_SHIVA_ (/ˈʃivə/ ;
IAST : Śiva, lit. _the auspicious one_) is one
of the principal deities of
Hinduism . He is the Supreme Being within
Shaivism , one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism.
Shiva is the "destroyer and transformer" within the
Trimurti , the
Hindu trinity that includes
Vishnu . In Shaivism
Shiva is the Supreme being who creates, protects and
transforms the universe. In the goddess tradition of Hinduism
Shaktism , the goddess is described as supreme, yet
revered along with
Vishnu and Brahma. A goddess is stated to be the
energy and creative power (Shakti) of each, with
Parvati the equal
complementary partner of Shiva. He is one of the five equivalent
Panchayatana puja of the Smarta tradition of Hinduism.
At the highest level,
Shiva is regarded as formless, limitless,
transcendent and unchanging absolute
Brahman , and the primal Atman
(soul, self) of the universe.
Shiva has many benevolent and
fearsome depictions. In benevolent aspects, he is depicted as an
Yogi who lives an ascetic life on
Mount Kailash as well
as a householder with wife
Parvati and his two children,
Kartikeya . In his fierce aspects, he is often depicted slaying
Shiva is also known as Adiyogi Shiva, regarded as the patron
god of yoga , meditation and arts.
The iconographical attributes of
Shiva are the serpent around his
neck, the adorning crescent moon, the holy river
Ganga flowing from
his matted hair, the third eye on his forehead, the trishula as his
weapon and the damaru . He is usually worshipped in the aniconic form
Shiva is a pan-
Hindu deity, revered widely by Hindus, in
Sri Lanka .
* 1 Etymology and other names
* 2 Historical development and literature
* 2.1 Indus Valley origins
* 2.2 Indo-Aryan - Vedic origins
* 2.3 Later literature
* 2.4 Assimilation of traditions
* 3 Position within
* 4 Attributes
* 5 Forms and depictions
* 5.1 Destroyer and Benefactor
* 5.2 Ascetic and householder
* 5.5 The five mantras
* 5.6 Avatars
* 6 Festivals
* 7 Outside Indian subcontinent
* 8 Other religions
* 9 In contemporary culture
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 Sources
* 13 External links
ETYMOLOGY AND OTHER NAMES
Shiva Sahasranama A mukhalinga sculpture of Shiva
depicting him with a moustache
Sanskrit word "Śiva" (
Devanagari : शिव, transliterated as
Shiva or Siva) means, states Monier Williams, "auspicious, propitious,
gracious, benign, kind, benevolent, friendly". The roots of Śiva in
folk etymology is "śī" which means "in whom all things lie,
pervasiveness" and _va_ which means "embodiment of grace".
Shiva is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda (approximately
1700-1100BC), as an epithet for several
Rigvedic deities , including
Rudra . The term
Shiva also connotes "liberation, final emancipation"
and "the auspicious one", this adjective sense of usage is addressed
to many deities in Vedic layers of literature. The term evolved from
the Vedic _Rudra-Shiva_ to the noun _Shiva_ in the Epics and the
Puranas, as an auspicious deity who is the "creator, reproducer and
Sharma presents another etymology with the
Sanskrit root _śarv-_,
which means "to injure" or "to kill", interprets the name to connote
"one who can kill the forces of darkness".
Sanskrit word _śaiva_ means "relating to the god Shiva", and
this term is the
Sanskrit name both for one of the principal sects of
Hinduism and for a member of that sect. It is used as an adjective to
characterize certain beliefs and practices, such as Shaivism.
Some authors associate the name with the Tamil word _śivappu_
meaning "red", noting that
Shiva is linked to the Sun (_śivan_, "the
Red one", in Tamil) and that
Rudra is also called _Babhru_ (brown, or
red) in the Rigveda. The _
Vishnu sahasranama _ interprets _Shiva_ to
have multiple meanings: "The Pure One", and "the One who is not
affected by three Guṇas of
Rajas , and Tamas )".
Shiva is known by many names such Viswanathan (lord of the universe),
Mahadeva, Mahesha, Maheshvara, Shankara, Shambhu, Rudra, Hara,
Trilochana, Devendra (chief of the gods), Neelakanta, Subhankara,
Trilokinatha (lord of the three realms), and Ghrneshwar (lord of
compassion). The highest reverence for
Shaivism is reflected
in his epithets _Mahādeva_ ("Great god"; _mahā_ "Great" and _deva_
"god"), _Maheśvara_ ("Great Lord"; _mahā_ "great" and _īśvara_
"lord"), and _Parameśvara _ ("Supreme Lord").
Sahasranama are medieval Indian texts that list a thousand names
derived from aspects and epithets of a deity. There are at least
eight different versions of the _
Shiva Sahasranama_, devotional hymns
(stotras) listing many names of Shiva. The version appearing in Book
13 (Anuśāsanaparvan) of the _Mahabharata_ provides one such list.
Shiva also has Dasha-Sahasranamas (10,000 names) that are found in the
Mahanyasa. The _Shri Rudram Chamakam_, also known as the
_Śatarudriya_, is a devotional hymn to
Shiva hailing him by many
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND LITERATURE
See also: History of
The Shiva-related tradition is a major part of Hinduism, found all
Sri Lanka , and Bali (Indonesia). Its
historical roots are unclear and contested. Some scholars such
Yashodhar Mathpal and Ali Javid have interpreted early prehistoric
paintings at the
Bhimbetka rock shelters , carbon dated to be from
pre-10,000 BCE period, as
Shiva dancing, Shiva's trident, and his
mount Nandi. However, Howard Morphy states that these prehistoric
rock paintings of India, when seen in their context, are likely those
of hunting party with animals, and that the figures in a group dance
can be interpreted in many different ways. Rock paintings from
Bhimbetka, depicting a figure with a trishul , have been described as
Nataraja by Erwin Neumayer, who dates them to the mesolithic .
INDUS VALLEY ORIGINS
Pashupati seal Seal discovered during excavation
of the Indus Valley archaeological site in the Indus Valley has drawn
attention as a possible representation of a "yogi" or "proto-Shiva"
Of several Indus valley seals that show animals, one seal that has
attracted attention shows a large central figure, either horned or
wearing a horned headdress and possibly ithyphallic , seated in a
posture reminiscent of the
Lotus position , surrounded by animals.
This figure was named by early excavators of
Pashupati _ (Lord of Animals,
Sanskrit _paśupati_), an epithet of
Shiva and Rudra.
Sir John Marshall and others suggested that this figure is a
prototype of Shiva, with three faces, seated in a "yoga posture" with
the knees out and feet joined. Semi-circular shapes on the head were
interpreted as two horns. Scholars such as
Gavin Flood ,
John Keay and
Doris Meth Srinivasan have expressed doubts about this suggestion.
Gavin Flood states that it is not clear from the seal that the figure
has three faces, is seated in a yoga posture, or even that the shape
is intended to represent a human figure. He characterizes these views
as "speculative", but adds that it is nevertheless possible that there
are echoes of Shaiva iconographic themes, such as half-moon shapes
resembling the horns of a bull .
John Keay writes that "he may
indeed be an early manifestation of Lord
Shiva as Pashu-pati", but a
couple of his specialties of this figure does not match with Rudra.
Writing in 1997, Srinivasan interprets what John Marshall interpreted
as facial as not human but more bovine, possibly a divine buffalo-man.
The interpretation of the seal continues to be disputed.
for example, states that it is not possible to "account for this
posture outside the yogic account". Asko Parpola states that other
archaeological finds such as the early Elamite seals dated to
3000-2750 BCE show similar figures and these have been interpreted as
"seated bull" and not a yogi, and the bovine interpretation is likely
more accurate. Gregory L. Possehl in 2002, associated it with the
water buffalo, and concluded that while it would be appropriate to
recognize the figure as a deity, and its posture as one of ritual
discipline, regarding it as a proto-
Shiva would "go too far".
INDO-ARYAN - VEDIC ORIGINS
The Vedic literature refers to a minor atmospheric deity, with
fearsome powers called
Rudra . The Rigveda, for example, has 3 out of
1,028 hymns dedicated to Rudra, and he finds occasional mention in
other hymns of the same text. The term
Shiva also appears in the
Rigveda, but simply as an epithet that means "kind, auspicious", one
of the adjectives used to describe many different Vedic deities. While
fierce ruthless natural phenomenon and storm-related
Rudra is feared
in the hymns of the Rigveda, the beneficial rains he brings are
Shiva aspect of him. This healing, nurturing,
life-enabling aspect emerges in the
Vedas as Rudra-Shiva, and in
post-Vedic literature ultimately as
Shiva who combines the destructive
and constructive powers, the terrific and the pacific, as the ultimate
recycler and rejuvenator of all existence.
The similarities between the iconography and theologies of
Greek and European deities have led to proposals for an Indo-European
link for Shiva, or lateral exchanges with ancient central Asian
cultures. His contrasting aspects such as being terrifying or
blissful depending on the situation, are similar to those of the Greek
Dionysus , as are their iconic associations with bull, snakes,
anger, bravery, dancing and carefree life. The ancient Greek texts
of the time of Alexander the Great call
Shiva as "Indian Dionysius",
or alternatively call
Dionysius as _"god of the Orient"_. Similarly,
the use of phallic symbol as an icon for
Shiva is also found for
Irish, Nordic, Greek (
Dionysus ) and Roman deities, as was the idea
of this aniconic column linking heaven and earth among early
Indo-Aryans, states Roger Woodward. Others contest such proposals,
Shiva to have emerged from indigenous pre-Aryan tribal
Three-headed Shiva, Gandhara, 2nd century AD
Shiva as we know him today shares many features with the Vedic god
Rudra , and both
Rudra are viewed as the same personality
Hindu scriptures . The two names are used synonymously. Rudra, the
god of the roaring storm , is usually portrayed in accordance with the
element he represents as a fierce, destructive deity.
The oldest surviving text of
Hinduism is the Rig Veda , which is
dated to between 1700 and 1100 BC based on linguistic and philological
evidence. A god named
Rudra is mentioned in the Rig Veda. The name
Rudra is still used as a name for Shiva. In RV 2.33, he is described
as the "Father of the
Rudras ", a group of storm gods.
The hymn 10.92 of the
Rigveda states that deity
Rudra has two
natures, one wild and cruel (rudra), another that is kind and tranquil
(shiva). The Vedic texts do not mention bull or any animal as the
transport vehicle (_vahana_) of
Rudra or other deities. However,
post-Vedic texts such as the
Mahabharata and the
Puranas state the
Nandi bull, the Indian zebu, in particular, as the vehicle of Rudra
and of Shiva, thereby unmistakably linking them as same.
