Shillong (English: /ʃɪˈlɔːŋ/; Khasi: Shillong) is a hill
station in the northeastern part of
India and the capital of
Meghalaya, which means "The Abode of Clouds" and is one of the
smallest states in India. It is the headquarters of the East Khasi
Hills district and is situated at an average altitude of 4,908 feet
(1,496 m) above sea level, with the highest point being
at 6,449 feet (1,966 m).
Shillong is the 330th most populous city in
India with a population of 143,229 according to the 2011 census. It
is said that the rolling hills around the town reminded the European
settlers of Scotland. Hence, they would also refer to it as the
Scotland of the East".
Shillong has steadily grown in size since it was made the civil
station of the Khasi and
Jaintia Hills in 1864 by the British. In
1874, on the formation of
Assam as the Chief Commissioner's Province,
it was chosen as the headquarters of the new administration because of
its convenient location between the
Brahmaputra and Surma valleys and
more so because the climate of
Shillong was much cooler than tropical
Shillong remained the capital of undivided
Assam until the
creation of the new state of
Meghalaya on 21 January 1972, when
Shillong became the capital of Meghalaya, and
Assam moved its capital
Dispur in Guwahati. In 2016, it was voted "India's Favourite Hill
Station" by HolidayIQ.com.
5 Places of interest
8.2 Print media
8.3 Electronic media
8.4 Communication services
9 Headquarters Eastern Air Command, Indian Air Force
11 Notable personalities associated with Shillong
12 See also
14 External links
Shillong was capital for composite
Assam during the British regime and
later till a separate State of
Meghalaya was formed. David Scott, the
British civil servant of the East
India Company, was the Agent of the
Governor-General North East Frontier. During the First Anglo-Burmese
War the British authorities felt the need for a road to connect Sylhet
and Assam.The route was to traverse across the Khasi and Jaintia
Hills. David Scott overcame the difficulties his administration faced
from the opposition of the Khasi Syiems – their chiefs and people.
Impressed by the favourable cool climate of Khasi Hills, they
negotiated with the Syiem of Cherra in 1829 for a sanatorium for the
British. Thus began the consolidation of British interests in the
A serious uprising by the Khasis against foreign occupation of their
land followed. It began early in 1829 and continued till January 1833.
Eventually the Khasi confederate chiefs were no match against the
military might of the British. David Scott negotiated for the
surrender of the leader of the Khasi resistance, Tirot Sing, who was
then taken to Dacca (present day Dhaka) for detention. After the
resistance of the Khasis a political agent was posted in the hills,
with its headquarters at Cherrapunjee. But the climatic condition and
Cherrapunjee did not make the British happy, they then
moved out to Shillong, which was then known as "Yeddo". The name
"Shillong" was later adopted, as the location of the new town was
In 1874, a separate Chief Commissionership was formed with
the seat of administration. The new administration included Sylhet,
now a part of Bangladesh. Also included in the Chief Commissionership
Naga Hills (present day Nagaland),
Lushai Hills (present day
Mizoram) as well as Khasi, Jaintia and Garo Hills.
Shillong was the
capital of composite
Assam till 1969 when the autonomous state of
Meghalaya was formed. In January 1972
Meghalaya was made a
Shillong Municipal Board has a long history dating back to 1878,
when a proclamation was issued constituting
Shillong and its suburbs,
including the villages of Mawkhar and Laban, into a station under the
Bengal Municipal Act of 1876. Inclusion of the villages of Mawkhar
(S.E. Mawkhar, Jaiaw and part of Jhalupara and Mawprem) and Laban
(Lumparing, Madan laban, Kench's Trace and Rilbong) within the
Shillong was agreed to by Hain Manik Syiem of Mylliem
under the agreement of 15 November 1878. But, there is no trace of
Shillong in the British era maps dating back to 1878, up to 1900.
Shillong was also the subject of the great earthquake that occurred on
12 June 1897. The earthquake had an estimated moment magnitude of 8.1.
Twenty-seven lives from
Shillong town alone were lost.
Aerial view of Shillong
Shillong is at 25°34′N 91°53′E / 25.57°N 91.88°E /
25.57; 91.88. It lies on the
Shillong Plateau, the only major uplifted
structure in the northern Indian shield. The city lies in the
centre of the plateau and is surrounded by hills, three of which are
revered in Khasi tradition: Lum Sohpetbneng, Lum Diengiei and Lum
Location: Shillong, the capital city of
Meghalaya is just 100 km
(62 mi) from
Guwahati which can be accessed by road along NH 40,
a journey of about 2 hours 30 minutes through lush green hills and the
Umiam lake in between.
