbolized by Shiva. Some scholars, such as Wendy Doniger , view _linga_ merely as an erotic phallic symbol, although this interpretation is disputed by others, including Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
, Sivananda Saraswati
Sivananda Saraswati
, and S. N. Balagangadhara . According to Moriz Winternitz , the _linga_ in the Shiva
Shiva
tradition is "only a symbol of the productive and creative principle of nature as embodied in Shiva", and it has no historical trace in any obscene phallic cult.

The worship of the lingam originated from the famous hymn in the _Atharva-Veda Samhitâ_ sung in praise of the _Yupa-Stambha_, the sacrificial post. In that hymn, a description is found of the beginningless and endless _ Stambha
Stambha
_ or _Skambha_, and it is shown that the said _Skambha_ is put in place of the eternal Brahman . Just as the Yajna (sacrificial) fire, its smoke, ashes, and flames, the _Soma_ plant, and the ox that used to carry on its back the wood for the Vedic sacrifice gave place to the conceptions of the brightness of Shiva's body, his tawny matted hair, his blue throat, and the riding on the bull of the Shiva, the _Yupa-Skambha_ gave place in time to the _Shiva-Linga_. In the text _ Linga
Linga
Purana_, the same hymn is expanded in the shape of stories, meant to establish the glory of the great Stambha
Stambha
and the superiority of Shiva
Shiva
as Mahadeva.

The oldest known archaeological _linga_ as an anicon of Shiva
Shiva
is the Gudimallam lingam from 3rd-century BCE. In Shaivism
Shaivism
pilgrimage tradition, twelve major temples of Shiva
Shiva
are called Jyotirlinga , which means "linga of light", and these are located across India.

THE FIVE MANTRAS

The 10th century five headed Shiva, Sadashiva, Cambodia.

Five is a sacred number for Shiva. One of his most important mantras has five syllables (namaḥ śivāya).

Shiva's body is said to consist of five mantras, called the pañcabrahmans. As forms of God, each of these have their own names and distinct iconography:

* Sadyojāta * Vāmadeva * Aghora * Tatpuruṣa * Īsāna

These are represented as the five faces of Shiva
Shiva
and are associated in various texts with the five elements, the five senses, the five organs of perception, and the five organs of action. Doctrinal differences and, possibly, errors in transmission, have resulted in some differences between texts in details of how these five forms are linked with various attributes. The overall meaning of these associations is summarized by Stella Kramrisch:

Through these transcendent categories, Śiva, the ultimate reality, becomes the efficient and material cause of all that exists.

According to the _Pañcabrahma Upanishad_:

One should know all things of the phenomenal world as of a fivefold character, for the reason that the eternal verity of Śiva is of the character of the fivefold Brahman. (_Pañcabrahma Upanishad_ 31)

AVATARS

Puranic scriptures contain occasional references to "ansh" – literally portion, or avatars of Shiva, but the idea of Shiva
Shiva
avatars is not universally accepted in Saivism . The Linga Purana mentions twenty-eight forms of Shiva
Shiva
which are sometimes seen as avatars, however such mention is unusual and the avatars of Shiva
Shiva
is relatively rare in Shaivism
Shaivism
compared to the well emphasized concept of Vishnu avatars in Vaishnavism .

Some Vaishnava literature reverentially link Shiva
Shiva
to characters in its mythologies. For example, in the _ Hanuman Chalisa _, Hanuman
Hanuman
is identified as the eleventh avatar of Shiva. The _ Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
_ and the _ Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana _ claim sage Durvasa
Durvasa
to be a portion of Shiva. Some medieval era writers have called the Advaita Vedanta philosopher Adi Shankara an incarnation of Shiva.

FESTIVALS

Main article: Maha Shivaratri _ Maha Sivaratri festival is observed in the night, usually in lighted temples or special prabha_ (above).

There is a _Shivaratri_ in every lunar month on its 13th night/14th day, but once a year in late winter (February/March) and before the arrival of spring, marks _Maha Shivaratri_ which means "the Great Night of Shiva".

Maha Shivaratri is a major Hindu
Hindu
festival, but one that is solemn and theologically marks a remembrance of "overcoming darkness and ignorance" in life and the world, and meditation about the polarities of existence, of Shiva
Shiva
and a devotion to humankind. It is observed by reciting Shiva-related poems, chanting prayers, remembering Shiva, fasting, doing Yoga
Yoga
and meditating on ethics and virtues such as self-restraint, honesty, noninjury to others, forgiveness, introspection, self-repentance and the discovery of Shiva. The ardent devotees keep awake all night. Others visit one of the Shiva temples or go on pilgrimage to Jyotirlingam shrines. Those who visit temples, offer milk, fruits, flowers, fresh leaves and sweets to the lingam. Some communities organize special dance events, to mark Shiva as the lord of dance, with individual and group performances. According to Jones and Ryan, Maha Sivaratri is an ancient Hindu festival which probably originated around the 5th-century.

Another major festival involving Shiva
Shiva
worship is Kartik Purnima , commemorating Shiva\'s victory on the demons Tripurasura . Across India, various Shiva
Shiva
temples are illuminated throughout the night. Shiva
Shiva
icons are carried in procession in some places.

Regional festivals dedicated to Shiva
Shiva
include the Chittirai festival in Madurai
Madurai
around April/May, one of the largest festivals in South India, celebrating the wedding of Minakshi (Parvati) and Shiva. The festival is one where both the Vaishnava and Shaiva communities join the celebrations, because Vishnu
Vishnu
gives away his sister Minakshi in marriage to Shiva.

Some Shaktism-related festivals revere Shiva
Shiva
along with the goddess considered primary and Supreme. These include festivals dedicated to Annapurna
Annapurna
such as _Annakuta_ and those related to Durga. In Himalayan regions such as Nepal, as well as in northern, central and western India, the festival of Teej
Teej
is celebrated by girls and women in the monsoon season, in honor of goddess Parvati, with group singing, dancing and by offering prayers in Parvati- Shiva
Shiva
temples.

The ascetic, Vedic and Tantric sub-traditions related to Shiva, such as those that became ascetic warriors during the Islamic rule period of India, celebrate the Kumbha Mela
Kumbha Mela
festival. This festival cycles every 12 years, in four pilgrimage sites within India, with the event moving to the next site after a gap of three years. The biggest is in Prayaga (renamed Allahabad during the Mughal rule era), where millions of Hindus of different traditions gather at the confluence of rivers Ganges
Ganges
and Yamuna. In the Hindu
Hindu
tradition, the Shiva-linked ascetic warriors (_Nagas_) get the honor of starting the event by entering the _sangam_ first for bathing and prayers.