Agni have a close relationship. The identification
Rudra in the Vedic literature was an important factor
in the process of Rudra's gradual development into the later character
as Rudra-Shiva. The identification of
Rudra is explicitly
noted in the _
Nirukta _, an important early text on etymology, which
Agni is also called Rudra." The interconnections between the
two deities are complex, and according to Stella Kramrisch:
The fire myth of Rudra-Śiva plays on the whole gamut of fire,
valuing all its potentialities and phases, from conflagration to
In the _Śatarudrīya_ , some epithets of Rudra, such as Sasipañjara
("Of golden red hue as of flame") and Tivaṣīmati ("Flaming
bright"), suggest a fusing of the two deities.
Agni is said to be a
bull, and Lord
Shiva possesses a bull as his vehicle, Nandi . The
horns of Agni, who is sometimes characterized as a bull, are
mentioned. In medieval sculpture, both
Agni and the form of Shiva
Bhairava have flaming hair as a special feature.
Vima Kadphises with ithyphallic Shiva. Coin of the Kushan
Empire (1st-century BCE to 2nd-century CE). The right image has been
Shiva with trident and bull.
Wendy Doniger , the Puranic
Shiva is a continuation of
the Vedic Indra. Doniger gives several reasons for her hypothesis.
Both are associated with mountains, rivers, male fertility,
fierceness, fearlessness, warfare, transgression of established mores,
the Aum sound, the Supreme Self. In the Rig Veda the term _śiva_ is
used to refer to Indra. (2.20.3, 6.45.17, and 8.93.3. ) Indra, like
Shiva, is likened to a bull. In the Rig Veda,
Rudra is the father of
Maruts , but he is never associated with their warlike exploits as
The Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era were closely
related to the hypothesised
Proto-Indo-European religion , and the
pre-Islamic Indo-Iranian religion. The earliest iconic artworks of
Shiva may be from Gandhara and northwest parts of ancient India. There
is some uncertainty as the artwork that has survived is damaged and
they show some overlap with meditative Buddha-related artwork, but the
presence of Shiva's trident and phallic symbolism in this art suggests
it was likely Shiva.
Numismatics research suggests that numerous
coins of the ancient
Kushan Empire that have survived, were images of
a god who is probably Shiva. The
Shiva in Kushan coins is referred to
as Oesho of unclear etymology and origins, but the simultaneous
Shiva in the Kushan era artwork suggest that
they were revered deities by the start of the Kushan Empire.
The texts and artwork of
Indra as a dancer, although not
identical but generally resembling the dancing
Shiva artwork found in
Hinduism, particularly in their respective mudras. For example, in
the Jain caves at Ellora , extensive carvings show dancing
to the images of Tirthankaras in a manner similar to
The similarities in the dance iconography suggests that there may be a
link between ancient
Indra and Shiva.
Rudra's evolution from a minor Vedic deity to a supreme being is
first evidenced in the _
Shvetashvatara Upanishad _ (400–200 BC),
according to Gavin Flood. Prior to it, the Upanishadic literature is
monistic , and the _Shvetashvatara_ text presents the earliest seeds
of theistic devotion to Rudra-Shiva. Here Rudra-
Shiva is identified
as the creator of the cosmos and liberator of souls from the
birth-rebirth cycle. The period of 200 BC to 100 AD also marks the
beginning of the Shaiva tradition focused on the worship of
evidenced in other literature of this period. Shaiva devotees and
ascetics are mentioned in
Patanjali 's _
Mahābhāṣya _ (2nd-century
BC) and in the _
Mahabharata _. Other scholars such as Robert Hume and
Doris Srinivasan state that the _Shvetashvatara Upanishad_ presents
pluralism, pantheism , or henotheism , rather than being a text just
Shiva theism. SELF-REALIZATION AND SHAIVA UPANISHADS
He who sees himself in all beings,
And all beings in him,
attains the highest
not by any other means. —_
Kaivalya Upanishad 10_
Shaiva Upanishads are a group of 14 minor
Upanishads of Hinduism
variously dated from the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE
through the 17th century. These extol
Shiva as the metaphysical
Brahman and the Atman (soul, self), and include
sections about rites and symbolisms related to Shiva.
A few texts such as _
Atharvashiras Upanishad _ mention
Rudra , and
assert all gods are Rudra, everyone and everything is Rudra, and Rudra
is the principle found in all things, their highest goal, the
innermost essence of all reality that is visible or invisible. The
_Kaivalya Upanishad_ similarly, states
Paul Deussen – a German
Indologist and professor of Philosophy, describes the self-realized
man as who "feels himself only as the one divine essence that lives in
all", who feels identity of his and everyone's consciousness with
Shiva (highest Atman), who has found this highest Atman within, in the
depths of his heart.
Puranas , particularly the
Shiva Purana and the Linga
Purana , present the various aspects of Shiva, mythologies, cosmology
and pilgrimage (_Tirtha _) associated with him. The Shiva-related
Tantra literature, composed between the 8th and 11th centuries, are
regarded in devotional dualistic
Sruti . Dualistic Shaiva
Agamas which consider soul within each living being and
Shiva as two
separate realities (dualism, _dvaita_), are the foundational texts for
Shaiva Siddhanta . Other Shaiva Agamas teach that these are one
reality (monism, _advaita_), and that
Shiva is the soul, the
perfection and truth within each living being. In
sub-traditions, there are ten dualistic Agama texts, eighteen
qualified monism-cum-dualism Agama texts and sixty four monism Agama
Shiva-related literature developed extensively across
India in the
1st millennium CE and through the 13th century, particularly in
Kashmir and Tamil Shaiva traditions. The monist
posit absolute oneness, that is
Shiva is within every man and woman,
Shiva is within every living being,
Shiva is present everywhere in the
world including all non-living being, and there is no spiritual
difference between life, matter, man and Shiva. The various dualistic
and monist Shiva-related ideas were welcomed in medieval southeast
Asia, inspiring numerous Shiva-related temples, artwork and texts in
Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia,
with syncretic integration of local pre-existing theologies.
ASSIMILATION OF TRADITIONS
See also: Roots of
The figure of
Shiva as we know him today may be an amalgamation of
various older deities into a single figure. How the persona of Shiva
converged as a composite deity is not understood, a challenge to trace
and has attracted much speculation. According to Vijay Nath, for
Vishnu and Siva began to absorb countless local cults and deities
within their folds. The latter were either taken to represent the
multiple facets of the same god or else were supposed to denote
different forms and appellations by which the god came to be known and
worshipped. Siva became identified with countless local cults by the
sheer suffixing of _Isa_ or _Isvara_ to the name of the local deity,
e.g., Bhutesvara, Hatakesvara, Chandesvara."
An example of assimilation took place in
Maharashtra , where a
regional deity named
Khandoba is a patron deity of farming and herding
castes . The foremost center of worship of
Khandoba has been assimilated as a form of
in which case he is worshipped in the form of a lingam. Khandoba's
varied associations also include an identification with
POSITION WITHIN HINDUISM
Lingodbhava is a Shaiva sectarian icon where
Shiva is depicted
rising from the
Lingam (an infinite fiery pillar) that narrates how
Shiva is the foremost of the Trimurti;
Vishnu are depicted
Shiva in the centre.
Shaivism and History of
Part of a series on
Deities SHIVAM SHAKTI
Scriptures and texts
* Agamas and
Philosophy and practices Three Components
* 36 Tattvas
_Non - Saiddhantika_
Trika -Yamala -
* Nusantara Agama Siwa
Shaivism is one of the four major sects of Hinduism, the others being
Shaktism and the
Smarta Tradition . Followers of
Shaivism, called "Shaivas", revere
Shiva as the Supreme Being. Shaivas
Shiva is All and in all, the creator, preserver,
destroyer, revealer and concealer of all that is. He is not only the
creator in Shaivism, he is the creation that results from him, he is
everything and everywhere.
Shiva is the primal soul, the pure
consciousness and Absolute Reality in the Shaiva traditions.
Shaivism theology is broadly grouped into two: the popular
theology influenced by Shiva-
Rudra in the Vedas, Epics and the
Puranas; and the esoteric theology influenced by the
Tantra texts. The Vedic-Brahmanic
includes both monist (_advaita_) and devotional traditions (_dvaita_)
such as Tamil
Shaiva Siddhanta and
Lingayatism with temples featuring
items such as linga, Shiva-
Parvati iconography, bull Nandi within the
premises, relief artwork showing mythologies and aspects of Shiva.
Shiva tradition ignored the mythologies and Puranas
related to Shiva, and depending on the sub-school developed a spectrum
of practices. For example, historical records suggest the tantric
Kapalikas (literally, the "skull-men") co-existed with and shared many
Vajrayana Buddhist rituals, engaged in esoteric practices that revered
Shakti wearing skulls, begged with empty skulls, used meat,
alcohol and sexuality as a part of ritual. In contrast, the esoteric
tradition within Kashmir
Shaivism has featured the _Krama_ and _Trika_
sub-traditions. The Krama sub-tradition focussed on esoteric rituals
Kali pair. The
Trika sub-tradition developed a theology
of triads involving Shiva, combined it with an ascetic lifestyle
focusing on personal
Shiva in the pursuit of monistic self liberation.
The Vaishnava (Vishnu-oriented) literature acknowledges and discusses
Shiva. Like Shaiva literature that presents
Shiva as supreme, the
Vaishnava literature presents
Vishnu as supreme. However, both
traditions are pluralistic and revere both
with Devi), their texts do not show exclusivism, and Vaishnava texts
such as the _Bhagavata Purana_ while praising
Krishna as the Ultimate
Reality, also present
Shakti as a personalized form and
equivalent to the same Ultimate Reality. The texts of Shaivism
tradition similarly praise Vishnu. The Skanda Purana, for example,
Vishnu is nobody but Shiva, and he who is called
Shiva is but
identical with Vishnu. — Skanda Purana, 1.8.20–21
Mythologies of both traditions include legends about who is superior,
Shiva paying homage to Vishnu, and
Vishnu paying homage to
Shiva. However, in texts and artwork of either tradition, the mutual
salutes are symbolism for complementarity. The
the unchanging Ultimate Reality (Brahman) to be identical to
to Vishnu, that
Vishnu is the highest manifestation of Shiva, and
Shiva is the highest manifestation of Vishnu.