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information Service
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Weather conditions in
Shillong are typically pleasant, pollution-free.
In the summer the temperature varies from 23 °C (73 °F).
In the winter the temperature varies from 4 °C (39 °F).
Under Köppen's climate classification the city features a subtropical
highland climate (Cwb). Its summers are cool and very rainy, while its
winters are cool and dry.
Shillong is subject to vagaries of the
monsoon. The monsoons arrive in June and it rains almost until the end
of August. October–November and March–April are the best months to
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days
India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to
Although well connected by road,
Shillong has neither rail connections
nor a proper air connection.
Umroi Airport located 30 kilometres
(19 mi) from the city centre has only limited flights.
Shillong Bypass road
Shillong is well connected by roads with all major northeastern
states. Two major National Highways pass through:
National Highway 40 (India)
National Highway 40 (India) – Connected to Guwahati
National Highway 44 (India)
National Highway 44 (India) – Connected to
Private bus operators as well as state transport buses from other
states ply to and from
Shillong daily. Taxi services are also
available to destination like Guwahati, Agartala, Dimapur,
other North Eastern towns and cities.
Shillong Bypass (pictured) is a two lane road which stretches
across 47.06 kilometres (29.2 mi) connecting Umiam (NH-40) to
Jorabad (NH-44) which then leads to other North-Eastern Indian states
Mizoram and Tripura. The project estimated to have cost around
₹2.2 billion (US$34 million) was completed in a span of two
From 1 May 2017, onwards the newly introduced domestic airline Zoom
Air will operate daily flights between the city with
Kolkata with plans underway to introduce direct flights to
As of 2011[update]
Shillong city population was 143,229
of which 49% are males, 51% females. 12% of the population was under 6
years of age. The average literacy rate was 93%, the male literacy
rate being 95%, the female rate 91%.
Christianity is the dominant
religion in the city, practised by 46% of the population, followed by
Hinduism at 42%,
Islam 5%, and to a lesser degree Sikhism, Buddhism
Shillong metropolitan region, which includes the towns of Laitumkhrah,
Lawsohtun, Madanrting, Mawlai, Mawpat, Nongkseh, Nongmynsong,
Shillong Cantonment, Umlyngka and
Umpling, had a population of 354,759, 12% of the which being under 6
years of age. The literacy rate in the metro region was 91%.
Khasis make up the majority of the population though the percentage of
Khasi people in the city continues to fall as a result of the large
number of migrants from other Indian states continues in the city. The
population of Khasis in
Shillong was 65.22% of
Shillong population at
2011 census. All the other North East tribes such as Nagas, Garos,
Pnars, Hajong people, Kukis, Manipuris, Lalungs,
are represented here as well as significant numbers of Assamese,
Bengalis, and a bit of Nepalis, Biharis, Marwaris,
Punjabis and Muslim
people making it a fairly cosmopolitan city.
Nearly about 85%
Khasi people are Christians. In
Shillong Christmas is
celebrated with great favour and enthusiasm and it is the biggest
festival of the city. Presbyterianism and other denominations of
Protestants and Roman Catholics make up the Christian population. A
large proportion of
Khasi people that is 10% population still follow
the original Khasi religion: Niam Khasi and Niamtre and 3% Khasi
Hinduism and 2% khasi people follow Islam.[citation
Places of interest
Help of Christians Cathedral
Tourist sites in and around the city include:
Elephant Falls: 12 km on the outskirts of the city, the mountain
stream descends through three successive falls set in dells of fern
Lady Hydari Park: The park stretches over a kilometre and has an
adjacent mini zoo.
Wards Lake: Known locally as Nan-Polok. It is an artificial lake with
garden and boating facilities.
Shillong Golf Course:
Shillong has one of the largest golf courses
(the world's wettest) in Asia: Gleneagles of the East. It enjoys the
rare distinction of being one of the few natural golf courses in Asia.
Not only is the
Shillong Golf Course scenic and enjoyable, it is also
challenging. A group of British civil service officers introduced golf
Shillong in 1898 by constructing a nine-hole course. The present
18-hole course was inaugurated in 1924. The course is set in a valley
covered with pine and rhododendron trees. The tight fairways, carpeted
with a local grass which hardens the soil, are difficult to negotiate.
