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The MINISTRY OF CEREMONIAL AFFAIRS (式部省, Shikibu-shō) was one of eight ministries of the Japanese imperial court.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Name * 3 Functions * 4 Organisation

* 5 Office holders

* 5.1 Ministers * 5.2 Vice-ministers * 5.3 Secretaries

* 6 List of translated aliases * 7 See also * 8 Notes

* 9 References

* 9.1 Citations * 9.2 Bibliography

HISTORY

It was established by the Taihō Code of early 8th century. The ministry was replaced in the Meiji period
Meiji period
.

The ministry was renamed Mombushō for a brief number of years after 758, but the original name was restored in 764. The name has since remained unchanged until the Ritsuryō system was abandoned during the Meiji period
Meiji period
.

Shikibu-shō
Shikibu-shō
is also where the Lady Murasaki Shikibu derives her name, probably owing to the senior secretary post that her father and her husband once occupied in the ministry. It is also the origin of the name of Shikike , one of the four great branches of the Fujiwara clan . In the Edo period
Edo period
, titles related to the Shikibu-shō, such as Shikibu-tayū (式部大輔), were largely ceremonial and could be held by non-kuge , such as daimyō lords.

Today's organisation is the Board of Ceremonies , a department of the Imperial Household Agency.

NAME

The "MINISTRY OF CEREMONIAL," can arguably be considered the standard translation, as Japanologist Sir George Bailey Sansom wrote in 1932 that this was "the usual rendering in English", as well as being the coinage later adopted in the Appendix to Helen Craig McCullough 's Eiga monogatari , which remains as the standard "followed by numerous English-language authors" according to a more recent assessment.

However, Sansom issued the caveat that the use of the word "ceremony" is potentially misleading. Its function is not purely ceremonial, as will be discussed under the #Functions section. Given the dilemma, some commentators have chosen to apply an English name that attempted at a description of the true function, rather than a faithful literal translation. Further discussion, and a compilation of the numerous alternate English names are given in the section #List of translated aliases .

FUNCTIONS

Sansom explains that Shiki actually denotes the "detailed procedure for the enforcement of ryō (the administrative code, as in Ritsuryō )". For this reason, applying "the word 'ceremonial' is a little misleading" he warns.

The minister, or the Shikibu-kyō (式部卿) had the grave authority to grade the performances of civil officers, recommend their appointments and awards, and decide on their ceremonial seniorities and privileges.

The ministry was also the supervisory body of the DAIGAKU-RYō (大学寮) or the State University, and also conducted the civil examinations ( Imperial examination
Imperial examination
).

The other body it oversaw was San-i-ryō or Sanni-ryō (散位寮) or "Bureau of Scattered Ranks" which administrated officials of middling rank who had no specific appointments. Sansom called it the "Bureau of Court Ranks".

ORGANISATION

The Shikibu-shō
Shikibu-shō
(式部省) was headed by the minister, whose office was ordinarily filled by a son or close relative of the emperor, of the fourth grade or higher.

* SHIKIBU-KYō (式部卿) - "Minister of Ceremonial Affairs"

aliases: "Chief administrator of the ministry of civil services"

* SHIKIBU-NO-TAYū (式部大輔) - "Senior Assistant Minister of Ceremonial"

aliases: "Vice-Minister"

* SHIKIBU-NO-SHōYū (式部少輔) - "Junior Assistant Minister of Ceremonial"

aliases: "Junior Vice-Minister"

* SHIKIBU-NO-DAIJō (式部大丞) (x 2) - "Senior Secretaries"

Sometimes concurrently held by a rokui-no-kurōdo (六位蔵人) "Chamberlain of sixth grade" who then gained special privilege to ascend to the imperial court. When irregularly occupied by a fifth rank, it bears the aliases: Shikibu-no-jō-no-shaku式部丞の爵 "A Secretary in the Ministry of Ceremonial who has been raised to the Fifth Rank"; Shikibu-no-jō-no-shaku式部丞の爵; Shikibu-no-taifu (式部丞の爵) "Senior Secretary of the Fifth Rank".