Khajuraho , depicting
Parvati as his equal half.
Shakti tradition of
Hinduism is based on the
premise that the Supreme Principle and the Ultimate Reality called
Brahman is female (
Devi ), but it treats the male as her equal and
complementary partner. This partner is Shiva.
The earliest evidence of the tradition of reverence for the feminine
Shiva context, is found in the
Hindu scripture _
in a hymn called the
I am the Queen, the gatherer-up of treasures, most thoughtful, first
of those who merit worship.
Thus gods have established me in many places with many homes to enter
and abide in.
Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, – each man who
sees, breathes, hears the word outspoken.
They know it not, yet I reside in the essence of the Universe. Hear,
one and all, the truth as I declare it.
I, verily, myself announce and utter the word that gods and men alike
I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him nourished, a sage,
and one who knows Brahman.
I bend the bow for
Rudra , that his arrow may strike, and slay the
hater of devotion.
I rouse and order battle for the people, I created Earth and Heaven
and reside as their Inner Controller.
Devi Sukta, _Rigveda_ 10.125.3 – 10.125.8,
Upanishad _ in its explanation of the theology of Shaktism,
mentions and praises
Shiva such as in its verse 19. Shiva, along
with Vishnu, is a revered god in the _
Devi Mahatmya _, a text of
Shaktism considered by the tradition to be as important as the
Bhagavad Gita _. The
Ardhanarisvara concept co-mingles god Shiva
Shakti by presenting an icon that is half man and half
woman, a representation and theme of union found in many
Raja Ravi Varma
Raja Ravi Varma depicting a Shiva-centric
Panchayatana. A bearded
Shiva sits in the centre with his wife Parvati
and their infant son Ganesha; surrounded by (clockwise from left upper
corner) Ganesha, Devi,
Vishnu and Shiva. Shiva's mount is the bull
Nandi below Shiva. Main article:
In the Smarta tradition of Hinduism,
Shiva is a part of its
Panchayatana puja . This practice consists of the use of icons or
anicons of five deities considered equivalent, set in a quincunx
Shiva is one of the five deities, others being Vishnu, Devi
Ganesha or Skanda or any personal god of
devotee's preference (
Ishta Devata ).
Philosophically, the Smarta tradition emphasizes that all idols
(murti ) are icons to help focus on and visualize aspects of Brahman,
rather than distinct beings. The ultimate goal in this practice is to
transition past the use of icons, recognize the Absolute symbolized by
the icons, on the path to realizing the nondual identity of one's
Atman (soul, self) and the Brahman. Popularized by
Adi Shankara ,
many Panchayatana mandalas and temples have been uncovered that are
Gupta Empire period, and one Panchayatana set from the
village of Nand (about 24 kilometers from
Ajmer ) has been dated to
belong to the
Kushan Empire era (pre-300 CE). The Kushan period set
includes Shiva, Vishnu, Surya,
Brahma and one deity whose identity is
Shiva is considered the Great
Yogi who is totally absorbed in himself
– the transcendental reality. He is the Lord of Yogis , and the
Yoga to sages. As
Shiva Dakshinamurthi, states Stella
Kramrisch, he is the supreme guru who "teaches in silence the oneness
of one's innermost self (_atman_) with the ultimate reality
The theory and practice of Yoga, in different styles, has been a part
of all major traditions of Hinduism, and
Shiva has been the patron or
spokesperson in numerous
Yoga texts. These contain the
philosophy and techniques for Yoga. These ideas are estimated to be
from or after the late centuries of the 1st millennium CE, and have
Yoga texts such as the _Isvara Gita_ (literally, "Shiva's
song"), which Andrew Nicholson – a professor of
Hinduism and Indian
Intellectual History – states have had "a profound and lasting
influence on the development of Hinduism".
Other famed Shiva-related texts influenced Hatha
Yoga , integrated
Advaita Vedanta_) ideas with
Yoga philosophy and inspired
the theoretical development of
Indian classical dance
Indian classical dance . These include
Shiva Sutras_, the _
Shiva Samhita_, and those by the scholars of
Shaivism such as the 10th-century scholar
Abhinavagupta writes in his notes on the relevance of ideas related to
Shiva and Yoga, by stating that "people, occupied as they are with
their own affairs, normally do nothing for others", and
Shiva and Yoga
spirituality helps one look beyond, understand interconnectedness, and
thus benefit both the individual and the world towards a more blissful
state of existence.
Trimurti is a concept in
Hinduism in which the cosmic functions
of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified by the forms
Brahma the creator,
Vishnu the maintainer or preserver and Shiva
the destroyer or transformer. These three deities have been called
Hindu triad" or the "Great Trinity". However, the ancient and
medieval texts of
Hinduism feature many triads of gods and goddesses,
some of which do not include Shiva.
Shiva with Parvati.
Shiva is depicted three-eyed, the Ganges
flowing through his matted hair, wearing ornaments of serpents and a
skull garland, covered in ashes, and seated on a tiger skin A
Shiva holds an axe and deer in his hands.
* THIRD EYE:
Shiva is often depicted with a third eye , with which
he burned Desire (
Kāma ) to ashes, called "Tryambakam" (Sanskrit:
त्र्यम्बकम्_ ), which occurs in many scriptural
sources. In classical Sanskrit, the word _ambaka_ denotes "an eye",
and in the _Mahabharata_,
Shiva is depicted as three-eyed, so this
name is sometimes translated as "having three eyes". However, in
Vedic Sanskrit, the word _ambā_ or _ambikā_ means "mother", and this
early meaning of the word is the basis for the translation "three
mothers". These three mother-goddesses who are collectively called
the Ambikās. Other related translations have been based on the idea
that the name actually refers to the oblations given to Rudra, which
according to some traditions were shared with the goddess Ambikā.
* CRESCENT MOON:
Shiva bears on his head the crescent moon. The
epithet Candraśekhara (Sanskrit: चन्द्रशेखर
"Having the moon as his crest" – _candra _ = "moon"; _śekhara_ =
"crest, crown") refers to this feature. The placement of the moon
on his head as a standard iconographic feature dates to the period
Rudra rose to prominence and became the major deity Rudra-Shiva.
The origin of this linkage may be due to the identification of the
moon with Soma, and there is a hymn in the Rig Veda where Soma and
Rudra are jointly implored, and in later literature, Soma and Rudra
came to be identified with one another, as were Soma and the moon.
Shiva iconography shows his body covered with ashes (bhasma
, vibhuti). The ashes represent a reminder that all of material
existence is impermanent, comes to an end becoming ash, and the
pursuit of eternal soul and spiritual liberation is important.
* MATTED HAIR: Shiva's distinctive hair style is noted in the
epithets Jaṭin, "the one with matted hair", and Kapardin, "endowed
with matted hair" or "wearing his hair wound in a braid in a
shell-like (kaparda) fashion". A kaparda is a cowrie shell, or a
braid of hair in the form of a shell, or, more generally, hair that is
shaggy or curly.
* BLUE THROAT: The epithet Nīlakaṇtha (Sanskrit
नीलकण्ठ; _nīla_ = "blue", _kaṇtha_ = "throat").
Shiva drank the
Halahala poison churned up from the Samudra
Manthan to eliminate its destructive capacity. Shocked by his act,
Parvati squeezed his neck and stopped it in his neck to prevent it
from spreading all over the universe, supposed to be in Shiva's
stomach. However the poison was so potent that it changed the color of
his neck to blue.
* MEDITATING YOGI: his iconography often shows him in a
meditating, sometimes on a symbolic Himalayan Mount Kailasha as the
Lord of Yoga.
* SACRED GANGA: The epithet _Gangadhara_, "Bearer of the river Ganga
" (Ganges). The
Ganga flows from the matted hair of Shiva. The
_Gaṅgā_ (Ganga), one of the major rivers of the country, is said to
have made her abode in Shiva's hair.
* TIGER SKIN:
Shiva is often shown seated upon a tiger skin.
Shiva is often shown garlanded with a snake .
Shiva typically carries a trident called _
The trident is a weapon or a symbol in different
Hindu texts. As a
symbol, the _Trishul_ represents Shiva's three aspects of "creator,
preserver and destroyer", or alternatively it represents the
equilibrium of three
Gunas of "sattva, rajas and tamas".
* DRUM: A small drum shaped like an hourglass is known as a _damaru
_. This is one of the attributes of
Shiva in his famous dancing
representation known as
Nataraja . A specific hand gesture (mudra )
called _ḍamaru-hasta_ (
Sanskrit for "ḍamaru-hand") is used to hold
the drum. This drum is particularly used as an emblem by members of
the Kāpālika sect.
* AXE (_
Parashu _) and DEER are held in Shiva's hands in south
* ROSARY BEADS: he is garlanded with or carries a string of rosary
beads in his right hand, typically made of _
Rudraksha _. This
symbolises grace, mendicant life and meditation.
* NANDī: Nandī , also known as "Nandin", is the name of the bull
that serves as Shiva's mount (Sanskrit: _vāhana _). Shiva's
association with cattle is reflected in his name Paśupati, or
Pashupati (Sanskrit: पशुपति), translated by Sharma as
"lord of cattle" and by Kramrisch as "lord of animals", who notes
that it is particularly used as an epithet of Rudra.
* MOUNT KAILāSA:
Mount Kailash in the
Himalayas is his traditional
Hindu mythology, Mount Kailāsa is conceived as resembling
Linga _, representing the center of the universe.
* GAṇA: The Gaṇas are attendants of
Shiva and live in Kailash.
They are often referred to as the bhutaganas, or ghostly hosts, on
account of their nature. Generally benign, except when their lord is
transgressed against, they are often invoked to intercede with the
lord on behalf of the devotee. His son
Ganesha was chosen as their
leader by Shiva, hence Ganesha's title _gaṇa-īśa_ or
_gaṇa-pati_, "lord of the gaṇas".
Varanasi (Benares) is considered to be the city
specially loved by Shiva, and is one of the holiest places of
pilgrimage in India. It is referred to, in religious contexts, as
FORMS AND DEPICTIONS
Gavin Flood , "
Shiva is a god of ambiguity and paradox,"
whose attributes include opposing themes. The ambivalent nature of
this deity is apparent in some of his names and the stories told about
DESTROYER AND BENEFACTOR
Shiva is represented in his many aspects. Left: Bhairava
icon of the fierce form of Shiva, from 17th/18th century Nepal; Right:
Shiva as a meditating yogi in
Yajurveda , two contrary sets of attributes for both malignant or
terrifying (Sanskrit: _rudra_) and benign or auspicious (Sanskrit:
_śiva_) forms can be found, leading Chakravarti to conclude that "all
the basic elements which created the complex Rudra-Śiva sect of later
ages are to be found here". In the Mahabharata,
Shiva is depicted as
"the standard of invincibility, might, and terror", as well as a
figure of honor, delight, and brilliance.
