A shield wall, also shield-wall or Schildmauer, refers to the highest and strongest curtain wall
, or tower of a castle that defends the only practicable line of approach to a castle built on a mountain, hill or headland. German sources may refer to a shield wall that protects two or more sides as a ''Hoher Mantel'' or ''Mantelmauer'', which is variously translated as "mantle-wall", "mantle wall" or "high screen-wall". There is often no clear, definitive distinction between a shield wall and a mantle wall.
Shield walls are found on many German and Austrian hill castle
s, but are not common in Great Britain
where the terrain of the rocky hills on which castles were built did not favour such constructions. However some castles in those areas built on headlands such as Tantallon
and Old Head
do have a similar feature.
Origin and description
The construction of shield walls was common in the late 12th century in Germany
and may have been a reaction to the increasing use of heavy siege engine
s such as the trebuchet
(the height of the walls protecting the buildings beyond from arching fire). The thickness of a shield wall could, in extreme cases, be as much as (e.g. Neuscharfeneck Castle
). Behind the battlements
at the top of the wall there was usually an allure
or wall walk; the shield wall could also be flanked by two wall tower
s. In many cases the shield wall replaced the bergfried
, for example in the ruined castle of Sporkenburg
in the Westerwald
forest or the ruins of the Alt Eberstein
near the city of Baden-Baden
. In other cases, for example at Liebenzell Castle
, the bergfried was built in the centre of the shield wall. ''The Style of European Art''
by Herbert Read, p. 187.
File:Berneck 1.jpg|The shield wall of Berneck Castle in the Black Forest
File:Schoenburg-Hoher-Mantel-JR-G6-4185-2009-09-27.jpg|The shield wall of the Schönburg near Oberwesel
File:Sporkenburg.JPG|The shield wall of the Sporkenburg
File:Burg Liebenzell.jpg|The shield wall of Liebenzell Castle which is combined with a bergfried
File:Castle bran 01.jpg|The shield wall of Törzburg (Bran Castle) in Transylvania
* Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner (ed.): ''Wörterbuch der Burgen, Schlösser und Festungen''. Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart 2004, , p. 228–230;
* Alexander Antonow: ''Burgen des südwestdeutschen Raums im 13. und 14. Jahrhundert – unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Schildmauer''. Verlag Konkordia, Bühl/Baden 1977, ;
* Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe: ''Burgen des deutschen Mittelalters – Grundriss-Lexikon''. Sonderausgabe, Flechsig Verlag, Würzburg 2000, , p. 34−36;
* Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe: ''Burgen und Wohntürme des deutschen Mittelalters, Band 1: Burgen''. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Stuttgart 2002, , p. 33−36;
Category:Types of wall