The number of out-of-bounds streams that criss-cross every fairway
makes it all the more trying. Obstructions come in the form of
bunkers, trees and rain. The longest hole is the 6th, which is a
gruelling 594 yards.
Shillong Golf Course is considered to be the
"Glen Eagle of the East" at the United States Golf Association Museum.
It was set in a valley at an altitude of 5200 ft in 1898 as a
nine-hole course and later converted into an 18-hole course in 1924 by
Captain Jackson and C. K. Rhodes.
Motphran: The "Monument of France" which is locally known as
"Motphran" was erected in memory of the 26th Khasi Labour Corps who
served under the British in France during World War I. It bears the
words of the famous Latin poet
Horace "Dulce et decorum est pro patria
mori" which can be roughly translated as "It is sweet and honorable to
die for one's country."
Shillong Peak: A picnic spot, 10 km from the city, 1966 m above
sea level, offers a panoramic view of the scenic countryside and is
the highest point in the state. Obeisance is paid to U Shulong at the
sanctum sanctorum at the peak's summit every springtime, by the
religious priest of Mylliem State.
Capt. Williamson Sangma State Museum: For those interested in ethnic
tribal culture and tradition this government museum offers insights to
the lifestyle of the people. This museum is in the State Central
Library complex where monuments for the great patriots of the state
were erected besides the statue of Smt. Indira Gandhi and Netaji
Subhash Chandra Bose.
Don Bosco Centre for Indigenous Cultures: The Don Bosco Museum is part
of DBCIC (Don Bosco Centre for Indigenous Cultures). DBCIC comprises
research on cultures, publications, training, animation programmes and
the museum, which is a place of knowledge-sharing on the cultures of
the northeast in particular, and of culture in general. DBCIC with its
Don Bosco Museum is situated at Mawlai, Shillong.
Entomological Museum (Butterfly Museum): A privately owned museum of
M/s Wankhar, Riatsamthiah,
Shillong about 2 km from Police Bazar
is the only known museum in
India devoted to moths and butterflies.
Air Force Museum at Upper Shillong
Forest Museum in Lady Hydari Park
Rhino Heritage Museum at Shillong
Zoological Museum in Risa Colony
Anthropological museum at Mawblei
Botanical Museum at 4th Furlong
Arunachal Museum at the Cantonment Area
Chrysalis the Gallery: This art gallery is on the second floor of
Salonsar Mansion at Police Bazaar, the commercial hub of Shillong.
Chrysalis has flexible spacing to display paintings (canvases),
sculpture, photography and handicrafts. Run by a local artist, Jaya
Kalra, the gallery caters to exhibitions of artists and artisans
especially from the northeast and also from the rest of India.
State Museum: Located at the State Central Library complex.
Cathedral of Mary
Help of Christians is in Don Bosco Square.
Bishop and Beadon Falls: Both cascade down the same escarpment into a
Spread Eagle Falls: 3 km from Polo Grounds.
Sweet Falls (also called "Weitdem," in the native
dialect) is the most beautiful of all the waterfalls in Shillong. It
lies about 5 km from the Happy Valley and is about 96 m in
Crinoline Falls: Near Phan Nonglait Park.
Laitlum Canyon, the end of the hills.
Polo basketball court
Shillong is the only capital city in Northeast
India to produce two
clubs that participate in the I-League, namely
Royal Wahingdoh FC
Royal Wahingdoh FC and
Shillong Lajong FC. Both play at Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium. Royal
Wahingdoh FC was adjudged 2nd runners-up in the 2014–15 season of
Shillong Golf Course is one of the oldest golf course of the country
and is surrounded by pine and rhododendron trees.
Binningstar Lyngkhoi from
Shillong is a national marathon runner and
India in the last 2010 Commonwealth Games. He is the
fastest marathoner in
India with a timing of 2:18 hours.
Shillong Lajong FC
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Shillong
Royal Wahingdoh FC
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Shillong
Rangdajied United F.C.