The duality of Shiva's fearful and auspicious attributes appears in
contrasted names. The name
Rudra reflects Shiva's fearsome aspects.
According to traditional etymologies, the
Sanskrit name _Rudra_ is
derived from the root _rud-_, which means "to cry, howl". Stella
Kramrisch notes a different etymology connected with the adjectival
form _raudra_, which means "wild, of _rudra_ nature", and translates
the name _
Rudra _ as "the wild one" or "the fierce god". R. K. Sharma
follows this alternate etymology and translates the name as
"terrible". Hara is an important name that occurs three times in the
Anushasanaparvan version of the _
Shiva sahasranama _, where it is
translated in different ways each time it occurs, following a
commentorial tradition of not repeating an interpretation. Sharma
translates the three as "one who captivates", "one who consolidates",
and "one who destroys". Kramrisch translates it as "the ravisher".
Another of Shiva's fearsome forms is as Kāla "time" and Mahākāla
"great time", which ultimately destroys all things. The name Kāla
appears in the _
Shiva Sahasranama_, where it is translated by Ram
Karan Sharma as "(the Supreme Lord of) Time".
Bhairava "terrible" or
"frightful" is a fierce form associated with annihilation.In
contrast, the name Śaṇkara, "beneficent" or "conferring happiness"
reflects his benign form. This name was adopted by the great Vedanta
Adi Shankara (c. 788–820), who is also known as
Shankaracharya. The name Śambhu (Sanskrit: शम्भु swam-on
its own; bhu-burn/shine) "self-shining/ shining on its own", also
reflects this benign aspect.
ASCETIC AND HOUSEHOLDER
Shiva is depicted both as an ascetic yogi, and as a householder
Shiva is depicted as both an ascetic yogi and as a householder, roles
which have been traditionally mutually exclusive in
When depicted as a yogi, he may be shown sitting and meditating. His
epithet Mahāyogi ("the great Yogi: _Mahā_ = "great", _Yogi_ = "one
who practices Yoga") refers to his association with yoga. While Vedic
religion was conceived mainly in terms of sacrifice, it was during the
Epic period that the concepts of tapas , yoga, and asceticism became
more important, and the depiction of
Shiva as an ascetic sitting in
philosophical isolation reflects these later concepts.
As a family man and householder, he has a wife,
Parvati and two sons,
Ganesha and Kartikeya. His epithet Umāpati ("The husband of Umā")
refers to this idea, and Sharma notes that two other variants of this
name that mean the same thing, Umākānta and Umādhava, also appear
in the sahasranama. Umā in epic literature is known by many names,
including the benign Pārvatī. She is identified with
Devi , the
Shakti (divine energy) as well as goddesses like
Tripura Sundari ,
Minakshi . The consorts
Shiva are the source of his creative energy. They represent the
dynamic extension of
Shiva onto this universe. His son
Nepal as the Remover of Obstacles,
Lord of Beginnings and Lord of Obstacles.
Kartikeya is worshipped in
India (especially in
Tamil Nadu ,
Karnataka ) by the
names Subrahmanya, Subrahmanyan, Shanmughan, Swaminathan and Murugan,
and in Northern
India by the names Skanda, Kumara, or Karttikeya.
Some regional deities are also identified as Shiva's children. As one
Shiva is enticed by the beauty and charm of
Vishnu's female avatar, and procreates with her. As a result of this
union, Shasta – identified with regional deities
Aiyanar – is born. In some traditions,
Shiva has daughters like
Chola dynasty statue depicting
Shiva dancing as
Angeles County Museum of Art )
The depiction of
Nataraja (Sanskrit: _naṭarāja_, "Lord of
Dance") is popular. The names Nartaka ("dancer") and Nityanarta
("eternal dancer") appear in the
Shiva Sahasranama. His association
with dance and also with music is prominent in the Puranic period. In
addition to the specific iconographic form known as Nataraja, various
other types of dancing forms (Sanskrit: _nṛtyamūrti_) are found in
all parts of India, with many well-defined varieties in
Tamil Nadu in
particular. The two most common forms of the dance are the
which later came to denote the powerful and masculine dance as
Kala-Mahakala associated with the destruction of the world. When it
requires the world or universe to be destroyed,
Shiva does it by the
Lasya , which is graceful and delicate and expresses
emotions on a gentle level and is considered the feminine dance
attributed to the goddess Parvati. _Lasya_ is regarded as the female
counterpart of _Tandava_. The _Tandava_-_Lasya_ dances are associated
with the destruction-creation of the world.
Dakshinamurthy _(Dakṣiṇāmūrti)_ literally describes a form
Shiva facing south (_dakṣiṇa_). This form represents
Shiva in his aspect as a teacher of yoga, music, and wisdom and giving
exposition on the shastras. This iconographic form for depicting
Shiva in Indian art is mostly from Tamil Nadu. Elements of this motif
Shiva seated upon a deer-throne and surrounded by sages
who are receiving his instruction.
An iconographic representation of
Shiva called Ardhanarishvara
(_Ardhanārīśvara_) shows him with one half of the body as male and
the other half as female. According to Ellen Goldberg, the traditional
Sanskrit name for this form is best translated as "the lord who is
half woman", not as "half-man, half-woman".
Shiva is often depicted as an archer in the act of destroying the
triple fortresses, _Tripura_, of the Asuras. Shiva's name
Tripurantaka ( _Tripurāntaka_), "ender of Tripura", refers to this
Traditional flower offering to a lingam in
Apart from anthropomorphic images of Shiva, he is also represented in
aniconic form of a lingam. These are depicted in various designs.
One common form is the shape of a vertical rounded column in the
centre of a lipped, disk-shaped object, the _yoni_, symbolism for the
goddess Shakti. In
Shiva temples, the _linga_ is typically present in
its sanctum sanctorum and is the focus of votary offerings such as
milk, water, flower petals, fruit, fresh leaves, and rice. According
to Monier Williams and Yudit Greenberg, _linga_ literally means "mark,
sign or emblem", and also refers to a "mark or sign from which the
existence of something else can be reliably inferred". It implies the
regenerative divine energy innate in nature, symbolized by Shiva.
Some scholars, such as
Wendy Doniger , view _linga_ merely as an
erotic phallic symbol, although this interpretation is disputed by
Swami Vivekananda ,
Sivananda Saraswati , and S.
N. Balagangadhara . According to
Moriz Winternitz , the _linga_ in
Shiva tradition is "only a symbol of the productive and creative
principle of nature as embodied in Shiva", and it has no historical
trace in any obscene phallic cult.
The worship of the lingam originated from the famous hymn in the
_Atharva-Veda Samhitâ_ sung in praise of the _Yupa-Stambha_, the
sacrificial post. In that hymn, a description is found of the
beginningless and endless _
Stambha _ or _Skambha_, and it is shown
that the said _Skambha_ is put in place of the eternal
Brahman . Just
Yajna (sacrificial) fire, its smoke, ashes, and flames, the
_Soma_ plant, and the ox that used to carry on its back the wood for
the Vedic sacrifice gave place to the conceptions of the brightness of
Shiva's body, his tawny matted hair, his blue throat, and the riding
on the bull of the Shiva, the _Yupa-Skambha_ gave place in time to the
_Shiva-Linga_. In the text _
Linga Purana_, the same hymn is expanded
in the shape of stories, meant to establish the glory of the great
Stambha and the superiority of
Shiva as Mahadeva.
The oldest known archaeological _linga_ as an anicon of
Shiva is the
Gudimallam lingam from 3rd-century BCE. In
tradition, twelve major temples of
Shiva are called
which means "linga of light", and these are located across India.
THE FIVE MANTRAS
The 10th century five headed Shiva, Sadashiva, Cambodia.
Five is a sacred number for Shiva. One of his most important mantras
has five syllables (namaḥ śivāya).
Shiva's body is said to consist of five mantras, called the
pañcabrahmans. As forms of God, each of these have their own names
and distinct iconography:
These are represented as the five faces of
Shiva and are associated
in various texts with the five elements, the five senses, the five
organs of perception, and the five organs of action. Doctrinal
differences and, possibly, errors in transmission, have resulted in
some differences between texts in details of how these five forms are
linked with various attributes. The overall meaning of these
associations is summarized by Stella Kramrisch:
Through these transcendent categories, Śiva, the ultimate reality,
becomes the efficient and material cause of all that exists.
According to the _Pañcabrahma Upanishad_:
One should know all things of the phenomenal world as of a fivefold
character, for the reason that the eternal verity of Śiva is of the
character of the fivefold Brahman. (_Pañcabrahma Upanishad_ 31)
Puranic scriptures contain occasional references to "ansh" –
literally portion, or avatars of Shiva, but the idea of
is not universally accepted in
Saivism . The
Linga Purana mentions
twenty-eight forms of
Shiva which are sometimes seen as avatars,
however such mention is unusual and the avatars of
Shiva is relatively
Shaivism compared to the well emphasized concept of Vishnu
Some Vaishnava literature reverentially link
Shiva to characters in
its mythologies. For example, in the _
Hanuman Chalisa _,
identified as the eleventh avatar of Shiva. The _
Bhagavata Purana _
and the _
Vishnu Purana _ claim sage
Durvasa to be a portion of Shiva.
Some medieval era writers have called the
Adi Shankara an incarnation of Shiva.
Maha Shivaratri _ Maha Sivaratri festival is
observed in the night, usually in lighted temples or special prabha_
There is a _Shivaratri_ in every lunar month on its 13th night/14th
day, but once a year in late winter (February/March) and before the
arrival of spring, marks _Maha Shivaratri_ which means "the Great
Night of Shiva".
Maha Shivaratri is a major
Hindu festival, but one that is solemn and
theologically marks a remembrance of "overcoming darkness and
ignorance" in life and the world, and meditation about the polarities
of existence, of
Shiva and a devotion to humankind. It is observed by
reciting Shiva-related poems, chanting prayers, remembering Shiva,
Yoga and meditating on ethics and virtues such as
self-restraint, honesty, noninjury to others, forgiveness,
introspection, self-repentance and the discovery of Shiva. The
ardent devotees keep awake all night. Others visit one of the Shiva
temples or go on pilgrimage to
Jyotirlingam shrines. Those who visit
temples, offer milk, fruits, flowers, fresh leaves and sweets to the
lingam. Some communities organize special dance events, to mark Shiva
as the lord of dance, with individual and group performances.