* SHIKIBU-NO-SHōJō (式部少丞) (x 2) - "Junior Secretaries" * SHIKIBU-DAIROKU OR SHIKIBU-NO-DAI-SAKAN (式部大録) (x 1) - "Senior Recorder" * SHIKIBU-SHōROKU OR SHIKIBU-NO-SHō-SAKAN (式部少録) (x 3 ) - "Junior Recorders" * SHISHō (史生) (x 20) - "Scribes" * SHōSHō (省掌) (x 2) - "Office keepers" * SHIBU (使部) (x 80) - "Servants"

Under the Ministry were two bureaus. One was educational and called the DAIGAKU-RYō (大学寮), literally "Bureau of the Greater Learning" though often called "The Universities Bureau" or simply the "University". The other was the SAN-I-RYō or Sanni-ryō (散位寮) or "Bureau of Scattered Ranks".

OFFICE HOLDERS

MINISTERS

The Shikibu-kyō (式部卿) or Minister Fujiwara no Umakai (appointed (muse). Monumenta Nipponica. 63 (2): 396–399. doi :10.1353/mni.0.0041 . * ^ Sansom 1932 , pp. 67–8 * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K 和田 1926 , pp. 69–71 * ^ A B Kawakami 1903 , p. 37 n2, copied verbatim from the cited source Ito Hirobumi , Commentaries on the Japanese Constitution (Ito 1889 , p. 86 n2). The footnote is provided by translator Itō Miyoji and is not in Count Ito (late Prince Ito)'s original work. * ^ Ury, Marian. (1999). "Chinese Learning and Intellectual Life," The Cambridge History of Japan: Heian Japan, p. 361. * ^ A B Reischauer 1937 , p. 88 * ^ Titsingh 1834 , p. 428 * ^ A B Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 272. * ^ McCullough quote: "(Year) 877, Michizane was named junior assistant minister of ceremonial." * ^ A B Murase 2001 , p. 5; "Senior Secretary in the Bureau of Ceremonials" * ^ A B 和田 1926 , pp. 71, quote:"また六位の藏人で、式部丞を兼ねた事があるが、それをば、殿上の丞というたのである" * ^ A B Ivan Morris tr., The Pillow Book, Ch. 148 * ^ A B Sansom 1932 , pp. 83, 77, vol. IX * ^ Sansom 1932 , pp. 83,76, vol. IX * ^ Sansom 1932 , pp. 83, 78, vol. IX * ^ Sansom 1932 , pp. 83, 76, vol. IX * ^ McCullough 1999 , p. 117 * ^ McCullough & McCullough 1980 , pp. 74,80 * ^ 重明, Prince of Japan, 906-954., 吏部王記 /Rihō Ō ki, OCLC
OCLC
21583552 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ McCullough & McCullough 1980 , p. 99 * ^ McCullough 1990 , p. 173 * ^ Whitehouse 2010 , p. 138 * ^ Ooms 2009 , p. 238 * ^ Wilson 2001 , p. 21 * ^ Li 2009 , p. 193 * ^ Van Goethem 2008 , p. 120 * ^ McCullough 1999 , p. 112 * ^ Borgen 1994 , p. 12 * ^ Deal 2006 , p. 90 * ^ Friday 1996 , p. 67 * ^ Spahn, Hadamitzky & Fujie-Winter 1996 * ^ Smits 2007 , p. 111 * ^ Reichhold & Kawamura 2003 * ^ Kornicki ">(preview), Infobase Publishing, ISBN 0-816-07485-2 ISBN 978-0-816-07485-3 (organizational chart) * Ito, Hirobumi (1889), Commentaries on the Constitution of the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
(Google), Translated by Itō Miyoji , Tokyo: Igirisu-Hōritsu Gakko, p. 86

* Kawakami, Kiyoshi Karl (1903), The Political Ideas of Modern Japan, Tokyo: Shokwabo, OCLC
OCLC
466275784

* — Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa Press (1903) Internet Archive, full text