OUTSIDE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

Shiva
Shiva
has been adopted and merged with Buddhist deities. Left: Daikokuten
Daikokuten
is a Shiva- Ōkuninushi
Ōkuninushi
fusion deity in Japan; Right: Acala
Acala
is a fierce Shiva
Shiva
adaptation.

In Shaivism
Shaivism
of Indonesia, the popular name for Shiva
Shiva
has been _Bhattara Guru
Guru
_, which is derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_Bhattaraka_ which means “noble lord". He is conceptualized as a kind spiritual teacher, the first of all Gurus in Indonesian Hindu
Hindu
texts, mirroring the Dakshinamurti aspect of Shiva
Shiva
in the Indian subcontinent. However, the Bhattara Guru
Guru
has more aspects than the Indian Shiva, as the Indonesian Hindus blended their spirits and heroes with him. Bhattara Guru's wife in southeast Asia is the same Hindu
Hindu
deity Durga, who has been popular since ancient times, and she too has a complex character with benevolent and fierce manifestations, each visualized with different names such as Uma, Sri, Kali
Kali
and others. Shiva
Shiva
has been called Sadasiva, Paramasiva, Mahadeva in benevolent forms, and Kala, Bhairava, Mahakala in his fierce forms. The Indonesian Hindu texts present the same philosophical diversity of Shaivism
Shaivism
traditions found on the subcontinent. However, among the texts that have survived into the contemporary era, the more common are of those of Shaiva Siddhanta (locally also called Siwa Siddhanta, Sridanta).

The worship of Shiva
Shiva
became popular in Central Asia through the Hephthalite Empire
Hephthalite Empire
, and Kushan Empire . Shaivism
Shaivism
was also popular in Sogdia
Sogdia
and the Kingdom of Yutian as found from the wall painting from Penjikent on the river Zervashan. In this depiction, Shiva
Shiva
is portrayed with a sacred halo and a sacred thread ("Yajnopavita"). He is clad in tiger skin while his attendants are wearing Sogdian dress. A panel from Dandan Oilik shows Shiva
Shiva
in His Trimurti
Trimurti
form with Shakti kneeling on her right thigh. Another site in the Taklamakan Desert depicts him with four legs, seated cross-legged on a cushioned seat supported by two bulls. It is also noted that Zoroastrian wind god Vayu-Vata took on the iconographic appearance of Shiva.

Daikokuten
Daikokuten
, one of the Seven Lucky Gods in Japan, is considered to be evolved from Shiva. The god enjoys an exalted position as a household deity in Japan and is worshipped as the god of wealth and fortune. The name is the Japanese equivalent of Mahākāla , the Buddhist name for Shiva.

OTHER RELIGIONS

Buddhism

In the pre-Islamic period on the island of Java
Java
, Shaivism
Shaivism
and Buddhism were considered very close and allied religions, though not identical religions. The medieval era Indonesian literature equates Buddha with Siwa (Shiva) and Janardana (Vishnu). This tradition continues in predominantly Hindu
Hindu
Bali Indonesia in the modern era, where Buddha is considered the younger brother of Shiva.

Shiva
Shiva
is mentioned in Buddhist Tantra
Tantra
. Shiva
Shiva
as _ Upaya _ and Shakti as _Prajna _. In cosmologies of Buddhist tantra, Shiva
Shiva
is depicted as passive, with Shakti
Shakti
being his active counterpart. Sikhism

The Japuji Sahib of the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib says, "The Guru
Guru
is Shiva, the Guru
Guru
is Vishnu
Vishnu
and Brahma; the Guru
Guru
is Paarvati and Lakhshmi." In the same chapter, it also says, " Shiva
Shiva
speaks, and the Siddhas listen." In Dasam Granth , Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh has mentioned two avtars of Rudra: Dattatreya Avtar and Parasnath
Parasnath
Avtar.

IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE

The statue of Shiva
Shiva
as Nataraja
Nataraja
at CERN in Geneva
Geneva
.

In contemporary culture, Shiva
Shiva
is depicted in films, books, tattoos and art. He has been referred to as "the god of cool things" and a "bonafide rock hero". Popular films include the Gujarati language movie _Har Har Mahadev_ and well-known books include Amish Tripathi 's Shiva Trilogy , which has sold over a million copies. On television, Devon Ke Dev...Mahadev , a mythological drama about Shiva on the Life OK channel was among the most watched shows at its peak popularity. Shiva
Shiva
is also a character in the Xbox
Xbox
game Dark Souls , with the name Shiva
Shiva
of the East.

SEE ALSO

* Rudra
Rudra
* Shiva Sahasranama * Acala
Acala
* Batara Guru
Guru
* Sang Hyang Manikmaya * Thiwa (Paramethwa) * Daikokuten
Daikokuten
* Shakti
Shakti
* _Adiyogi Shiva_ statue