According to Jones and Ryan, Maha Sivaratri is an ancient Hindu
festival which probably originated around the 5th-century.
Another major festival involving
Shiva worship is
Kartik Purnima ,
commemorating Shiva\'s victory on the demons
Tripurasura . Across
Shiva temples are illuminated throughout the night.
Shiva icons are carried in procession in some places.
Regional festivals dedicated to
Shiva include the Chittirai festival
Madurai around April/May, one of the largest festivals in South
India, celebrating the wedding of
Minakshi (Parvati) and Shiva. The
festival is one where both the Vaishnava and Shaiva communities join
the celebrations, because
Vishnu gives away his sister
marriage to Shiva.
Some Shaktism-related festivals revere
Shiva along with the goddess
considered primary and Supreme. These include festivals dedicated to
Annapurna such as _Annakuta_ and those related to Durga. In Himalayan
regions such as Nepal, as well as in northern, central and western
India, the festival of
Teej is celebrated by girls and women in the
monsoon season, in honor of goddess Parvati, with group singing,
dancing and by offering prayers in Parvati-
The ascetic, Vedic and Tantric sub-traditions related to Shiva, such
as those that became ascetic warriors during the Islamic rule period
of India, celebrate the
Kumbha Mela festival. This festival cycles
every 12 years, in four pilgrimage sites within India, with the event
moving to the next site after a gap of three years. The biggest is in
Prayaga (renamed Allahabad during the Mughal rule era), where millions
of Hindus of different traditions gather at the confluence of rivers
Ganges and Yamuna. In the
Hindu tradition, the Shiva-linked ascetic
warriors (_Nagas_) get the honor of starting the event by entering the
_sangam_ first for bathing and prayers.
OUTSIDE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
Shiva has been adopted and merged with Buddhist deities.
Daikokuten is a Shiva-
Ōkuninushi fusion deity in Japan; Right:
Acala is a fierce
Shaivism of Indonesia, the popular name for
Shiva has been
Guru _, which is derived from
Sanskrit _Bhattaraka_ which
means “noble lord". He is conceptualized as a kind spiritual
teacher, the first of all Gurus in Indonesian
Hindu texts, mirroring
the Dakshinamurti aspect of
Shiva in the Indian subcontinent.
However, the Bhattara
Guru has more aspects than the Indian Shiva, as
the Indonesian Hindus blended their spirits and heroes with him.
Bhattara Guru's wife in southeast Asia is the same
Hindu deity Durga,
who has been popular since ancient times, and she too has a complex
character with benevolent and fierce manifestations, each visualized
with different names such as Uma, Sri,
Kali and others.
been called Sadasiva, Paramasiva, Mahadeva in benevolent forms, and
Kala, Bhairava, Mahakala in his fierce forms. The Indonesian Hindu
texts present the same philosophical diversity of
found on the subcontinent. However, among the texts that have survived
into the contemporary era, the more common are of those of Shaiva
Siddhanta (locally also called Siwa Siddhanta, Sridanta).
The worship of
Shiva became popular in Central Asia through the
Hephthalite Empire , and
Kushan Empire .
Shaivism was also popular in
Sogdia and the
Kingdom of Yutian as found from the wall painting from
Penjikent on the river Zervashan. In this depiction,
portrayed with a sacred halo and a sacred thread ("Yajnopavita"). He
is clad in tiger skin while his attendants are wearing Sogdian dress.
A panel from
Dandan Oilik shows
Shiva in His
Trimurti form with Shakti
kneeling on her right thigh. Another site in the Taklamakan Desert
depicts him with four legs, seated cross-legged on a cushioned seat
supported by two bulls. It is also noted that Zoroastrian wind god
Vayu-Vata took on the iconographic appearance of Shiva.
Daikokuten , one of the
Seven Lucky Gods in Japan, is considered to
be evolved from Shiva. The god enjoys an exalted position as a
household deity in Japan and is worshipped as the god of wealth and
fortune. The name is the Japanese equivalent of
Mahākāla , the
Buddhist name for Shiva.
In the pre-Islamic period on the island of
Buddhism were considered very close and allied religions, though not
identical religions. The medieval era Indonesian literature equates
Buddha with Siwa (Shiva) and Janardana (Vishnu). This tradition
continues in predominantly
Hindu Bali Indonesia in the modern era,
where Buddha is considered the younger brother of Shiva.
Shiva is mentioned in Buddhist
Shiva as _
Upaya _ and Shakti
as _Prajna _. In cosmologies of Buddhist tantra,
Shiva is depicted as
Shakti being his active counterpart. Sikhism
The Japuji Sahib of the
Guru Granth Sahib says, "The
Guru is Shiva,
Vishnu and Brahma; the
Guru is Paarvati and Lakhshmi." In
the same chapter, it also says, "
Shiva speaks, and the Siddhas
Dasam Granth ,
Guru Gobind Singh has mentioned two avtars
Dattatreya Avtar and
IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE
The statue of
In contemporary culture,
Shiva is depicted in films, books, tattoos
and art. He has been referred to as "the god of cool things" and a
"bonafide rock hero". Popular films include the Gujarati language
movie _Har Har Mahadev_ and well-known books include Amish Tripathi
Shiva Trilogy , which has sold over a million copies. On
Devon Ke Dev...Mahadev , a mythological drama about Shiva
Life OK channel was among the most watched shows at its peak
Shiva is also a character in the
Dark Souls ,
with the name
Shiva of the East.
* Sang Hyang Manikmaya
* Thiwa (Paramethwa)
* _Adiyogi Shiva_ statue
* ^ _A_ _B_ Flood 1996 , pp. 17, 153
* ^ K. Sivaraman (1973). _Śaivism in Philosophical Perspective: A
Study of the Formative Concepts, Problems, and Methods of Śaiva
Siddhānta_. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 131. ISBN 978-81-208-1771-5 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Zimmer (1972) pp. 124-126
Jan Gonda (1969), The
Hindu Trinity, Anthropos, Bd 63/64, H
1/2, pages 212–226
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Arvind Sharma 2000 , p. 65.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Issitt & Main 2014 , pp. 147, 168.
* ^ Flood 1996 , p. 151.
* ^ _A_ _B_ David Kinsley 1988 , p. 50, 103–104.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Tracy Pintchman 2015 , pp. 113, 119, 144, 171.
* ^ Kramrisch 1981 , pp. 184–188
* ^ Davis, pp. 113–114.
* ^ William K. Mahony 1998 , p. 14.
Shiva Samhita, e.g. translation by Mallinson.
* ^ Varenne, p. 82.
* ^ Marchand for Jnana Yoga.
* ^ Fuller, p. 58.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Flood 1996 , p. 17.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Keay, p.xxvii.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Monier Monier-Williams (1899),
English Dictionary with Etymology, Oxford University Press, pages
* ^ Karen Pechilis Prentiss (2000). _The Embodiment of Bhakti_.
Oxford University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-19-535190-3 .
* ^ For use of the term _śiva_ as an epithet for other Vedic
deities, see: Chakravarti, p. 28.
* ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 21–22.
* ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 1, 7, 21–23.
* ^ For root _śarv-_ see: Apte, p. 910.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Sharma 1996 , p. 306.
* ^ Apte, p. 927
* ^ For the definition "Śaivism refers to the traditions which
follow the teachings of Śiva (_śivaśāna_) and which focus on the
deity Śiva... " see: Flood (1996), p. 149.
* ^ van Lysebeth, Andre (2002). _Tantra: Cult of the Feminine_.
Weiser Books. p. 213. ISBN 9780877288459 .
* ^ Tyagi, Ishvar
Chandra (1982). _
Shaivism in Ancient India: From
the Earliest Times to C.A.D. 300_. Meenakshi Prakashan. p. 81.
* ^ Sri
Vishnu Sahasranama, Ramakrishna Math edition, pg.47 and pg.
* ^ Swami Chinmayananda's translation of
Vishnu sahasranama, p. 24,
Central Chinmaya Mission Trust.
* ^ For translation see: Dutt, Chapter 17 of Volume 13.
* ^ For translation see: Ganguli, Chapter 17 of Volume 13.
* ^ Chidbhavananda, "Siva
* ^ Lochtefeld, James G. (2002). _The Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Hinduism: A-M_. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 247. ISBN 0-8239-3179-X .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Kramrisch, p. 476.
* ^ For appearance of the name महादेव in the _Shiva
Sahasranama_ see: Sharma 1996 , p. 297
* ^ Kramrisch, p. 477.
* ^ For appearance of the name in the
Shiva Sahasranama see:Sharma
1996 , p. 299
* ^ For Parameśhvara as "Supreme Lord" see: Kramrisch, p. 479.
* ^ Sir Monier Monier-Williams, _sahasranAman_, A Sanskrit-English
Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special
Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages, Oxford University Press
(Reprinted: Motilal Banarsidass), ISBN 978-8120831056
* ^ Sharma 1996 , p. viii–ix
* ^ This is the source for the version presented in Chidbhavananda,
who refers to it being from the
Mahabharata but does not explicitly
clarify which of the two
Mahabharata versions he is using. See
Chidbhavananda, p. 5.
* ^ For an overview of the _Śatarudriya_ see: Kramrisch, pp.
* ^ For complete
Sanskrit text, translations, and commentary see:
* ^ James A. Boon (1977). _The Anthropological Romance of Bali
1597–1972_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 143, 205. ISBN
* ^ Klaus K. Klostermaier (2007), _A Survey of Hinduism, 3rd
Edition_, State University of University Press, pp. 24–25, ISBN
978-0-7914-7082-4 , _... prehistoric cave paintings at Bhimbetka (from
ca. 100,000 to ca. 10,000 BCE) which were discovered only in 1967..._
* ^ Javid, Ali (January 2008). _World Heritage Monuments and
Related Edifices in India_. Algora Publishing. pp. 20–21. ISBN
* ^ Mathpal, Yashodhar (1984). _Prehistoric Rock Paintings of
Bhimbetka, Central India_. Abhinav Publications. p. 220. ISBN
* ^ Rajarajan, R.K.K. (1996). "Vṛṣabhavāhanamūrti in
Literature and Art". _Annali del Istituto Orientale, Naples_. 56.3:
* ^ Howard Morphy (2014). _Animals Into Art_. Routledge. pp.