* McCullough, Helen Craig ; McCullough, William H. (1980), A Tale of Flowering Fortunes: Annals of Japan; Aristocratic Life, 1, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-804-71039-2 ISBN 978-0-804-71039-8 * McCullough, William H. (1999), "Chapter 2: The Capital and its Society", in Hall, John Whitney ; Shively, Donald H. ; McCullough, William H., The Cambridge History of Japan (preview), 2, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55028-9 ISBN 978-0-521-55028-4 (organizational chart) * Naoki, Kōjirō (1993), Hall, John W., ed., The Cambridge History of Japan: Ancient Japan (preview), Cambridge University Press, 1, pp. 260–, ISBN 0-521-22352-0 https://books.google.com/books?id=A3_6lp8IOK8C&pg=PA260 Missing or empty title= (help ); contribution= ignored (help ) ISBN 978-0-521-22352-2 * Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric; Roth, Käthe, eds. (2005), Japan Encyclopedia, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01753-6 , OCLC 48943301 https://books.google.com/books?id=p2QnPijAEmEC Missing or empty title= (help ) ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5 * Sansom, George Bailey (1932). Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan (Second series). 9: 67–110 https://books.google.com/books?id=-k4gAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA67. Missing or empty title= (help ); contribution= ignored (help ) * Sansom, George Bailey (1978), Japan: A Short Cultural History, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-804-70954-8 ISBN 978-0-804-70954-5

* Titsingh, Isaac (1834), Annales des empereurs du Japon (Google) (in French), Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, OCLC
OCLC
5850691 (tr. of Nihon Odai Ichiran ) * Ooms, Herman (2009), Imperial Politics and Symbolics in Ancient Japan: The Tenmu Dynasty, 650-800 (preview), University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-824-83235-3 ISBN 978-0-824-83235-3 * Reischauer, Robert Karl (1937), Early Japanese history, c. 40 B.C.-A.D. 1167 (snippet), Princeton University Press * Ury, Marian. (1999). "Chinese Learning and Intellectual Life," The Cambridge history of Japan: Heian Japan. Vol. II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press . ISBN 0-521-22353-9 ISBN 978-0-521-22353-9 * Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-04940-4 ; ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5 ; OCLC
OCLC
59145842

Japanese sources

* 和田, 英松 (Wada, Hidematsu) (1926), 官職要解 : 修訂 (Kanshoku yōkai: shūtei 3rd ed.) (NDL), 明治書院

additional sources used to compile English translated names.

* Borgen, Robert (1994), Sugawara No Michizane and the Early Heian Court (preview), University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-824-81590-4 ISBN 978-0-824-81590-5 * Friday, Karl F. (1996), Hired Swords: The Rise of Private Warrior Power in Early Japan, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-804-72696-5 ISBN 978-0-80472696-2 * McCullough, Helen Craig (1990), Classical Japanese Prose: An Anthology, Stanford University Press, p. 173, ISBN 0-804-71960-8 ISBN 978-0-804-71960-5 * Kornicki, P. F. ; McMullen, I. J. (1996), Religion in Japan: Arrows to Heaven and Earth (preview), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55028-9 ISBN 978-0-521-55028-4 * Li, Michelle Ilene Osterfel (2009), Ambiguous Bodies: Reading the Grotesque in Japanese Setsuwa Tales (preview), Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-804-77106-1 * Murase, Miyeko (2001). The tale of Genji: legends and paintings. British Museum Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-807-61500-3 . * Reichhold, Jane; Kawamura, Hatsue (2003), A String of Flowers, Untied--: Love Poems from the Tale of Genji /Murasaki Shikibu (preview), Stone Bridge Press, Inc., ISBN 978-1-880-65662-4 * Smits, Ivo (2007), "The Way of the Literati", in Adolphson, Mikael S.; Edward, Kames; Matsumoto, Stacie, Heian Japan: Centers and Peripheries (preview), University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-824-83013-7 * Spahn, Mark; Hadamitzky, Wolfgang; Fujie-Winter, Kimiko (1996), The Kanji Dictionary (漢字熟語字典), Tuttle Publishing, ISBN 978-0-804-82058-5 * Van Goethem, Ellen (2008), Nagaoka:Japan\'s Forgotten Capital (preview), Stone Bridge Press, Inc., ISBN 1-880-65662-0 ISBN 978-1-880-65662-4 * Whitehouse, Wilfrid (2010), Ochikubo Monogatari or The Tale of the Lady Ochikubo: A Tenth Century Japanese Novel / Chikamatsu Monzaemon (preview), Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-203-84350-9 ISBN 978-0-203-84350-5 * Wilson, William Ritchie (2001), Hōgen monogatari: tale of the disorder in Hōgen, East Asia Program, Cornell University, ISBN 1-885-44599-7 ISBN 978-1-885-44599-5