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Flood 1996 , pp. 17, 153 * ^ K. Sivaraman (1973). _Śaivism in Philosophical Perspective: A Study of the Formative Concepts, Problems, and Methods of Śaiva Siddhānta_. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 131. ISBN 978-81-208-1771-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Zimmer (1972) pp. 124-126 * ^ Jan Gonda (1969), The Hindu
Hindu
Trinity, Anthropos, Bd 63/64, H 1/2, pages 212–226 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Arvind Sharma 2000 , p. 65. * ^ _A_ _B_ Issitt & Main 2014 , pp. 147, 168. * ^ Flood 1996 , p. 151. * ^ _A_ _B_ David Kinsley 1988 , p. 50, 103–104. * ^ _A_ _B_ Tracy Pintchman 2015 , pp. 113, 119, 144, 171. * ^ Kramrisch 1981 , pp. 184–188 * ^ Davis, pp. 113–114. * ^ William K. Mahony 1998 , p. 14. * ^ Shiva
Shiva
Samhita, e.g. translation by Mallinson. * ^ Varenne, p. 82. * ^ Marchand for Jnana Yoga. * ^ Fuller, p. 58. * ^ _A_ _B_ Flood 1996 , p. 17. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Keay, p.xxvii. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Monier Monier-Williams (1899), Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to English Dictionary with Etymology, Oxford University Press, pages 1074–1076 * ^ Karen Pechilis Prentiss (2000). _The Embodiment of Bhakti_. Oxford University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-19-535190-3 . * ^ For use of the term _śiva_ as an epithet for other Vedic deities, see: Chakravarti, p. 28. * ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 21–22. * ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 1, 7, 21–23. * ^ For root _śarv-_ see: Apte, p. 910. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sharma 1996 , p. 306. * ^ Apte, p. 927 * ^ For the definition "Śaivism refers to the traditions which follow the teachings of Śiva (_śivaśāna_) and which focus on the deity Śiva... " see: Flood (1996), p. 149. * ^ van Lysebeth, Andre (2002). _Tantra: Cult of the Feminine_. Weiser Books. p. 213. ISBN 9780877288459 . * ^ Tyagi, Ishvar Chandra
Chandra
(1982). _ Shaivism
Shaivism
in Ancient India: From the Earliest Times to C.A.D. 300_. Meenakshi Prakashan. p. 81. * ^ Sri Vishnu
Vishnu
Sahasranama, Ramakrishna Math edition, pg.47 and pg. 122. * ^ Swami Chinmayananda's translation of Vishnu
Vishnu
sahasranama, p. 24, Central Chinmaya Mission Trust. * ^ For translation see: Dutt, Chapter 17 of Volume 13. * ^ For translation see: Ganguli, Chapter 17 of Volume 13. * ^ Chidbhavananda, "Siva Sahasranama Stotram". * ^ Lochtefeld, James G. (2002). _The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M_. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 247. ISBN 0-8239-3179-X . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Kramrisch, p. 476. * ^ For appearance of the name महादेव in the _Shiva Sahasranama_ see: Sharma 1996 , p. 297 * ^ Kramrisch, p. 477. * ^ For appearance of the name in the Shiva Sahasranama see:Sharma 1996 , p. 299 * ^ For Parameśhvara as "Supreme Lord" see: Kramrisch, p. 479. * ^ Sir Monier Monier-Williams, _sahasranAman_, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages, Oxford University Press (Reprinted: Motilal Banarsidass), ISBN 978-8120831056 * ^ Sharma 1996 , p. viii–ix * ^ This is the source for the version presented in Chidbhavananda, who refers to it being from the Mahabharata but does not explicitly clarify which of the two Mahabharata versions he is using. See Chidbhavananda, p. 5. * ^ For an overview of the _Śatarudriya_ see: Kramrisch, pp. 71–74. * ^ For complete Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text, translations, and commentary see: Sivaramamurti (1976). * ^ James A. Boon (1977). _The Anthropological Romance of Bali 1597–1972_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 143, 205. ISBN 978-0-521-21398-1 . * ^ Klaus K. Klostermaier (2007), _A Survey of Hinduism, 3rd Edition_, State University of University Press, pp. 24–25, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4 , _... prehistoric cave paintings at Bhimbetka (from ca. 100,000 to ca. 10,000 BCE) which were discovered only in 1967..._ * ^ Javid, Ali (January 2008). _World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India_. Algora Publishing. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-87586-484-6 . * ^ Mathpal, Yashodhar (1984). _Prehistoric Rock Paintings of Bhimbetka, Central India_. Abhinav Publications. p. 220. ISBN 978-81-7017-193-5 . * ^ Rajarajan, R.K.K. (1996). "Vṛṣabhavāhanamūrti in Literature and Art". _Annali del Istituto Orientale, Naples_. 56.3: 56.3: 305–10. * ^ Howard Morphy (2014). _Animals Into Art_. Routledge. pp. 364–366. ISBN 978-1-317-59808-4 . * ^ Neumayer, Erwin (2013). _Prehistoric Rock Art of India_. OUP India. p. 104. ISBN 9780198060987 . Retrieved 1 March 2017. * ^ For a drawing of the seal see Figure 1 _in_: Flood (1996), p. 29. * ^ Singh, S.P., _Rgvedic Base of the Pasupati Seal of Mohenjo-Daro_(Approx 2500–3000 BC), Puratattva 19: 19–26. 1989 * ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark. _Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization_. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1998. * ^ For translation of _paśupati_ as "Lord of Animals" see: Michaels, p. 312. * ^ Ranbir Vohra (2000). _The Making of India: A Historical Survey_. M.E. Sharpe. p. 15. * ^ Grigoriĭ Maksimovich Bongard-Levin (1985). _Ancient Indian Civilization_. Arnold-Heinemann. p. 45. * ^ Steven Rosen; Graham M. Schweig (2006). _Essential Hinduism_. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 45. * ^ _A_ _B_ Flood (1996), pp. 28–29. * ^ Flood 1996 , pp. 28–29. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Flood 2003 , pp. 204–205. * ^ _A_ _B_ Srinivasan, Doris Meth (1997). _Many Heads, Arms and Eyes: Origin, Meaning and Form in Multiplicity in Indian Art_. Brill. p. 181. ISBN 978-9004107588 . * ^ Flood (2003), pp. 204–205. * ^ John Keay. _India: A History_. Grove Press. p. 14. * ^ McEvilley, Thomas (1981-03-01). "An Archaeology of Yoga". _Res: Anthropology and aesthetics_. 1: 51. ISSN 0277-1322 . doi :10.1086/RESv1n1ms20166655 . * ^ Asko Parpola(2009), Deciphering the Indus Script, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521795661 , pages 240-250 * ^ Possehl, Gregory L. (11 November 2002). _The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective_. Rowman Altamira. pp. 140–144. ISBN 978-0-7591-1642-9 . * ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 1–2. * ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 2–3. * ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 1–9. * ^ _A_ _B_ Roger D. Woodard (2010). _Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult_. University of Illinois Press. pp. 60–67, 79–80. ISBN 978-0-252-09295-4 . * ^ Alain Daniélou (1992). _Gods of Love and Ecstasy: The Traditions of Shiva
