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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

SUNNI THEOLOGICAL TRADITIONS

* Ilm al- Kalam
Kalam

* Ash\'ari 1 * Maturidi
Maturidi

* Sunni
Sunni
Murji\'ah * Traditionalist 2

Shi\'a TWELVER 3

* PRINCIPLES

* Tawhid
Tawhid
* Adalah * Prophecy * Imamah * Qiyamah

* PRACTICES

* Salah
Salah
* Sawm
Sawm
* Zakat
Zakat
* Hajj
Hajj
* Khums
Khums
* Jihad
Jihad
* Commanding what is just
Commanding what is just
* Forbidding what is evil
Forbidding what is evil
* Tawalla
Tawalla
* Tabarra
Tabarra

SEVEN PILLARS OF ISMAILISM 4

* Walayah * Tawhid
Tawhid
* Salah
Salah
* Zakat
Zakat
* Sawm
Sawm
* Hajj
Hajj
* Jihad
Jihad

OTHER SHIA CONCEPTS OF AQIDAH

* Imamate * Batin * Sixth Pillar of Islam
Islam

Other schools of theology

* Khawarij
Khawarij
5 * Ibadi
Ibadi
6 * Murji\'ah

* Qadariyah * Muʿtazila 7 * Sufism
Sufism
8

Including: 1 Jahmi
Jahmi
; 2 Karramiyya
Karramiyya
; 3 Alawites
Alawites
top: 0.2em;">4 Sevener
Sevener
- Qarmatians
Qarmatians
, Assassins
Assassins
top: 0.2em;">5Ajardi, Azariqa
Azariqa
, Bayhasiyya, Najdat top: 0.2em;">6Nūkkārī ; 7 Bahshamiyya top: 0.2em;">8 Alevism
Alevism
, Bektashi Order font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;">

* v * t * e

Part of a series on

ISLAM

Beliefs

* Oneness of God
God

* Prophets * Revealed books

* Angels * Predestination

* Day of Resurrection

Practices

* Profession of faith * Prayer
Prayer

* Fasting * Alms-giving * Pilgrimage

Texts and laws

* Quran
Quran
* Sunnah
Sunnah
* Hadith
Hadith

* Sharia
Sharia
(law) * Fiqh
Fiqh
(jurisprudence)

* Kalam
Kalam
(dialectic)

History

* Timeline * Muhammad
Muhammad

* Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
* Sahabah
Sahabah
* Rashidun
Rashidun

* Imamate * Caliphate
Caliphate
* Spread of Islam
Islam

Culture and society

* Calendar * Festivals * Academics * Art * Moral teachings * Children * Denominations * Feminism * Women * Madrasa
Madrasa
* Mosque
Mosque
* Philosophy * Politics * Proselytizing * Animals * LGBT * Science * Demographics * Economics * Finance * Social welfare

Related topics

* Criticism of Islam
Islam
* Islam
Islam
and other religions

* Islamism
Islamism
* Islamophobia
Islamophobia

* Glossary

* Islam
Islam
portal

* v * t * e

THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .

SHIA (/ˈʃiːə/ ; Arabic : شيعة‎ Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam
Islam
which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
designated Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib as his successor ( Imam
Imam
). Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
primarily contrasts with Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
, whose adherents believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
(who was appointed Caliph
Caliph
through a Shura
Shura
, i.e. community consensus) to be the correct Caliph. Unlike the first three Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs, Ali
Ali
was from the same clan as Muhammad, Banu Hashim .

Adherents of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
are called SHIAS OF ALI, SHIAS or the SHI\'A as a collective or SHI\'I individually. Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
is the second-largest branch of Islam: in 2009, Shia
Shia
Muslims constituted 10–13% of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population. Twelver
Twelver
Shia (Ithnā'ashariyyah) is the largest branch of Shia
Shia
Islam. In 2012 it was estimated that perhaps 85 percent of Shias were Twelvers.

Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
is based on the Quran
Quran
and the message of Muhammad
Muhammad
attested in hadith , and on hadith taught by their Imams . Shia
Shia
consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first Imam. The Shia
Shia
also extend this Imammah doctrine to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
("the people/family of the House" ), and some individuals among his descendants, known as Imams , who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community, infallibility and other divinely ordained traits. Although there are many Shia
Shia
subsects , modern Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
has been divided into three main groupings: Twelvers
Twelvers
, Ismailis and Zaidis , with Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
being the largest and most influential group among Shia.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 1.1 Terminology

* 2 Beliefs

* 2.1 Imamate

* 2.1.1 Succession of Ali
Ali
* 2.1.2 Ali\'s caliphate * 2.1.3 Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
* 2.1.4 Husayn * 2.1.5 Imamate of the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt

* 2.2 Imam
Imam
of the time, last Imam
Imam
of the Shia
Shia
* 2.3 Theology
Theology
* 2.4 Hadith
Hadith
* 2.5 Profession of faith * 2.6 Infallibility * 2.7 Occultation

* 3 History

* 3.1 Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphate * 3.2 Safavids

* 4 Community

* 4.1 Demographics

* 4.1.1 List of Nations for which the Shia
Shia
population may be estimated

* 4.2 Persecution * 4.3 Holidays * 4.4 Holy sites

* 5 Branches

* 5.1 Twelver
Twelver

* 5.1.1 Doctrine * 5.1.2 Books * 5.1.3 The Twelve Imams
Twelve Imams
* 5.1.4 Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence

* 5.2 Zaidi ("Fiver")

* 5.2.1 Doctrine * 5.2.2 Timeline

* 5.3 Ismaili
Ismaili

* 5.3.1 Ismaili
Ismaili
imams * 5.3.2 Pillars * 5.3.3 Contemporary leadership

* 6 Other doctrines

* 6.1 Doctrine about necessity of acquiring knowledge * 6.2 Doctrine concerning Du\'a

* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Main article: Shia etymology

The word Shia
Shia
(Arabic : شيعة‎ shīʻah /ˈʃiːʕa/) means follower and is the short form of the historic phrase shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي /ˈʃiːʕatu ˈʕaliː/), meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali". Shi'a and Shiism are forms used in English, while Shi'ite or Shiite, as well as Shia, refer to its adherents.

TERMINOLOGY

The term for the first time was used at the time of Muhammad. At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad
Muhammad
belongs to Ali
Ali
and his successors. Nawbakhti states that the term Shia
Shia
refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad
Muhammad
and after him regarded Ali
Ali
as the Imam
Imam
and Caliph. Al-Shahrastani expresses that the term Shia
Shia
refers to those who believe that Ali
Ali
is designated as the Heir, Imam
Imam
and caliph by Muhammad
Muhammad
and also Ali's authority never goes out of his descendants. For the Shia, this conviction is implicit in the Quran and history of Islam. Shia
Shia
scholars emphasize that the notion of authority is linked to the family of the prophets as the verses 3:33,34 shows: "Indeed, Allah chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of 'Imran over the worlds - (33) Descendants, some of them from others. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing. (34)" Shia
Shia
search for the true meaning of the revelation to get the purpose of the life blood and the human destiny.

BELIEFS

Main article: Shia Islamic beliefs and practices

IMAMATE

Succession Of Ali

Main articles: Shia view of Ali
Shia view of Ali
and Succession to Muhammad
Succession to Muhammad

Shia
Shia
Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God
God
has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe God
God
chose Ali
Ali
to be Muhammad's successor, infallible, the first caliph (khalifa, head of state) of Islam. The Shias believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
designated Ali
Ali
as his successor by God's command.

Ali
Ali
was Muhammad's first cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
. Ali
Ali
would eventually become the fourth Muslim
Muslim
(Sunni) caliph.

After the Farewell Pilgrimage
Farewell Pilgrimage
, Muhammad
Muhammad
ordered the gathering of Muslims at the pond of Khumm and it was there that Shia
Shia
Muslims believe Muhammad
Muhammad
nominated Ali
Ali
to be his successor. The hadith of the pond of Khumm was narrated on 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah
Dhu al-Hijjah
of 10 AH in the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
(10 March 632 AD) at a place called Ghadir Khumm , located near the city of al-Juhfah, Saudi Arabia. Muhammad
Muhammad
there stated:

Oh people! Reflect on the Quran
Quran
and comprehend its verses. Look into its clear verses and do not follow its ambiguous parts, for by Allah, none shall be able to explain to you its warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself, the one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his master (Mawla ), then Ali
Ali
is his master (Mawla); and he is Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib, my brother, the executor of my will (Wasiyyi), whose appointment as your guardian and leader has been sent down to me from Allah, the mighty and the majestic. — Muhammad, from The Farewell Sermon