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Shillong
Indian Institute of Management
See also: List of educational institutions in Shillong
Shillong is fast emerging as an education hub for the entire
northeastern region. Important educational institutes that have been
established in and around the city include:
University of Technology and Management
University of Technology and Management (UTM, Shillong)
Indian Institute of Management
National Institute of Technology Meghalaya
North Eastern Hill University
North Eastern Hill University (NEHU)
Martin Luther Christian University
Institute of Hotel Management (IHM)
National Institute of Fashion Technology, Shillong
North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical
English and Foreign Languages University
St. Edmund's College
St. Anthony's College, Shillong
St. Mary's College, Shillong
North Eastern Institute of Ayurveda & Homoeopathy, Autonomous
Institute under ministry of AYUSH. Mawdiangdiang, Shillong.
John Roberts Theological Seminary, Mawklot, Shillong
Local media in
Shillong is strong. There are a number of theatres,
newspapers, magazines, local radio and television stations. Shillong
is also often called as "India's Rock Capital" due to its inhabitants'
great passion for music.
Shillong include Bijou Cinema Hall, Payal Cinema, Gold
Cinema and Anjalee Cinema Hall (also called Galleria Anjalee
Newspapers are published for
Shillong both in Khasi and English.
Prominent English dailies published here include
Meghalaya Guardian, Highland Post,
Meghalaya Times and The Sentinel.
Khasi dailies like Mawphor, Nongsain Hima among others are published
here. Weekly newspaper are "Salonsar" and "Dongmusa". There are
Magazines like "Iing Khristan" (celebrated 100 years of publication),
"Pateng Mynta" in Khasi and "Youth Today" and "Eastern Panorama" in
The radio industry has expanded with a number of private and
government-owned FM channels being introduced. State-owned Doordarshan
transmits terrestrial television channels. Apart from these few weekly
news channels like PCN, Ri Khasi Channel, Batesi and T7 are broadcast
weekly on the local cable networks.
Fixed telephones lines are available. Internet services are available
both wired and wireless broadband. It is also well covered in mobile
networks with all major cellular providers like Airtel, Aircel,
Vodafone, IDEA, BSNL, Reliance are available here. Jio
Headquarters Eastern Air Command, Indian Air Force
HQ Eastern Air Command (HQ, EAC) was shifted to
Shillong on 10 Jun 63
Kolkata and housed in the old buildings located at Nonglyer
village at Upper Shillong, some 10 km from (Lower) Shillong, but
at a greater altitude of around 6,000 feet AMSL. Initially a British
military base, it was taken over by No. 58 Gorkha Regiment of the
Indian Army post Independence in 1947. The Regiment was redeployed
Sino-Indian War of 1962, making way for the IAF to step in.
Only helicopters can operate from HQ, EAC, using a 12.7 hectare (31.3
EAC controls air operations in the eastern sector which include West
Mizoram and the other eastern states bordering
Bangladesh, Burma and Tibet. EAC comprises permanent airbases at
Chabua, Gauhati, Bagdogra, Barrackpore, Hashimara, Jorhat, Kalaikunda
and Tezpur with forward airbases at Agartala, Culcutta, Panagarh and
Panorama of Police Bazar which is an important economic center and
major commercial hub of Shillong
Notable personalities associated with Shillong
People who have been associated with
Amita Malik, film critic.
Anjum Hasan is a Bangalore-based writer from Shillong. Her debut novel
Lunatic in my Head, which is set in Shillong, was launched on 7
December 2007. She has also written a book of verse titled Street on
Anwaruddin Choudhury, a naturalist who is known as the 'Birdman of
Assam' was born and brought up in Shillong. He is the author of 22
books including The Birds of
Assam and Pocket Guide to the Birds of
Arthur Llewellyn Basham, historian of Indian culture. He died in
Kolkata in 1986 and is buried in Shillong.
Arundhati Roy, writer and
Booker Prize winner, was born in the KJP
Synnod Hospital in Shillong.
Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, Former Indian President, and Scientist while
delivering a lecture at
Indian Institute of Management Shillong
Indian Institute of Management Shillong on 27
July 2015, suffered a massive heart attack at around 6:30 p.m IST. He
was rushed to the hospital in a critical condition and subsequently
died of cardiac arrest.
Edward Pritchard Gee, naturalist and author of The Wild Life of India
spent his retired life in Evergreen cottage in Upper Shillong. He left
for England in 1968 and died soon after.
Indira Goswami (Mamoni Goswami) spent her early days in
studied at Pine Mount School.
John Shepherd-Barron, inventor of the automated teller machine (ATM)
was born in Shillong.