Shiva
and Dionysus_. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-0-89281-374-2 . , Quote: "The parallels between the names and legends of Shiva, Osiris and Dionysus are so numerous that there can be little doubt as to their original sameness". * ^ Namita Gokhale (2009). _The Book of Shiva_. Penguin Books. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-14-306761-0 . * ^ Pierfrancesco Callieri (2005), A Dionysian Scheme on a Seal from Gupta India, East and West, Vol. 55, No. 1/4 (December 2005), pages 71–80 * ^ Long, J. Bruce (1971). "Siva and Dionysos: Visions of Terror and Bliss". _Numen_. 18 (3): 180. doi :10.2307/3269768 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1980), Dionysus and Siva: Parallel Patterns in Two Pairs of Myths, History of Religions, Vol. 20, No. 1/2 (Aug. – Nov., 1980), pages 81–111 * ^ Patrick Laude (2005). _Divine Play, Sacred Laughter, and Spiritual Understanding_. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 41–60. ISBN 978-1-4039-8058-8 . * ^ Walter Friedrich Otto; Robert B. Palmer (1965). _Dionysus: Myth and Cult_. Indiana University Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-253-20891-2 . * ^ Dineschandra Sircar (1998). _The Śākta Pīṭhas_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 3 with footnote 2, 102–105. ISBN 978-81-208-0879-9 . * ^ Michaels, p. 316. * ^ Flood (2003), p. 73. * ^ For dating based on "cumulative evidence" see: Oberlies, p. 158. * ^ Doniger, pp. 221–223. * ^ Stella Kramrisch (1993). _The Presence of Siva_. Princeton University Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-691-01930-4 . * ^ Stella Kramrisch (1993). _The Presence of Siva_. Princeton University Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-691-01930-4 . * ^ For general statement of the close relationship, and example shared epithets, see: Sivaramamurti, p. 11. * ^ For an overview of the Rudra-Fire complex of ideas, see: Kramrisch, pp. 15–19. * ^ For quotation "An important factor in the process of Rudra's growth is his identification with Agni
Agni
in the Vedic literature and this identification contributed much to the transformation of his character as Rudra-Śiva." see: Chakravarti, p. 17. * ^ For translation from _Nirukta_ 10.7, see: Sarup (1927), p. 155. * ^ Kramrisch, p. 18. * ^ For "Note Agni- Rudra
Rudra
concept fused" in epithets Sasipañjara and Tivaṣīmati see: Sivaramamurti, p. 45. * ^ "Rig Veda: Rig-Veda, Book 6: HYMN XLVIII. Agni
Agni
and Others". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2010-06-06. * ^ For the parallel between the horns of Agni
Agni
as bull, and Rudra, see: Chakravarti, p. 89. * ^ RV 8.49; 10.155. * ^ For flaming hair of Agni
Agni
and Bhairava
Bhairava
see: Sivaramamurti, p. 11. * ^ Hans Loeschner (2012), Victor Mair (Editor), The Stūpa of the Kushan Emperor Kanishka the Great Sino-Platonic Papers, No. 227, pages 11, 19 * ^ Doniger, Wendy (1973). "The Vedic Antecedents". _Śiva, the erotic ascetic_. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
US. pp. 84–9. * ^ For text of RV 2.20.3a as स नो युवेन्द्रो जोहूत्रः सखा शिवो नरामस्तु पाता । and translation as "May that young adorable _Indra_, ever be the friend, the benefactor, and protector of us, his worshipper" see: Arya & Joshi (2001), p. 48, volume 2. * ^ For text of RV 6.45.17 as यो गृणतामिदासिथापिरूती शिवः सखा । स त्वं न इन्द्र मृलय ॥ and translation as "_Indra_, who has ever been the friend of those who praise you, and the insurer of their happiness by your protection, grant us felicity" see: Arya & Joshi (2001), p. 91, volume 3. * ^ For translation of RV 6.45.17 as "Thou who hast been the singers' Friend, a Friend auspicious with thine aid, As such, O Indra, favour us" see: Griffith 1973 , p. 310. * ^ For text of RV 8.93.3 as स न इन्द्रः सिवः सखाश्चावद् गोमद्यवमत् । उरूधारेव दोहते ॥ and translation as "May _Indra_, our auspicious friend, milk for us, like a richly-streaming (cow), wealth of horses, kine, and barley" see: Arya & Joshi (2001), p. 48, volume 2. * ^ For the bull parallel between Indra
Indra
and Rudra
Rudra
see: Chakravarti, p. 89. * ^ RV 7.19. * ^ For the lack of warlike connections and difference between Indra
Indra
and Rudra, see: Chakravarti, p. 8. * ^ Roger D. Woodard (18 August 2006). _Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult_. University of Illinois Press. pp. 242–. ISBN 978-0-252-09295-4 . * ^ Beckwith 2009 , p. 32. * ^ T. Richard Blurton (1993). _ Hindu
Hindu
Art_. Harvard University Press. pp. 84, 103. ISBN 978-0-674-39189-5 . * ^ T. Richard Blurton (1993). _ Hindu
Hindu
Art_. Harvard University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-674-39189-5 . * ^ Pratapaditya Pal (1986). _Indian Sculpture: Circa 500 B.C.-A.D. 700_. University of California Press. pp. 75–80. ISBN 978-0-520-05991-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ C. Sivaramamurti (2004). _Satarudriya: Vibhuti
Vibhuti
Or Shiva\'s Iconography_. Abhinav Publications. pp. 41, 59. ISBN 978-81-7017-038-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Lisa Owen (2012). _Carving Devotion in the Jain Caves at Ellora_. BRILL Academic. pp. 25–29. ISBN 90-04-20629-9 . * ^ Flood 1996 , p. 86. * ^ Flood 2003 , p. 205, for date of Mahabhasya see: Peter M. Scharf (1996), The Denotation of Generic Terms in Ancient Indian Philosophy: Grammar, Nyāya, and Mīmāṃsā, American Philosophical Society, ISBN 978-0-87169-863-6 , page 1 with footnote 2. * ^ Robert Hume, Shvetashvatara Upanishad, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pages 399, 403 * ^ M. Hiriyanna (2000), The Essentials of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120813304 , pages 32–36

