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S. boydii S. dysenteriae S. flexneri S. sonnei

Shigella
Shigella
(/ʃɪˈɡɛlə/) is a genus of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli. The genus is named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered it in 1897.[1] The causative agent of human shigellosis, Shigella
Shigella
causes disease in primates, but not in other mammals.[2] It is only naturally found in humans and gorillas.[3][4] During infection, it typically causes dysentery.[5] Shigella
Shigella
is one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea worldwide, causing an estimated 80–165 million cases.[6] The number of deaths it causes each year is estimated at between 74,000 and 600,000.[6][7] It is in the top four pathogens that cause moderate-to-severe diarrhea in African and South Asian children.[8]

Contents

1 Classification 2 Pathogenesis 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Classification[edit] Shigella
Shigella
species are classified by four serogroups:

Serogroup A: S. dysenteriae (15 serotypes)[9] Serogroup B: S. flexneri (six serotypes) Serogroup C: S. boydii (19 serotypes)[10] Serogroup D: S. sonnei (one serotype)

Groups A–C are physiologically similar; S. sonnei (group D) can be differentiated on the basis of biochemical metabolism assays.[11] Three Shigella
Shigella
groups are the major disease-causing species: S. flexneri is the most frequently isolated species worldwide, and accounts for 60% of cases in the developing world; S. sonnei causes 77% of cases in the developed world, compared to only 15% of cases in the developing world; and S. dysenteriae is usually the cause of epidemics of dysentery, particularly in confined populations such as refugee camps.[12] Each of the Shigella
Shigella
genomes includes a virulence plasmid that encodes conserved primary virulence determinants. The Shigella
Shigella
chromosomes share most of their genes with those of E. coli
E. coli
K12 strain MG1655.[13] Phylogenetic
Phylogenetic
studies indicate Shigella
Shigella
is more appropriately treated as subgenus of Escherichia, and that certain strains generally considered E. coli
E. coli
– such as E. coli
E. coli
O157:H7 – are better placed in Shigella
Shigella
(see Escherichia
Escherichia
coli#Diversity for details). Pathogenesis[edit] Shigella
Shigella
infection is typically by ingestion. Depending on the health of the host, fewer than 100 bacterial cells can be enough to cause an infection.[14] Shigella
Shigella
species generally invade the epithelial lining of the colon, causing severe inflammation and death of the cells lining the colon. This inflammation results in the diarrhea and even dysentery that are the hallmarks of Shigella
Shigella
infection.[11] Some strains of Shigella
Shigella
produce toxins which contribute to disease during infection. S. flexneri strains produce ShET1 and ShET2, which may contribute to diarrhea.[11] S. dysenteriae strains produce the enterotoxin Shiga toxin, which is similar to the verotoxin produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Both Shiga toxin
Shiga toxin
and verotoxin are associated with causing potentially fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome.[11] Shigella
Shigella
species invade the host through the M-cells interspersed in the gut epithelia of the small intestine, as they do not interact with the apical surface of epithelial cells, preferring the basolateral side.[15] Shigella
Shigella
uses a type-III secretion system, which acts as a biological syringe to translocate toxic effector proteins to the target human cell. The effector proteins can alter the metabolism of the target cell, for instance leading to the lysis of vacuolar membranes or reorganization of actin polymerization to facilitate intracellular motility of Shigella
Shigella
bacteria inside the host cell. For instance, the IcsA effector protein triggers actin reorganization by N-WASP recruitment of Arp2/3
Arp2/3
complexes, helping cell-to-cell spread.[16] After invasion, Shigella
Shigella
cells multiply intracellularly and spread to neighboring epithelial cells, resulting in tissue destruction and characteristic pathology of shigellosis.[17][18] The most common symptoms are diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, and flatulence. It is also commonly known to cause large and painful bowel movements. The stool may contain blood, mucus, or pus. Hence, Shigella
Shigella
cells may cause dysentery. In rare cases, young children may have seizures. Symptoms can take as long as a week to appear, but most often begin two to four days after ingestion. Symptoms usually last for several days, but can last for weeks. Shigella
Shigella
is implicated as one of the pathogenic causes of reactive arthritis worldwide.[19] See also[edit]

Diarrheal diseases Enterotoxigenic E. coli Infectious diarrhea Traveler's diarrhea