* v * t * e

Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan

OVERVIEW

* Agriculture * Censorship * Demographics * Economy * Economic history * Education * Eugenics * Foreign commerce and shipping * Industrial production * Militarism * Nationalism * Statism * Internal politics * State Shinto * Kazoku
Kazoku

EMPERORS

* Meiji (Mutsuhito) * Taishō (Yoshihito) * Shōwa (Hirohito)

SYMBOLS

* Flag of Japan
Flag of Japan
* Rising Sun Flag
Rising Sun Flag
* Imperial Seal of Japan
Imperial Seal of Japan
* Government Seal of Japan * State Seal of Japan * Privy Seal of Japan * Kimigayo

GOVERNMENT

* Constitution * Charter Oath * Privy Council * Administrative structure

* Imperial Diet

* Peers * Representatives

* Daijō-kan
Daijō-kan
* Ministry of the Imperial Household * Ministry of the Treasury
Ministry of the Treasury
* Ministry of Foreign Affairs * Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce * Ministry of Commerce and Industry * Ministry of Munitions * East Asia Development Board (Kōain) * Foreign relations * Government and military commanders of World War II * Gozen Kaigi * Ministry of Colonial Affairs * Ministry of Greater East Asia * Home Ministry * Imperial Rescript on Education * Imperial Way Faction (Kōdōha) * Kokutai * National Spiritual Mobilization Movement * Peace Preservation Law * Political parties * Supreme Court of Judicature * Taisei Yokusankai * Tokkō * Tonarigumi * Tōseiha * Greater East Asia Conference
Greater East Asia Conference

MILITARY

* Armed Forces * Imperial General Headquarters

* Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army

* Air Service * General Staff Office * Railways and Shipping

* Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy

* Air Service * General Staff * Land Forces

* Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors

* Senjinkun military code

* Ministry of the Military * Ministry of the Army * Ministry of the Navy * Taiwanese Imperial Japan Serviceman * Imperial Guard * Nuclear weapons program * Kamikaze
Kamikaze
* War crimes * Supreme War Council * Japanese holdout

HISTORY

MEIJI PERIOD

* Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
* Boshin War
Boshin War
* Satsuma Rebellion
Satsuma Rebellion
* First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
* Triple Intervention * Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
* Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Anglo-Japanese Alliance
* Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War

TAISHō PERIOD

* World War I * Siberian Intervention * General Election Law * Washington Naval Treaty
Washington Naval Treaty

SHōWA PERIOD

* Shōwa financial crisis * Pacification of Manchukuo * Anti-Comintern Pact * Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
* Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
* Soviet–Japanese Border War (1939) * Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact * Pacific War
Pacific War
* Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
* Soviet–Japanese War (1945) * Surrender ( Potsdam Declaration , Gyokuon-hōsō ) * Occupation

TERRITORIES

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

* Karafuto * Korea * Kwantung * Manchukuo
Manchukuo
* South Pacific * Taiwan

OCCUPIED TERRITORIES

* Borneo * Burma * Hong Kong * Dutch East Indies * Malaya * Philippines * Singapore * Thailand * Vietnam

OTHER TOPICS

* Sonnō jōi * Fukoku kyōhei * Hakkō ichiu * Internment camps * German pre–World War II industrial co-operation * Racial Equality Proposal * Shinmin no Michi * Shōwa Modan * Socialist thought * Yasukuni Shrine * International Military Tribunal for the Far East * Japanese dissidence during the Shō

.