* ^ A Kunst, Some notes on the interpretation of the Ṥvetāṥvatara Upaniṣad, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 31, Issue 02, June 1968, pages 309–314; doi :10.1017/S0041977X00146531 ; Doris Srinivasan (1997), Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes, Brill, ISBN 978-9004107588 , pages 96–97 and Chapter 9 * ^ _A_ _B_ Deussen 1997 , pp. 792–793. * ^ Sastri 1898 , pp. 80–82. * ^ Deussen 1997 , p. 556, 769 footnote 1. * ^ _A_ _B_ Deussen 1997 , p. 769. * ^ Klostermaier 1984 , pp. 134, 371. * ^ Radhakrishnan 1953 , p. 929. * ^ Flood 2003 , pp. 205–206. * ^ Rocher 1986 , pp. 187–188, 222–228. * ^ _A_ _B_ Flood 2003 , pp. 208–212. * ^ DS Sharma (1990), The Philosophy of Sadhana, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791403471 , pages 9–14 * ^ Richard Davis (2014), Ritual in an Oscillating Universe: Worshipping Siva in Medieval India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691603087 , page 167 note 21, QUOTE (PAGE 13): "Some agamas argue a monist metaphysics, while others are decidedly dualist. Some claim ritual is the most efficacious means of religious attainment, while others assert that knowledge is more important". * ^ Mark Dyczkowski (1989), The Canon of the Śaivāgama, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805958 , pages 43–44 * ^ JS Vasugupta (2012), Śiva Sūtras, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120804074 , pages 252, 259 * ^ _A_ _B_ Flood 1996 , pp. 162–169. * ^ Ganesh Tagare (2002), The Pratyabhijñā Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120818927 , pages 16–19 * ^ Jan Gonda (1975). _Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 3 Southeast Asia, Religions_. BRILL Academic. pp. 3–20, 35–36, 49–51. ISBN 90-04-04330-6 . * ^ Upendra Thakur (1986). _Some Aspects of Asian History and Culture_. Abhinav Publications. pp. 83–94. ISBN 978-81-7017-207-9 . * ^ Phyllis Granoff (2003), Mahakala\'s Journey: from Gana
Gana
to God, Rivista degli studi orientali, Vol. 77, Fasc. 1/4 (2003), pages 95–114 * ^ For Shiva
Shiva
as a composite deity whose history is not well documented, see: Keay, p. 147. * ^ Nath
Nath
2001 , p. 31. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Courtright, p. 205. * ^ For Jejuri
Jejuri
as the foremost center of worship see: Mate, p. 162. * ^ _Biroba, Mhaskoba und Khandoba: Ursprung, Geschichte und Umwelt von pastoralen Gottheiten in Maharastra_, Wiesbaden 1976 (German with English Synopsis) pp. 180–98, " Khandoba
Khandoba
is a local deity in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and been Sanskritised as an incarnation of Shiva." * ^ For worship of Khandoba
Khandoba
in the form of a lingam and possible identification with Shiva
Shiva
based on that, see: Mate, p. 176. * ^ For use of the name Khandoba
Khandoba
as a name for Karttikeya in Maharashtra, see: Gupta, _Preface_, and p. 40. * ^ Michaels 2004 , p. 216. * ^ Michaels 2004 , pp. 216–218. * ^ Surendranath Dasgupta (1973). _A History of Indian Philosophy_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 17, 48–49, 65–67, 155–161. ISBN 978-81-208-0416-6 . * ^ David N. Lorenzen (1972). _The Kāpālikas and Kālāmukhas: Two Lost Śaivite Sects_. University of California Press. pp. 2–5, 15–17, 38, 80. ISBN 978-0-520-01842-6 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Narendranath B. Patil (2003). _The Variegated Plumage: Encounters with Indian Philosophy_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 125–126. ISBN 978-81-208-1953-5 . * ^ Mark S. G. Dyczkowski (1987). _The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices Associated with Kashmir Shaivism_. State University of New York Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-88706-431-9 . * ^ Michaels 2004 , pp. 215–216. * ^ David Lawrence, Kashmiri Shaiva Philosophy, University of Manitoba, Canada, IEP, Section 1(d) * ^ Edwin Bryant (2003), Krishna: The Beautiful Legend of God: Srimad Bhagavata Purana, Penguin, ISBN 978-0141913377 , pages 10–12, Quote: "(...) accept and indeed extol the transcendent and absolute nature of the other, and of the Goddess Devi
Devi
too" * ^ Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225 , page 23 with footnotes * ^ EO James (1997), The Tree of Life, BRILL Academic, ISBN 978-9004016125 , pages 150–153 * ^ Gregor Maehle (2009), Ashtanga Yoga, New World, ISBN 978-1577316695 , page 17; for Sanskrit, see: Skanda Purana Shankara Samhita Part 1, Verses 1.8.20–21 (Sanskrit) * ^ Saroj Panthey (1987). _Iconography of Śiva in Pahāṛī Paintings_. Mittal Publications. p. 94. ISBN 978-81-7099-016-1 . * ^ Barbara Holdrege (2012). Hananya Goodman, ed. _Between Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism_. State University of New York Press. pp. 120–125 with footnotes. ISBN 978-1-4384-0437-0 . * ^ Charles Johnston (1913). _The Atlantic Monthly_. CXII. Riverside Press, Cambridge. pp. 835–836. * ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). _Encyclopedia of Hinduism_. Infobase. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 . * ^ Coburn 2002 , pp. 1, 53–56, 280. * ^ Lochtefeld 2002 , p. 426. * ^ David Kinsley 1988 , pp. 101–105. * ^ Tracy Pintchman 2014 , pp. 85–86, 119, 144, 171. * ^ Coburn 1991 , pp. 19–24, 40, 65, Narayani p. 232. * ^ _A_ _B_ McDaniel 2004 , p. 90. * ^ _A_ _B_ Brown 1998 , p. 26. * ^ The Rig Veda/Mandala 10/Hymn 125 Ralph T.H. Griffith (Translator); for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
original see: ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं १०.१२५ * ^ Brown 1998 , p. 77. * ^ Warrier 1967 , pp. 77–84. * ^ Rocher 1986 , p. 193. * ^ David R. Kinsley (1975). _The Sword and the Flute: Kālī and Kṛṣṇa, Dark Visions of the Terrible and the Sublime in Hindu Mythology_. University of California Press. pp. 102 with footnote 42. ISBN 978-0-520-02675-9 . , Quote: "In the Devi
Devi
Mahatmya, it is quite clear that Durga
Durga
is an independent deity, great in her own right, and only loosely associated with any of the great male deities. And if any one of the great gods can be said to be her closest associate, it is Visnu rather than Siva". * ^ Gupteshwar Prasad (1994). _I.A. Richards and Indian Theory of Rasa_. Sarup & Sons. pp. 117–118. ISBN 978-81-85431-37-6 . * ^ Jaideva Vasugupta (1991). _The Yoga
Yoga
of Delight, Wonder, and Astonishment_. State University of New York Press. p. xix. ISBN 978-0-7914-1073-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Gudrun Bühnemann (2003). _Mandalas and Yantras in the Hindu
Hindu
Traditions_. BRILL Academic. p. 60. ISBN 978-9004129023 . * ^ James C. Harle (1994). _The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent_. Yale University Press. pp. 140–142, 191, 201–203. ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5 . * ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996). _An Introduction to Hinduism_. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0 . * ^ J. N. Farquhar (1984). _Outline of the Religious Literature of India_. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 180. ISBN 978-81-208-2086-9 . * ^ Edwin F. Bryant (2007). _Krishna: A Sourcebook_. Oxford University Press. pp. 313–314. ISBN 978-0-19-972431-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Frederick Asher (1981). Joanna Gottfried Williams, ed. _Kalādarśana: American Studies in the Art of India_. BRILL Academic. pp. 1–4. ISBN 90-04-06498-2 . * ^ Kramrisch, Stella (1981). _Manifestations of Shiva_. Philadelphia Museum of Art. p. 22. * ^ Kramrisch, Stella (1981). _Manifestations of Shiva_. Philadelphia Museum of Art. p. 23.