References[edit]

^ Yabuuchi, Eiko (2002). "Bacillus dysentericus (sic) 1897 was the first taxonomic rather than Bacillus dysenteriae 1898". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52 (Pt 3): 1041. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-3-1041. PMID 12054222.  ^ Ryan, Kenneth James; Ray, C. George, eds. (2004). Sherris medical microbiology: an introduction to infectious diseases (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional Med/Tech. ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0. [page needed] ^ Pond, Kathy (2005). "Shigella". Water recreation and disease. Plausibility of associated infections: Acute effects, sequelae and mortality. WHO. pp. 113–8. ISBN 978-92-4-156305-5.  ^ "Shigellosis" (PDF). European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians.  ^ Mims, Cedric; Dockrell, Hazel; Goering, Richard; Roitt, Ivan; Wakelin, Derek; Zuckerman, Mark, eds. (2004). Medical Microbiology (3rd ed.). Mosby. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-7234-3259-3.  ^ a b Bowen A (2016). "Chapter 3: Infectious Diseases Related to Travel". The Yellow Book: Health Information for International Travel. CDC. ISBN 978-0-19-937915-6. Retrieved 22 June 2016.  ^ Mani, Sachin; Wierzba, Thomas; Walker, Richard I (2016). "Status of vaccine research and development for Shigella". Vaccine. 34 (26): 2887–2894. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.02.075. PMID 26979135.  ^ Kotloff, Karen L; Nataro, James P; Blackwelder, William C; et al. (2013). "Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study". The Lancet. 382 (9888): 209–222. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60844-2. PMID 23680352.  ^ Ansaruzzaman, M; Kibriya, AK; Rahman, A; Neogi, PK; Faruque, AS; Rowe, B; Albert, MJ (1995). "Detection of provisional serovars of Shigella dysenteriae and designation as S. dysenteriae serotypes 14 and 15". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 33 (5): 1423–5. PMC 228185 . PMID 7615772.  ^ Yang, Z; Hu, C; Chen, J; Chen, G; Liu, Z (1990). "A new serotype of Shigella
Shigella
boydii". Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao (in Chinese). 30 (4): 284–95. PMID 2251827.  ^ a b c d Hale, Thomas L.; Keusch, Gerald T. (1996). "Shigella". In Baron, Samuel. Medical microbiology (4th ed.). Galveston, Texas: University of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 978-0-9631172-1-2.  ^ "Shigellosis". State of the art of new vaccine research and development (PDF). Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. World Health Organization. 2006. pp. 10–2.  ^ Yang, Fan; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Xiaobing; Chen, Lihong; Jiang, Yan; Yan, Yongliang; Tang, Xudong; Wang, Jing; Xiong, Zhaohui; Dong, Jie; Xue, Ying; Zhu, Yafang; Xu, Xingye; Sun, Lilian; Chen, Shuxia; Nie, Huan; Peng, Junping; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Yu; Yuan, Zhenghong; Wen, Yumei; Yao, Zhijian; Shen, Yan; Qiang, Boqin; Hou, Yunde; Yu, Jun; Jin, Qi (2005). "Genome dynamics and diversity of Shigella
Shigella
species, the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery". Nucleic Acids Research. 33 (19): 6445–58. doi:10.1093/nar/gki954. PMC 1278947 . PMID 16275786.  ^ Levinson, Warren E (2006). Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology (9th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-07-146031-6.  ^ Mounier, Joëlle; Vasselon, T; Hellio, R; Lesourd, M; Sansonetti, PJ (January 1992). " Shigella flexneri
Shigella flexneri
Enters Human Colonic Caco-2 Epithelial Cells through the Basolateral Pole". Infection and Immunity. 60 (1): 237–248. PMC 257528 . PMID 1729185.  ^ Snapper, Scott B.; Takeshima, Fuminao; Antón, Inés; Liu, Ching-Hui; Thomas, Sheila M.; Nguyen, Deanna; Dudley, Darryll; Fraser, Hunter; Purich, Daniel (October 2001). "N-WASP deficiency reveals distinct pathways for cell surface projections and microbial actin-based motility". Nature Cell Biology. 3 (10): 897–904. doi:10.1038/ncb1001-897. ISSN 1476-4679.  ^ Todar, Kenneth. " Shigella
Shigella
and Shigellosis". Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. [self-published source?] ^ Suzuki, Toshihiko; Sasakawa, Chihiro (2001). "Molecular basis of the intracellular spreading of Shigella". Infection and Immunity. 69 (10): 5959–66. doi:10.1128/IAI.69.10.5959-5966.2001. PMC 98722 . PMID 11553531.  ^ Hill Gaston, J (2003). "Arthritis associated with enteric infection". Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 17 (2): 219–39. doi:10.1016/S1521-6942(02)00104-3. PMID 12787523. 