Karen David, a Canadian-British actress, singer and songwriter born in
Shillong. She is best known for portraying "Princess Isabella Maria
Lucia Elizabetta of Valencia" in ABC's fairytale-themed musical-comedy
television series, Galavant, as well as Francesca "Cesca" Montoya in
the BBC television series Waterloo Road, and Layla in the American
action film The Scorpion King 2: Rise of a Warrior.
Captain Keishing Clifford Nongrum,
Kargil War veteran is from this
city. He was posthumously awarded Shaurya Chakra for his heroics in
the Kargil war.
Leela Majumdar, the writer, spent her childhood days at Shillong,
where she studied at Loreto Convent.
Nirad C. Chaudhuri
Nirad C. Chaudhuri has written extensively about
Shillong in his book
The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian.
Rabindranath Tagore, Nobel laureate, poet, author, thinker, artist,
playwright, considered a patriarch of Bengali society, often sojourned
in the cool climes of Shillong; besides living in a summer residence
called Mitali, (today in use as a temporary State Legislative Assembly
on loan from the State Art and Culture Department). A writing desk and
chair used by the Poet Laureate can still be seen (and used) in the
Maharaja Suite of the
Tripura Castle Heritage Hotel;
Rono Dutta, president of
United Airlines did his schooling from St.
Edmunds School .
Shillong Chamber Choir have performed in the World Choir Olympics and
elsewhere in the world. They won the talent show
India's Got Talent
India's Got Talent in
Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born as
Narendranath Dutta, was the chief disciple of the 19th-century mystic
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and is the founder of Ramakrishna
Mission headquartered at Belur. He was primarily responsible for
introducing Hindu philosophies of
Yoga in the West and
best known for his inspiring speech beginning with "Sisters and
Brothers of America", in his opening remark at the Parliament of the
World's Religions at Chicago in 1893. The Swami delivered his last
public lecture of his life in Shillong. The place of his last public
lecture have been immortalised by erecting his statue at the very spot
(also known as Quinton Memorial/Vivekananda Cultural Centre).
Utpal Dutt, the prominent actor of Bengali and Hindi cinema, studied
initially in St. Edmund's School before moving to St.Xavier's
Collegiate School Kolkata.
Victor Bannerjee, an actor, was a student of St. Edmund's School.
Verrier Elwin, celebrated British anthropologist and author,
receipient of the Padma Bhushan, eventually settled in
lived in the town until his death in 1964
Tourism in North East India
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Scotland of the east'".
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Shillong voted as 'India's
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Assam Earthquake of
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Yahoo! News. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
^ "Zoom Air, India's newest private airline, begins operations: All
you must know". Zee News. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 27 March
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Zoom Air – India's Newest Airline
– To Fly To New Cities Soon". NDTV. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
^ Sandeep Singh (23 March 2017). "
Zoom Air – India's Newest Airline
– Adds New Flights: 10 Things To Know". NDTV. Retrieved 27 March
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Scotland of the East". The Indian
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Shillong gets its first multiplex". The
Shillong Times. 30 January
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^ Utpal Dutt
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shillong.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Shillong
Shillong travel guide from Wikivoyage
Eastern Panorama – Oldest Magazine of North East India
Meghalaya State Government Portal
Shillong Times – North East
India Second Oldest English Daily
Online news in Khasi
Don Bosco Museum – Don Bosco Centre for Indigenous Cultures
Kaziranga National Park
Namdapha National Park
Orang National Park
Manas National Park
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
Nameri National Park
Balphakram National Park
Nokrek National Park
Mouling National Park
Keibul Lamjao National Park
Sirohi National Park
Murlen National Park
Ntangki National Park
Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary
Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary
Gorumara National Park
Singalila National Park
Neora Valley National Park
Jaldapara National Park
Zang Dhok Palri Phodang
Seven Sister States
Tourism in North East India
Tourism in Assam
Tourism in Mizoram
State and Union Territory capitals of India
Amaravati (de facto)
Jammu (in winter)
Srinagar (in summer)
Government of Meghalaya
Meghalaya Legislative Assembly
Seven Sister States
East Garo Hills
East Jaintia Hills
East Khasi Hills
North Garo Hills
South Garo Hills
South West Garo Hills
South West Khasi Hills
West Garo Hills
West Jaintia Hills
West Khasi Hills