* ^ _A_ _B_ Vasugupta; Jaideva (1979). _Śiva Sūtras_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. xv–xx. ISBN 978-81-208-0407-4 . ; James Mallinson (2007). _The Shiva
Shiva
Samhita: A Critical Edition_. Yoga. pp. xiii–xiv. ISBN 978-0-9716466-5-0 . OCLC
OCLC
76143968 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Jaideva Vasugupta (1991). _The Yoga
Yoga
of Delight, Wonder, and Astonishment: A Translation of the Vijnana-bhairava with an Introduction and Notes by Jaideva Singh_. State University of New York Press. pp. xii–xvi. ISBN 978-0-7914-1073-8 . ; Vasugupta; Jaideva (1980). _The Yoga
Yoga
of Vibration and Divine Pulsation: A Translation of the Spanda Karika with Ksemaraja\'s Commentary, the Spanda Nirnaya_. State University of New York Press. pp. xxv–xxxii, 2–4. ISBN 978-0-7914-1179-7 . * ^ Andrew J. Nicholson (2014). _Lord Siva\'s Song: The Isvara Gita_. State University of New York Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-1-4384-5102-2 . * ^ David Smith (2003). _The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 237–239. ISBN 978-0-521-52865-8 . * ^ Jaideva Vasugupta; Mark S. G. Dyczkowski (1992). _The Aphorisms of Siva: The Siva Sutra with Bhaskara\'s Commentary, the Varttika_. State University of New York Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-7914-1264-0 . * ^ For quotation defining the trimurti see Matchett, Freda. "The Purāṇas", in: Flood (2003), p. 139.