364–366. ISBN 978-1-317-59808-4 .
* ^ Neumayer, Erwin (2013). _Prehistoric Rock Art of India_. OUP
India. p. 104. ISBN 9780198060987 . Retrieved 1 March 2017.
* ^ For a drawing of the seal see Figure 1 _in_: Flood (1996), p.
* ^ Singh, S.P., _Rgvedic Base of the Pasupati Seal of
Mohenjo-Daro_(Approx 2500–3000 BC), Puratattva 19: 19–26. 1989
* ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark. _Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley
Civilization_. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1998.
* ^ For translation of _paśupati_ as "Lord of Animals" see:
Michaels, p. 312.
* ^ Ranbir Vohra (2000). _The Making of India: A Historical
Survey_. M.E. Sharpe. p. 15.
* ^ Grigoriĭ Maksimovich Bongard-Levin (1985). _Ancient Indian
Civilization_. Arnold-Heinemann. p. 45.
* ^ Steven Rosen; Graham M. Schweig (2006). _Essential Hinduism_.
Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 45.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Flood (1996), pp. 28–29.
* ^ Flood 1996 , pp. 28–29.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Flood 2003 , pp. 204–205.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Srinivasan, Doris Meth (1997). _Many Heads, Arms and
Eyes: Origin, Meaning and Form in Multiplicity in Indian Art_. Brill.
p. 181. ISBN 978-9004107588 .
* ^ Flood (2003), pp. 204–205.
* ^ John Keay. _India: A History_. Grove Press. p. 14.
* ^ McEvilley, Thomas (1981-03-01). "An Archaeology of Yoga". _Res:
Anthropology and aesthetics_. 1: 51. ISSN 0277-1322 . doi
* ^ Asko Parpola(2009), Deciphering the Indus Script, Cambridge
University Press, ISBN 978-0521795661 , pages 240-250
* ^ Possehl, Gregory L. (11 November 2002). _The Indus
Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective_. Rowman Altamira. pp.
140–144. ISBN 978-0-7591-1642-9 .
* ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 1–2.
* ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 2–3.
* ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 1–9.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Roger D. Woodard (2010). _Indo-European Sacred Space:
Vedic and Roman Cult_. University of Illinois Press. pp. 60–67,
79–80. ISBN 978-0-252-09295-4 .
* ^ Alain Daniélou (1992). _Gods of Love and Ecstasy: The
Shiva and Dionysus_. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. pp.
49–50. ISBN 978-0-89281-374-2 . , Quote: "The parallels between the
names and legends of Shiva, Osiris and
Dionysus are so numerous that
there can be little doubt as to their original sameness".
* ^ Namita Gokhale (2009). _The Book of Shiva_. Penguin Books. pp.
10–11. ISBN 978-0-14-306761-0 .
* ^ Pierfrancesco Callieri (2005), A Dionysian Scheme on a Seal
from Gupta India, East and West, Vol. 55, No. 1/4 (December 2005),
* ^ Long, J. Bruce (1971). "Siva and Dionysos: Visions of Terror
and Bliss". _Numen_. 18 (3): 180. doi :10.2307/3269768 .
* ^ _A_ _B_
Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1980),
Dionysus and Siva:
Parallel Patterns in Two Pairs of Myths, History of Religions, Vol.
20, No. 1/2 (Aug. – Nov., 1980), pages 81–111
* ^ Patrick Laude (2005). _Divine Play, Sacred Laughter, and
Spiritual Understanding_. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 41–60. ISBN
* ^ Walter Friedrich Otto; Robert B. Palmer (1965). _Dionysus: Myth
and Cult_. Indiana University Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-253-20891-2 .
* ^ Dineschandra Sircar (1998). _The Śākta Pīṭhas_. Motilal
Banarsidass. pp. 3 with footnote 2, 102–105. ISBN 978-81-208-0879-9
* ^ Michaels, p. 316.
* ^ Flood (2003), p. 73.
* ^ For dating based on "cumulative evidence" see: Oberlies, p.
* ^ Doniger, pp. 221–223.
Stella Kramrisch (1993). _The Presence of Siva_. Princeton
University Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-691-01930-4 .
Stella Kramrisch (1993). _The Presence of Siva_. Princeton
University Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-691-01930-4 .
* ^ For general statement of the close relationship, and example
shared epithets, see: Sivaramamurti, p. 11.
* ^ For an overview of the Rudra-Fire complex of ideas, see:
Kramrisch, pp. 15–19.
* ^ For quotation "An important factor in the process of Rudra's
growth is his identification with
Agni in the Vedic literature and
this identification contributed much to the transformation of his
character as Rudra-Śiva." see: Chakravarti, p. 17.
* ^ For translation from _Nirukta_ 10.7, see: Sarup (1927), p. 155.
* ^ Kramrisch, p. 18.
* ^ For "Note Agni-
Rudra concept fused" in epithets Sasipañjara
and Tivaṣīmati see: Sivaramamurti, p. 45.
* ^ "Rig Veda: Rig-Veda, Book 6: HYMN XLVIII.
Agni and Others".
Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
* ^ For the parallel between the horns of
Agni as bull, and Rudra,
see: Chakravarti, p. 89.
* ^ RV 8.49; 10.155.
* ^ For flaming hair of
Bhairava see: Sivaramamurti, p.
* ^ Hans Loeschner (2012), Victor Mair (Editor), The Stūpa of the
Kushan Emperor Kanishka the Great Sino-Platonic Papers, No. 227, pages
* ^ Doniger, Wendy (1973). "The Vedic Antecedents". _Śiva, the
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press US. pp. 84–9.
* ^ For text of RV 2.20.3a as स नो
युवेन्द्रो जोहूत्रः सखा
शिवो नरामस्तु पाता । and translation
as "May that young adorable _Indra_, ever be the friend, the
benefactor, and protector of us, his worshipper" see: Arya & Joshi
(2001), p. 48, volume 2.
* ^ For text of RV 6.45.17 as यो
सखा । स त्वं न इन्द्र मृलय ॥
and translation as "_Indra_, who has ever been the friend of those who
praise you, and the insurer of their happiness by your protection,
grant us felicity" see: Arya & Joshi (2001), p. 91, volume 3.
* ^ For translation of RV 6.45.17 as "Thou who hast been the
singers' Friend, a Friend auspicious with thine aid, As such, O Indra,
favour us" see: Griffith 1973 , p. 310.
* ^ For text of RV 8.93.3 as स न इन्द्रः
गोमद्यवमत् । उरूधारेव
दोहते ॥ and translation as "May _Indra_, our auspicious
friend, milk for us, like a richly-streaming (cow), wealth of horses,
kine, and barley" see: Arya & Joshi (2001), p. 48, volume 2.
* ^ For the bull parallel between
Rudra see: Chakravarti,
* ^ RV 7.19.
* ^ For the lack of warlike connections and difference between
Indra and Rudra, see: Chakravarti, p. 8.
* ^ Roger D. Woodard (18 August 2006). _Indo-European Sacred Space:
Vedic and Roman Cult_. University of Illinois Press. pp. 242–. ISBN
* ^ Beckwith 2009 , p. 32.
* ^ T. Richard Blurton (1993). _
Hindu Art_. Harvard University
Press. pp. 84, 103. ISBN 978-0-674-39189-5 .
* ^ T. Richard Blurton (1993). _
Hindu Art_. Harvard University
Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-674-39189-5 .
* ^ Pratapaditya Pal (1986). _Indian Sculpture: Circa 500 B.C.-A.D.
700_. University of California Press. pp. 75–80. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ C. Sivaramamurti (2004). _Satarudriya:
Shiva\'s Iconography_. Abhinav Publications. pp. 41, 59. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ Lisa Owen (2012). _Carving Devotion in the Jain Caves
at Ellora_. BRILL Academic. pp. 25–29. ISBN 90-04-20629-9 .
* ^ Flood 1996 , p. 86.
* ^ Flood 2003 , p. 205, for date of Mahabhasya see: Peter M.
Scharf (1996), The Denotation of Generic Terms in Ancient Indian
Philosophy: Grammar, Nyāya, and Mīmāṃsā, American Philosophical
Society, ISBN 978-0-87169-863-6 , page 1 with footnote 2.
* ^ Robert Hume, Shvetashvatara Upanishad, The Thirteen Principal
Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pages 399, 403
* ^ M. Hiriyanna (2000), The Essentials of Indian Philosophy,
Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120813304 , pages 32–36
* ^ A Kunst, Some notes on the interpretation of the
Ṥvetāṥvatara Upaniṣad, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and
African Studies, Vol. 31, Issue 02, June 1968, pages 309–314; doi
Doris Srinivasan (1997), Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes, Brill, ISBN
978-9004107588 , pages 96–97 and Chapter 9 * ^ _A_ _B_ Deussen
1997 , pp. 792–793.
* ^ Sastri 1898 , pp. 80–82.
* ^ Deussen 1997 , p. 556, 769 footnote 1.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Deussen 1997 , p. 769.
* ^ Klostermaier 1984 , pp. 134, 371.
* ^ Radhakrishnan 1953 , p. 929.
* ^ Flood 2003 , pp. 205–206.
* ^ Rocher 1986 , pp. 187–188, 222–228.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Flood 2003 , pp. 208–212.
* ^ DS Sharma (1990), The Philosophy of Sadhana, State University
of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791403471 , pages 9–14
* ^ Richard Davis (2014), Ritual in an Oscillating Universe:
Worshipping Siva in Medieval India, Princeton University Press, ISBN
978-0691603087 , page 167 note 21, QUOTE (PAGE 13): "Some agamas argue
a monist metaphysics, while others are decidedly dualist. Some claim
ritual is the most efficacious means of religious attainment, while
others assert that knowledge is more important".
* ^ Mark Dyczkowski (1989), The Canon of the Śaivāgama, Motilal
Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805958 , pages 43–44
* ^ JS
Vasugupta (2012), Śiva Sūtras, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN
978-8120804074 , pages 252, 259
* ^ _A_ _B_ Flood 1996 , pp. 162–169.
* ^ Ganesh Tagare (2002), The Pratyabhijñā Philosophy, Motilal
Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120818927 , pages 16–19
Jan Gonda (1975). _Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 3
Southeast Asia, Religions_. BRILL Academic. pp. 3–20, 35–36,
49–51. ISBN 90-04-04330-6 .