External links[edit]

Shigella
Shigella
genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Vaccine Resource Library: Shigellosis
Shigellosis
and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Shigella
Shigella
- Shigellosis

v t e

Prokaryotes: Bacteria
Bacteria
classification (phyla and orders)

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

G-/ OM

Terra-/ Glidobacteria (BV1)

Eobacteria

Deinococcus–Thermus

Deinococcales Thermales

Chloroflexi

Anaerolineales Caldilineales Chloroflexales Herpetosiphonales Dehalococcoidales Ktedonobacterales Thermogemmatisporales Thermomicrobiales Sphaerobacterales

other glidobacteria

Thermodesulfobacteria thermophiles

Aquificae Thermotogae

Cyanobacteria

Proteobacteria (BV2)

Alpha

Caulobacterales Kiloniellales Kordiimonadales Magnetococcales Parvularculales Rhizobiales Rhodobacterales Rhodospirillales Rickettsiales Sneathiellales Sphingomonadales

Beta

Burkholderiales Hydrogenophilales Methylophilales Neisseriales Nitrosomonadales Procabacteriales Rhodocyclales

Gamma

Acidithiobacillales Aeromonadales Alteromonadales Cardiobacteriales Chromatiales Enterobacteriales Legionellales Methylococcales Oceanospirillales Orbales Pasteurellales Pseudomonadales Salinisphaerales Thiotrichales Vibrionales Xanthomonadales

Delta

Bdellovibrionales Desulfarculales Desulfobacterales Desulfovibrionales Desulfurellales Desulfuromonadales Myxococcales Syntrophobacterales Syntrophorhabdales

Epsilon

Campylobacterales Nautiliales

Zeta

Mariprofundales

BV4

Spirochaetes

Spirochaetes

Sphingobacteria (FCB group)

Fibrobacteres Chlorobi

Chlorobiales Ignavibacteriales

Bacteroidetes

Bacteroidales Cytophagales Flavobacteriales Sphingobacteriales

Planctobacteria/ (PVC group)

Chlamydiae Lentisphaerae

Lentisphaerales Oligosphaerales Victivallales

Planctomycetes

Phycisphaerales Planctomycetales

Verrucomicrobia

Puniceicoccales Opitutales Chthoniobacterales Verrucomicrobiales

"Poribacteria"

Other GN

Acidobacteria

Acidobacteriales Acanthopleuribacterales Holophagales Solibacterales

Armatimonadetes

Armatimonadales Chthonomonadales Fimbriimonadales

Caldiserica Chrysiogenetes Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Synergistetes

G+/ no OM

Firmicutes (BV3)

Bacilli

Bacillales Lactobacillales

Clostridia

Clostridiales Halanaerobiales Thermoanaerobacteriales Natranaerobiales

Erysipelotrichia

Erysipelotrichiales

Thermolithobacteria

Thermolithobacterales

Tenericutes/ Mollicutes

Mycoplasmatales Entomoplasmatales Anaeroplasmatales Acholeplasmatales Haloplasmatales

Negativicutes

Selenomonadales

Actinobacteria (BV5)

Actinobacteria

Actinomycetales Bifidobacteriales

Acidimicrobiia

Acidimicrobiales

Coriobacteriidae

Coriobacteriales

Nitriliruptoria

Euzebyales Nitriliruptorales

Rubrobacteria

Gaiellales Rubrobacterales Thermoleophilales Solirubrobacterales

Incertae sedis

†Archaeosphaeroides †Eobacterium †Leptotrichites

Source: Bergey's Manual (2001–2012). Alternative views: Wikispecies.

Biology portal

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q131029 EoL: 97425 EPPO: 1SHIGG GBIF: 3221853 ITIS: 958097 NCBI:

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