* ^ Ralph Metzner (1986). _Opening to Inner Light: The Transformation of Human Nature and Consciousness_. J.P. Tarcher. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-87477-353-8 . ; David Frawley (2009). _Inner Tantric Yoga: Working with the Universal Shakti: Secrets of Mantras, Deities and Meditation_. Lotus. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-940676-50-3 . * ^ For definition of trimurti as "the unified form" of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva and use of the phrase "the Hindu
Hindu
triad" see: Apte, p. 485. * ^ For the term "Great Trinity" in relation to the Trimurti
Trimurti
see: Jansen, p. 83.

* ^ The Trimurti
Trimurti
idea of Hinduism, states Jan Gonda , "seems to have developed from ancient cosmological and ritualistic speculations about the triple character of an individual god, in the first place of _Agni_, whose births are three or threefold, and who is threefold light, has three bodies and three stations". See: Jan Gonda (1969), The Hindu
Hindu
Trinity, Anthropos, Bd 63/64, H 1/2, pages 218–219; Other trinities, beyond the more common "Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva", mentioned in ancient and medieval Hindu texts include: "Indra, Vishnu, Brahmanaspati", "Agni, Indra, Surya", "Agni, Vayu, Aditya", "Mahalakshmi, Mahasarasvati, and Mahakali", and others. See: David White (2006), Kiss of the Yogini, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226894843 , pages 4, 29 Jan Gonda (1969), The Hindu
Hindu
Trinity, Anthropos, Bd 63/64, H 1/2, pages 212–226 * ^ For Shiva
Shiva
as depicted with a third eye, and mention of the story of the destruction of Kama
Kama
with it, see: Flood (1996), p. 151. * ^ For a review of 4 theories about the meaning of _tryambaka_, see: Chakravarti, pp. 37–39. * ^ For usage of the word _ambaka_ in classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and connection to the Mahabharata depiction, see: Chakravarti, pp. 38–39. * ^ For translation of Tryambakam as "having three mother eyes" and as an epithet of Rudra, see: Kramrisch, p. 483. * ^ For vedic Sanskrit
Sanskrit
meaning Lord has three mother eyes which symbolize eyes are the Sun, Moon and Fire. * ^ For discussion of the problems in translation of this name, and the hypothesis regarding the Ambikās see: Hopkins (1968), p. 220. * ^ For the Ambikā variant, see: Chakravarti, pp. 17, 37. * ^ For the moon on the forehead see: Chakravarti, p. 109. * ^ For _śekhara_ as crest or crown, see: Apte, p. 926. * ^ For Candraśekhara as an iconographic form, see: Sivaramamurti (1976), p. 56. * ^ For translation "Having the moon as his crest" see: Kramrisch, p. 472. * ^ For the moon iconography as marking the rise of Rudra-Shiva, see: Chakravarti, p. 58. * ^ For discussion of the linkages between Soma, Moon, and Rudra, and citation to RV 7.74, see: Chakravarti, pp. 57–58. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Flood (1996), p. 151. * ^ This smearing of cremation ashes emerged into a practice of some Tantra-oriented ascetics, where they would also offer meat, alcohol and sexual fluids to Bhairava
Bhairava
(a form of Shiva), and these groups were probably not of Brahmanic origin. These ascetics are mentioned in the ancient Pali Canon of Thervada Buddhism. See: Flood (1996), pp. 92, 161. * ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (2013), Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 5, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004178960 , pages 182–183 * ^ Paul Deussen (1980). _Sechzig Upaniṣad\'s des Veda_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 775–776, 789–790, 551. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7 . * ^ Chidbhavananda, p. 22. * ^ For translation of Kapardin as "Endowed with matted hair" see: Sharma 1996 , p. 279. * ^ Kramrisch, p. 475. * ^ For Kapardin as a name of Shiva, and description of the kaparda hair style, see, Macdonell, p. 62. * ^ Sharma 1996 , p. 290 * ^ See: name #93 in Chidbhavananda, p. 31. * ^ For Shiva
Shiva
drinking the poison churned from the world ocean see: Flood (1996), p. 78. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kramrisch, p. 473. * ^ For alternate stories about this feature, and use of the name Gaṅgādhara see: Chakravarti, pp. 59 and 109. * ^ For description of the Gaṅgādhara form, see: Sivaramamurti (1976), p. 8. * ^ For Shiva
Shiva
supporting Gaṅgā upon his head, see: Kramrisch, p. 473. * ^ Flood (1996), p. 151 * ^ Wayman text-decoration: none">Kāpālikas, see: Apte, p. 461. * ^ C. Sivaramamurti (1963). _South Indian Bronzes_. Lalit Kalā Akademi. p. 41. * ^ John A. Grimes (1996). _A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Terms Defined in English_. State University of New York Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5 . * ^ Prabhavati C. Reddy (2014). _ Hindu
Hindu
Pilgrimage: Shifting Patterns of Worldview of Srisailam
Srisailam
in South India_. Routledge. pp. 114–115. ISBN 978-1-317-80631-8 . * ^ For a review of issues related to the evolution of the bull (Nandin) as Shiva's mount, see: Chakravarti, pp. 99–105. * ^ For spelling of alternate proper names Nandī and Nandin see: Stutley, p. 98. * ^ Sharma 1996 , p. 291 * ^ Kramrisch, p. 479. * ^ For the name _Kailāsagirivāsī_ (_Sanskrit_ कैलासिगिरवासी), "With his abode on Mount Kailāsa", as a name appearing in the _ Shiva
Shiva
Sahasranama_, see: Sharma 1996 , p. 281. * ^ For identification of Mount Kailāsa as the central _linga_, see: Stutley (1985), p. 62. * ^ Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1 ) by Anna L. Dallapiccola * ^ Keay, p. 33. * ^ For quotation " Shiva
Shiva
is a god of ambiguity and paradox" and overview of conflicting attributes see: Flood (1996), p. 150. * ^ George Michell (1977). _The Hindu
Hindu
Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms_. University of Chicago Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-226-53230-1 . * ^ For quotation regarding Yajur Veda as containing contrary sets of attributes, and marking point for emergence of all basic elements of later sect forms, see: Chakravarti, p. 7. * ^ For summary of Shiva's contrasting depictions in the Mahabharata, see: Sharma 1988 , pp. 20–21. * ^ For _rud-_ meaning "cry, howl" as a traditional etymology see: Kramrisch, p. 5. * ^ Citation to M. Mayrhofer, _Concise Etymological Sanskrit Dictionary_, _s.v._ "rudra", is provided in: Kramrisch, p. 5. * ^ Sharma 1996 , p. 301. * ^ Sharma 1996 , p. 314. * ^ Kramrisch, p. 474. * ^ Sharma 1996 , p. 280. * ^ Apte, p. 727, left column. * ^ Kramrisch, p. 481. * ^ Flood (1996), p. 92. * ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 28 (note 7), and p. 177. * ^ For the contrast between ascetic and householder depictions, see: Flood (1996), pp. 150–151. * ^ For Shiva's representation as a yogi, see: Chakravarti, p. 32. * ^ For name Mahāyogi and associations with yoga, see, Chakravarti, pp. 23, 32, 150. * ^ For the ascetic yogin form as reflecting Epic period influences, see: Chakravarti, p. 32. * ^ For Umāpati, Umākānta and Umādhava as names in the Shiva Sahasranama literature, see: Sharma 1996 , p. 278. * ^ For Umā as the oldest name, and variants including Pārvatī, see: Chakravarti, p. 40. * ^ For Pārvatī identified as the wife of Shiva, see: Kramrisch, p. 479. * ^ Search for Meaning By Antonio R. Gualtieri * ^ For regional name variants of Karttikeya see: Gupta, _Preface_. * ^ Doniger, Wendy (1999). _Splitting the difference: gender and myth in ancient Greece and India_. London: University of Chicago Press. pp. 263–5. ISBN 978-0-226-15641-5 . * ^ Vanita, Ruth; Kidwai, Saleem (2001). _Same-sex love in India: readings from literature and history_. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-312-29324-6 . * ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt (2001). _The man who was a woman and other queer tales of Hindu
Hindu
lore_. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-56023-181-3 .