* ^ Upendra Thakur (1986). _Some Aspects of Asian History and
Culture_. Abhinav Publications. pp. 83–94. ISBN 978-81-7017-207-9 .
* ^ Phyllis Granoff (2003), Mahakala\'s Journey: from
Gana to God,
Rivista degli studi orientali, Vol. 77, Fasc. 1/4 (2003), pages
* ^ For
Shiva as a composite deity whose history is not well
documented, see: Keay, p. 147.
Nath 2001 , p. 31.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Courtright, p. 205.
* ^ For
Jejuri as the foremost center of worship see: Mate, p. 162.
* ^ _Biroba, Mhaskoba und Khandoba: Ursprung, Geschichte und Umwelt
von pastoralen Gottheiten in Maharastra_, Wiesbaden 1976 (German with
English Synopsis) pp. 180–98, "
Khandoba is a local deity in
Maharashtra and been Sanskritised as an incarnation of Shiva."
* ^ For worship of
Khandoba in the form of a lingam and possible
Shiva based on that, see: Mate, p. 176.
* ^ For use of the name
Khandoba as a name for
Maharashtra, see: Gupta, _Preface_, and p. 40.
* ^ Michaels 2004 , p. 216.
* ^ Michaels 2004 , pp. 216–218.
* ^ Surendranath Dasgupta (1973). _A History of Indian Philosophy_.
Cambridge University Press. pp. 17, 48–49, 65–67, 155–161. ISBN
* ^ David N. Lorenzen (1972). _The Kāpālikas and Kālāmukhas:
Two Lost Śaivite Sects_. University of California Press. pp. 2–5,
15–17, 38, 80. ISBN 978-0-520-01842-6 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Narendranath B. Patil (2003). _The Variegated Plumage:
Encounters with Indian Philosophy_. Motilal Banarsidass. pp.
125–126. ISBN 978-81-208-1953-5 .
* ^ Mark S. G. Dyczkowski (1987). _The Doctrine of Vibration: An
Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices Associated with Kashmir
Shaivism_. State University of New York Press. p. 9. ISBN
* ^ Michaels 2004 , pp. 215–216.
* ^ David Lawrence, Kashmiri Shaiva Philosophy, University of
Manitoba, Canada, IEP, Section 1(d)
* ^ Edwin Bryant (2003), Krishna: The Beautiful Legend of God:
Srimad Bhagavata Purana, Penguin, ISBN 978-0141913377 , pages 10–12,
Quote: "(...) accept and indeed extol the transcendent and absolute
nature of the other, and of the Goddess
Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN
978-3447025225 , page 23 with footnotes
* ^ EO James (1997), The Tree of Life, BRILL Academic, ISBN
978-9004016125 , pages 150–153
* ^ Gregor Maehle (2009), Ashtanga Yoga, New World, ISBN
978-1577316695 , page 17; for Sanskrit, see: Skanda Purana Shankara
Samhita Part 1, Verses 1.8.20–21 (Sanskrit)
* ^ Saroj Panthey (1987). _Iconography of Śiva in Pahāṛī
Paintings_. Mittal Publications. p. 94. ISBN 978-81-7099-016-1 .
* ^ Barbara Holdrege (2012). Hananya Goodman, ed. _Between
Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism_.
State University of New York Press. pp. 120–125 with footnotes. ISBN
* ^ Charles Johnston (1913). _The Atlantic Monthly_. CXII.
Riverside Press, Cambridge. pp. 835–836.
* ^ Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). _Encyclopedia of
Hinduism_. Infobase. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 .
* ^ Coburn 2002 , pp. 1, 53–56, 280.
* ^ Lochtefeld 2002 , p. 426.
* ^ David Kinsley 1988 , pp. 101–105.
* ^ Tracy Pintchman 2014 , pp. 85–86, 119, 144, 171.
* ^ Coburn 1991 , pp. 19–24, 40, 65, Narayani p. 232.
* ^ _A_ _B_ McDaniel 2004 , p. 90.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Brown 1998 , p. 26.
* ^ The Rig Veda/Mandala 10/Hymn 125 Ralph T.H. Griffith
Sanskrit original see: ऋग्वेद:
* ^ Brown 1998 , p. 77.
* ^ Warrier 1967 , pp. 77–84.
* ^ Rocher 1986 , p. 193.
* ^ David R. Kinsley (1975). _The Sword and the Flute: Kālī and
Kṛṣṇa, Dark Visions of the Terrible and the Sublime in Hindu
Mythology_. University of California Press. pp. 102 with footnote 42.
ISBN 978-0-520-02675-9 . , Quote: "In the
Devi Mahatmya, it is quite
Durga is an independent deity, great in her own right, and
only loosely associated with any of the great male deities. And if any
one of the great gods can be said to be her closest associate, it is
Visnu rather than Siva".
* ^ Gupteshwar Prasad (1994). _I.A. Richards and Indian Theory of
Rasa_. Sarup & Sons. pp. 117–118. ISBN 978-81-85431-37-6 .
* ^ Jaideva
Vasugupta (1991). _The
Yoga of Delight, Wonder, and
Astonishment_. State University of New York Press. p. xix. ISBN
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gudrun Bühnemann (2003). _Mandalas and Yantras in the
Hindu Traditions_. BRILL Academic. p. 60. ISBN 978-9004129023 .
* ^ James C. Harle (1994). _The Art and Architecture of the Indian
Subcontinent_. Yale University Press. pp. 140–142, 191, 201–203.
ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5 .
* ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996). _An Introduction to Hinduism_. Cambridge
University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0 .
* ^ J. N. Farquhar (1984). _Outline of the Religious Literature of
India_. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 180. ISBN 978-81-208-2086-9 .
* ^ Edwin F. Bryant (2007). _Krishna: A Sourcebook_. Oxford
University Press. pp. 313–314. ISBN 978-0-19-972431-4 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Frederick Asher (1981). Joanna Gottfried Williams, ed.
_Kalādarśana: American Studies in the Art of India_. BRILL Academic.
pp. 1–4. ISBN 90-04-06498-2 .
* ^ Kramrisch, Stella (1981). _Manifestations of Shiva_.
Philadelphia Museum of Art. p. 22.
* ^ Kramrisch, Stella (1981). _Manifestations of Shiva_.
Philadelphia Museum of Art. p. 23.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Vasugupta; Jaideva (1979). _Śiva Sūtras_. Motilal
Banarsidass. pp. xv–xx. ISBN 978-81-208-0407-4 . ;
James Mallinson (2007). _The
Shiva Samhita: A Critical Edition_.
Yoga. pp. xiii–xiv. ISBN 978-0-9716466-5-0 .
OCLC 76143968 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Jaideva
Vasugupta (1991). _The
Yoga of Delight, Wonder,
and Astonishment: A Translation of the Vijnana-bhairava with an
Introduction and Notes by Jaideva Singh_. State University of New York
Press. pp. xii–xvi. ISBN 978-0-7914-1073-8 . ;
Vasugupta; Jaideva (1980). _The
Yoga of Vibration and Divine
Pulsation: A Translation of the Spanda Karika with Ksemaraja\'s
Commentary, the Spanda Nirnaya_. State University of New York Press.
pp. xxv–xxxii, 2–4. ISBN 978-0-7914-1179-7 . * ^ Andrew J.
Nicholson (2014). _Lord Siva\'s Song: The Isvara Gita_. State
University of New York Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-1-4384-5102-2 .
* ^ David Smith (2003). _The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and
Poetry in South India_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 237–239.
ISBN 978-0-521-52865-8 .
* ^ Jaideva Vasugupta; Mark S. G. Dyczkowski (1992). _The Aphorisms
of Siva: The Siva Sutra with Bhaskara\'s Commentary, the Varttika_.
State University of New York Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-7914-1264-0
* ^ For quotation defining the trimurti see Matchett, Freda. "The
Purāṇas", in: Flood (2003), p. 139.
* ^ Ralph Metzner (1986). _Opening to Inner Light: The
Transformation of Human Nature and Consciousness_. J.P. Tarcher. p.
61. ISBN 978-0-87477-353-8 . ;
David Frawley (2009). _Inner Tantric Yoga: Working with the Universal
Shakti: Secrets of Mantras, Deities and Meditation_. Lotus. p. 25.
ISBN 978-0-940676-50-3 . * ^ For definition of trimurti as "the
unified form" of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva and use of the phrase
Hindu triad" see: Apte, p. 485.
* ^ For the term "Great Trinity" in relation to the
Jansen, p. 83.
* ^ The
Trimurti idea of Hinduism, states
Jan Gonda , "seems to have
developed from ancient cosmological and ritualistic speculations about
the triple character of an individual god, in the first place of
_Agni_, whose births are three or threefold, and who is threefold
light, has three bodies and three stations". See:
Jan Gonda (1969),
Hindu Trinity, Anthropos, Bd 63/64, H 1/2, pages 218–219; Other
trinities, beyond the more common "Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva", mentioned
in ancient and medieval
Hindu texts include: "Indra, Vishnu,
Brahmanaspati", "Agni, Indra, Surya", "Agni, Vayu, Aditya",
"Mahalakshmi, Mahasarasvati, and Mahakali", and others. See: David
White (2006), Kiss of the Yogini, University of Chicago Press, ISBN
978-0226894843 , pages 4, 29
Jan Gonda (1969), The
Hindu Trinity, Anthropos, Bd 63/64, H 1/2,
pages 212–226 * ^ For
Shiva as depicted with a third eye, and
mention of the story of the destruction of
Kama with it, see: Flood
(1996), p. 151.
* ^ For a review of 4 theories about the meaning of _tryambaka_,
see: Chakravarti, pp. 37–39.
* ^ For usage of the word _ambaka_ in classical
connection to the
Mahabharata depiction, see: Chakravarti, pp.
* ^ For translation of Tryambakam as "having three mother eyes" and
as an epithet of Rudra, see: Kramrisch, p. 483.
* ^ For vedic
Sanskrit meaning Lord has three mother eyes which
symbolize eyes are the Sun, Moon and Fire.
* ^ For discussion of the problems in translation of this name, and
the hypothesis regarding the Ambikās see: Hopkins (1968), p. 220.
* ^ For the Ambikā variant, see: Chakravarti, pp. 17, 37.
* ^ For the moon on the forehead see: Chakravarti, p. 109.
* ^ For _śekhara_ as crest or crown, see: Apte, p. 926.
* ^ For Candraśekhara as an iconographic form, see: Sivaramamurti
(1976), p. 56.