* ^ See Mohini#Relationship with Shiva for details * ^ McDaniel, June (2004). _Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls: Popular Goddess Worship in West Benegal_. Oxford University Press, US. p. 156. ISBN 0-19-516790-2 . * ^ Vettam Mani (1975). _Puranic Encyclopaedia: a Comprehensive Dictionary with Special
Special
Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature_. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. pp. 62, 515–6. ISBN 978-0-8426-0822-0 . * ^ For description of the nataraja form see: Jansen, pp. 110–111. * ^ For interpretation of the _naṭarāja_ form see: Zimmer, pp. 151–157. * ^ For names Nartaka (_Sanskrit_ नर्तक) and Nityanarta ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
नित्यनर्त) as names of Shiva, see: Sharma 1996 , p. 289. * ^ For prominence of these associations in puranic times, see: Chakravarti, p. 62. * ^ For popularity of the _nṛtyamūrti_ and prevalence in South India, see: Chakravarti, p. 63. * ^ Kramrisch, Stella (1994). "Siva's Dance". _The Presence of Siva_. Princeton University Press . p. 439. * ^ Klostermaier, Klaus K. " Shiva
Shiva
the Dancer". _Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India_. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. p. 151. * ^ Massey, Reginald. "India's Kathak Dance". _India's Kathak Dance, Past Present, Future_. Abhinav Publications. p. 8. * ^ _A_ _B_ Moorthy, Vijaya (2001). _Romance of the Raga_. Abhinav Publications. p. 96. * ^ Leeming, David Adams (2001). _A Dictionary of Asian Mythology_. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. p. 45. * ^ Radha, Sivananda (1992). " Mantra of Muladhara Chakra". _Kuṇḍalinī Yoga_. Motilal Banarsidass . p. 304. * ^ when it requires to be destroyed, Lord Śiva does it by the tāṇḍavanṛtya * ^ For iconographic description of the Dakṣiṇāmūrti form, see: Sivaramamurti (1976), p. 47. * ^ For description of the form as representing teaching functions, see: Kramrisch, p. 472. * ^ For characterization of Dakṣiṇāmūrti as a mostly south Indian form, see: Chakravarti, p. 62. * ^ For the deer-throne and the audience of sages as Dakṣiṇāmūrti, see: Chakravarti, p. 155. * ^ Goldberg specifically rejects the translation by Frederique Marglin (1989) as "half-man, half-woman", and instead adopts the translation by Marglin as "the lord who is half woman" as given in Marglin (1989, 216). Goldberg, p. 1. * ^ For evolution of this story from early sources to the epic period, when it was used to enhance Shiva's increasing influence, see: Chakravarti, p.46. * ^ For the Tripurāntaka form, see: Sivaramamurti (1976), pp. 34, 49. * ^ Michaels, p. 216. * ^ Flood (1996), p. 29. * ^ Tattwananda, pp. 49–52. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Lingam: Hindu
Hindu
symbol Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ Monier Williams (1899), Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to English Dictionary, लिङ्ग, page 901 * ^ Yudit Kornberg Greenberg (2008). _Encyclopedia of Love in World Religions_. ABC-CLIO. pp. 572–573. ISBN 978-1-85109-980-1 . * ^ O'Flaherty, Wendy Doniger (1981). _Śiva, the erotic ascetic_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-520250-3 . * ^ Sen, Amiya P. (2006). "Editor's Introduction". _The Indispensable Vivekananda_. Orient Blackswan. pp. 25–26. * ^ Sivananda, Swami (1996). "Worship of Siva Linga". _Lord Siva and His Worship_. The Divine Life Trust Society. * ^ Balagangadhara, S.N., Sarah Claerhout (Spring 2008). "Are Dialogues Antidotes to Violence? Two Recent Examples From Hinduism Studies" (PDF). _Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies_. 7 (19): 118–143. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Winternitz, Moriz; V. Srinivasa Sarma (1981). _A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1_. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 543 footnote 4. ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3 . * ^ Harding, Elizabeth U. (1998). "God, the Father". _Kali: The Black Goddess of Dakshineswar_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 156–157. ISBN 978-81-208-1450-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Vivekananda, Swami. "The Paris congress of the history of religions". _The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda_. 4. * ^ Swati Mitra (2011). _ Omkareshwar and Maheshwar_. Eicher Goodearth and Madhya Pradesh Government. p. 25. ISBN 978-93-80262-24-6 . * ^ For five as a sacred number, see: Kramrisch, p. 182. * ^ It is first encountered in an almost identical form in the Rudram. For the five syllable mantra see: Kramrisch, p. 182. * ^ For discussion of these five forms and a table summarizing the associations of these five mantras see: Kramrisch, pp. 182–189. * ^ For distinct iconography, see Kramrisch, p. 185. * ^ For association with the five faces and other groups of five, see: Kramrisch, p. 182. * ^ For the epithets _pañcamukha_ and _pañcavaktra_, both of which mean "five faces", as epithets of Śiva, see: Apte, p. 578, middle column. * ^ For variation in attributions among texts, see: Kramrisch, p. 187. * ^ Kramrisch, p. 184. * ^ Quotation from _Pañcabrahma Upanishad_ 31 is from: Kramrisch, p. 182. * ^ Parrinder, Edward Geoffrey (1982). _Avatar and incarnation_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-19-520361-5 . * ^ Winternitz, Moriz; V. Srinivasa Sarma (1981). _A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 543–544. ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3 . * ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), "Shiva" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N-Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1 , page 635 * ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). _Encyclopedia of Hinduism_. Infobase. p. 474. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 . * ^ Parrinder, Edward Geoffrey (1982). _Avatar and incarnation_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 87–88. ISBN 0-19-520361-5 . * ^ Lutgendorf, Philip (2007). _Hanuman\'s tale: the messages of a divine monkey_. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
US. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-19-530921-8 . * ^ Catherine Ludvík (1994). _Hanumān in the Rāmāyaṇa of Vālmīki and the Rāmacaritamānasa of Tulasī Dāsa_. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-81-208-1122-5 . * ^ Sri Ramakrishna Math (1985) " Hanuman
Hanuman
Chalisa" p. 5 * ^ "Footnote 70:1 to Horace Hayman Wilson\'s English translation of The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana: Book I – Chapter IX". * ^ "Footnote 83:4 to Horace Hayman Wilson\'s English translation of The Vishnu
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Purana: Book I – Chapter X". * ^ "Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 4 Chapter 1 – English translation by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada". * ^ Sengaku Mayeda (Translator) (1979). _A Thousand Teachings: The Upadesasahasri of Sankara_. State University of New York Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7914-0943-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Karen Pechilis (2012). Selva J. Raj, ed. _Dealing with Deities: The Ritual Vow in South Asia_. State University of New York Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-0-7914-8200-1 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Roshen Dalal (2010). _Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide_. Penguin Books. pp. 137, 186. ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). _Encyclopedia of Hinduism_. Infobase Publishing. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 . * ^ Bruce Long (1982). Guy Richard Welbon and Glenn E. Yocum, ed. _Religious Festivals in South India
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Thought: An Introduction_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-564441-8 . * Sharma, Ram Karan (1988). _Elements of Poetry in the Mahābhārata_ (Second ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0544-5 . * Sharma, Ram Karan (1996). _Śivasahasranāmāṣṭakam: Eight Collections of Hymns Containing One Thousand and Eight Names of Śiva_. Delhi: Nag Publishers. ISBN 81-7081-350-6 . This work compares eight versions of the Śivasahasranāmāstotra with comparative analysis and Śivasahasranāmākoṣa (A Dictionary of Names). The text of the eight versions is given in Sanskrit. * Sivaramamurti, C. (1976). _Śatarudrīya: Vibhūti of Śiva's Iconography_. Delhi: Abhinav Publications. * Stutley, Margaret (1985). _The Illustrated Dictionary of Hindu Iconography_. First Indian Edition: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2003, ISBN 81-215-1087-2 . * Tattwananda, Swami (1984). _Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship_. Calcutta: Firma KLM Private Ltd. First revised edition. * Varenne, Jean (1976). _ Yoga
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and the Hindu
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Tradition_. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226851168 . * Warrier, AG Krishna
Krishna
(1967). _Śākta Upaniṣads_. Adyar Library and Research Center. ISBN 978-0835673181 . OCLC
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2606086 . * Wayman, Alex; Singh, Jaideva (1991). "Review: A Trident
Trident
of Wisdom: Translation of Paratrisika-vivarana of Abhinavagupta". _Philosophy East and West_. 41 (2): 266–268. doi :10.2307/1399778 . * Zimmer, Heinrich (1946). _Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization_. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01778-6 . First Princeton-Bollingen printing, 1972.

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