* ^ For translation "Having the moon as his crest" see: Kramrisch,
* ^ For the moon iconography as marking the rise of Rudra-Shiva,
see: Chakravarti, p. 58.
* ^ For discussion of the linkages between Soma, Moon, and Rudra,
and citation to RV 7.74, see: Chakravarti, pp. 57–58.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Flood (1996), p. 151.
* ^ This smearing of cremation ashes emerged into a practice of
some Tantra-oriented ascetics, where they would also offer meat,
alcohol and sexual fluids to
Bhairava (a form of Shiva), and these
groups were probably not of Brahmanic origin. These ascetics are
mentioned in the ancient Pali Canon of Thervada Buddhism. See: Flood
(1996), pp. 92, 161.
* ^ Antonio Rigopoulos (2013), Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism,
Volume 5, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004178960 , pages 182–183
Paul Deussen (1980). _Sechzig Upaniṣad\'s des Veda_. Motilal
Banarsidass. pp. 775–776, 789–790, 551. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7 .
* ^ Chidbhavananda, p. 22.
* ^ For translation of Kapardin as "Endowed with matted hair" see:
Sharma 1996 , p. 279.
* ^ Kramrisch, p. 475.
* ^ For Kapardin as a name of Shiva, and description of the kaparda
hair style, see, Macdonell, p. 62.
* ^ Sharma 1996 , p. 290
* ^ See: name #93 in Chidbhavananda, p. 31.
* ^ For
Shiva drinking the poison churned from the world ocean see:
Flood (1996), p. 78.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kramrisch, p. 473.
* ^ For alternate stories about this feature, and use of the name
Gaṅgādhara see: Chakravarti, pp. 59 and 109.
* ^ For description of the Gaṅgādhara form, see: Sivaramamurti
(1976), p. 8.
* ^ For
Shiva supporting Gaṅgā upon his head, see: Kramrisch, p.
* ^ Flood (1996), p. 151
* ^ Wayman text-decoration: none">Kāpālikas, see: Apte, p. 461.
* ^ C. Sivaramamurti (1963). _South Indian Bronzes_. Lalit Kalā
Akademi. p. 41.
* ^ John A. Grimes (1996). _A Concise Dictionary of Indian
Sanskrit Terms Defined in English_. State University of
New York Press. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5 .
* ^ Prabhavati C. Reddy (2014). _
Hindu Pilgrimage: Shifting
Patterns of Worldview of
Srisailam in South India_. Routledge. pp.
114–115. ISBN 978-1-317-80631-8 .
* ^ For a review of issues related to the evolution of the bull
(Nandin) as Shiva's mount, see: Chakravarti, pp. 99–105.
* ^ For spelling of alternate proper names Nandī and Nandin see:
Stutley, p. 98.
* ^ Sharma 1996 , p. 291
* ^ Kramrisch, p. 479.
* ^ For the name _Kailāsagirivāsī_ (_Sanskrit_
कैलासिगिरवासी), "With his abode on Mount
Kailāsa", as a name appearing in the _
Shiva Sahasranama_, see: Sharma
1996 , p. 281.
* ^ For identification of Mount Kailāsa as the central _linga_,
see: Stutley (1985), p. 62.
Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1 ) by
Anna L. Dallapiccola
* ^ Keay, p. 33.
* ^ For quotation "
Shiva is a god of ambiguity and paradox" and
overview of conflicting attributes see: Flood (1996), p. 150.
* ^ George Michell (1977). _The
Hindu Temple: An Introduction to
Its Meaning and Forms_. University of Chicago Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN
* ^ For quotation regarding Yajur Veda as containing contrary sets
of attributes, and marking point for emergence of all basic elements
of later sect forms, see: Chakravarti, p. 7.
* ^ For summary of Shiva's contrasting depictions in the
Mahabharata, see: Sharma 1988 , pp. 20–21.
* ^ For _rud-_ meaning "cry, howl" as a traditional etymology see:
Kramrisch, p. 5.
* ^ Citation to M. Mayrhofer, _Concise Etymological Sanskrit
Dictionary_, _s.v._ "rudra", is provided in: Kramrisch, p. 5.
* ^ Sharma 1996 , p. 301.
* ^ Sharma 1996 , p. 314.
* ^ Kramrisch, p. 474.
* ^ Sharma 1996 , p. 280.
* ^ Apte, p. 727, left column.
* ^ Kramrisch, p. 481.
* ^ Flood (1996), p. 92.
* ^ Chakravarti 1986 , pp. 28 (note 7), and p. 177.
* ^ For the contrast between ascetic and householder depictions,
see: Flood (1996), pp. 150–151.
* ^ For Shiva's representation as a yogi, see: Chakravarti, p. 32.
* ^ For name Mahāyogi and associations with yoga, see,
Chakravarti, pp. 23, 32, 150.
* ^ For the ascetic yogin form as reflecting Epic period
influences, see: Chakravarti, p. 32.
* ^ For Umāpati, Umākānta and Umādhava as names in the Shiva
Sahasranama literature, see: Sharma 1996 , p. 278.
* ^ For Umā as the oldest name, and variants including Pārvatī,
see: Chakravarti, p. 40.
* ^ For Pārvatī identified as the wife of Shiva, see: Kramrisch,
* ^ Search for Meaning By Antonio R. Gualtieri
* ^ For regional name variants of
Karttikeya see: Gupta, _Preface_.
* ^ Doniger, Wendy (1999). _Splitting the difference: gender and
myth in ancient Greece and India_. London: University of Chicago
Press. pp. 263–5. ISBN 978-0-226-15641-5 .
* ^ Vanita, Ruth; Kidwai, Saleem (2001). _Same-sex love in India:
readings from literature and history_. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 69. ISBN
* ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt (2001). _The man who was a woman and other
queer tales of
Hindu lore_. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-56023-181-3 .
* ^ See
Mohini#Relationship with Shiva for details
* ^ McDaniel, June (2004). _Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls:
Popular Goddess Worship in West Benegal_. Oxford University Press, US.
p. 156. ISBN 0-19-516790-2 .
* ^ Vettam Mani (1975). _Puranic Encyclopaedia: a Comprehensive
Special Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature_.
Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. pp. 62, 515–6. ISBN
* ^ For description of the nataraja form see: Jansen, pp.
* ^ For interpretation of the _naṭarāja_ form see: Zimmer, pp.
* ^ For names Nartaka (_Sanskrit_ नर्तक) and Nityanarta
Sanskrit नित्यनर्त) as names of Shiva, see: Sharma
1996 , p. 289.
* ^ For prominence of these associations in puranic times, see:
Chakravarti, p. 62.
* ^ For popularity of the _nṛtyamūrti_ and prevalence in South
India, see: Chakravarti, p. 63.
* ^ Kramrisch, Stella (1994). "Siva's Dance". _The Presence of
Princeton University Press . p. 439.
* ^ Klostermaier, Klaus K. "
Shiva the Dancer". _Mythologies and
Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India_.
Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. p. 151.
* ^ Massey, Reginald. "India's Kathak Dance". _India's Kathak
Dance, Past Present, Future_. Abhinav Publications. p. 8.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Moorthy, Vijaya (2001). _Romance of the Raga_. Abhinav
Publications. p. 96.
* ^ Leeming, David Adams (2001). _A Dictionary of Asian Mythology_.
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press . p. 45.
* ^ Radha, Sivananda (1992). "
Mantra of Muladhara Chakra".
Motilal Banarsidass . p. 304.
* ^ when it requires to be destroyed, Lord Śiva does it by the
* ^ For iconographic description of the Dakṣiṇāmūrti form,
see: Sivaramamurti (1976), p. 47.
* ^ For description of the form as representing teaching functions,
see: Kramrisch, p. 472.
* ^ For characterization of Dakṣiṇāmūrti as a mostly south
Indian form, see: Chakravarti, p. 62.
* ^ For the deer-throne and the audience of sages as
Dakṣiṇāmūrti, see: Chakravarti, p. 155.
* ^ Goldberg specifically rejects the translation by Frederique
Marglin (1989) as "half-man, half-woman", and instead adopts the
translation by Marglin as "the lord who is half woman" as given in
Marglin (1989, 216). Goldberg, p. 1.
* ^ For evolution of this story from early sources to the epic
period, when it was used to enhance Shiva's increasing influence, see:
* ^ For the Tripurāntaka form, see: Sivaramamurti (1976), pp. 34,
* ^ Michaels, p. 216.
* ^ Flood (1996), p. 29.
* ^ Tattwananda, pp. 49–52.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Lingam:
Hindu symbol Encyclopædia Britannica
* ^ Monier Williams (1899),
Sanskrit to English Dictionary,
लिङ्ग, page 901
* ^ Yudit Kornberg Greenberg (2008). _Encyclopedia of Love in World
Religions_. ABC-CLIO. pp. 572–573. ISBN 978-1-85109-980-1 .
* ^ O'Flaherty,
Wendy Doniger (1981). _Śiva, the erotic ascetic_.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-520250-3 .
* ^ Sen, Amiya P. (2006). "Editor's Introduction". _The
Indispensable Vivekananda_. Orient Blackswan. pp. 25–26.
* ^ Sivananda, Swami (1996). "Worship of Siva Linga". _Lord Siva
and His Worship_. The Divine Life Trust Society.
* ^ Balagangadhara, S.N., Sarah Claerhout (Spring 2008). "Are
Dialogues Antidotes to Violence? Two Recent Examples From Hinduism
Studies" (PDF). _Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies_. 7
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* ^ Winternitz, Moriz; V. Srinivasa Sarma (1981). _A History of
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* ^ For five as a sacred number, see: Kramrisch, p. 182.
* ^ It is first encountered in an almost identical form in the
Rudram. For the five syllable mantra see: Kramrisch, p. 182.
* ^ For discussion of these five forms and a table summarizing the
associations of these five mantras see: Kramrisch, pp. 182–189.
* ^ For distinct iconography, see Kramrisch, p. 185.
* ^ For association with the five faces and other groups of five,
see: Kramrisch, p. 182.
* ^ For the epithets _pañcamukha_ and _pañcavaktra_, both of
which mean "five faces", as epithets of Śiva, see: Apte, p. 578,
* ^ For variation in attributions among texts, see: Kramrisch, p.
* ^ Kramrisch, p. 184.
* ^ Quotation from _Pañcabrahma Upanishad_ 31 is from: Kramrisch,
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* ^ "Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 4 Chapter 1 – English translation by
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* ^ R. Ghose (1966),
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