* ^ The word mawla has many meanings as discussed in the book "Patronate And Patronage in Early And Classical Islam" By Monique Bernards, John Nawas on page 25: "awla may refer to a client, a patron, an agnate (brother, son, father's brother, father' brothers son), an affined kinsman, (brother-in-law, son-in-law), a friend, a supporter, a follower, a drinking companion, a partner, a newly-converted Muslim
Muslim
attached to a Muslim
Muslim
and last but not least an ally. Most of these categories have legal implications. In Islamic times, the term mawala mostly referred to Muslim
Muslim
freedmen and freed non-Arabs who attached themselves to Arabs upon their conversion to Islam. In these senses, Mawla is commonly translated as "a client". The association of mawla with non-Arabs and a low status imparted an increasingly pejorative connotation to it.

Shia
Shia
Muslims believe this to be Muhammad's appointment of Ali
Ali
as his successor.

Ali\'s Caliphate

The Investiture of Ali
Ali
at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab
Arab
161 , fol. 162r, AD 1309/8 Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)

When Muhammad
Muhammad
died in 632 CE, Ali
Ali
and Muhammad's closest relatives made the funeral arrangements. While they were preparing his body, Abu Bakr , Umar
Umar
, and Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah met with the leaders of Medina
Medina
and elected Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as caliph. Initially, Ali
Ali
did not accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and refused to pledge allegiance to him. This is indicated in both Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
sahih and authentic Hadith.

Ibn Qutaybah , a 9th-century Sunni
Sunni
Islamic scholar narrates of Ali
Ali
:

I am the servant of God
God
and the brother of the Messenger of God. I am thus more worthy of this office than you. I shall not give allegiance to you

Ali
Ali
's wife, and daughter of Muhammad
Muhammad
, Fatimah
Fatimah
, refused to pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and remained angry with him until she died due to the issues of Fadak and her inheritance from her father and the situation of Umar
Umar
at Fatimah\'s house . This is stated in sahih Sunni Hadith, Sahih Bukhari
Sahih Bukhari
and Sahih Muslim. Fatimah
Fatimah
did not at all pledge allegiance or acknowledge or accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
. Almost all of Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
, Muhammad
Muhammad
's clan and many of the sahaba, had supported Ali
Ali
's cause after the demise of the prophet whilst others supported Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
.

It was not until the murder of the third caliph, Uthman
Uthman
, in 657 CE that the Muslims in Medina
Medina
in desperation invited Ali
Ali
to become the fourth caliph as the last source, and he established his capital in Kufah in present-day Iraq.

Ali's rule over the early Muslim
Muslim
community was often contested, and wars were waged against him. As a result, he had to struggle to maintain his power against the groups who betrayed him after giving allegiance to his succession, or those who wished to take his position. This dispute eventually led to the First Fitna
First Fitna
, which was the first major civil war within the Islamic Caliphate. The Fitna began as a series of revolts fought against Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, caused by the assassination of his political predecessor, Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan. While the rebels who accused Uthman
Uthman
of prejudice affirmed Ali's khilafa (caliph-hood), they later turned against him and fought him. Ali
Ali
ruled from 656 CE to 661 CE, when he was assassinated while prostrating in prayer (sujud ). Ali's main rival Muawiyah then claimed the caliphate.

Hasan Ibn Ali

Main article: Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali

Upon the death of Ali, his elder son Hasan became leader of the Muslims of Kufa, and after a series of skirmishes between the Kufa Muslims and the army of Muawiyah, Hasan agreed to cede the caliphate to Muawiyah and maintain peace among Muslims upon certain conditions:

* The enforced public cursing of Ali, e.g. during prayers, should be abandoned * Muawiyah should not use tax money for his own private needs * There should be peace, and followers of Hasan should be given security and their rights * Muawiyah will never adopt the title of Amir al-Mu\'minin * Muawiyah will not nominate any successor

Hasan then retired to Medina, where in 670 CE he was poisoned by his wife Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, after being secretly contacted by Muawiyah who wished to pass the caliphate to his own son Yazid and saw Hasan as an obstacle.

Husayn

Main article: Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
The Imam
Imam
Hussein Shrine in Karbala , Iraq
Iraq
is a holy site for Shia
Shia
Muslims. Battle of Karbala, Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum

Husayn, Ali's younger son and brother to Hasan, initially resisted calls to lead the Muslims against Muawiyah and reclaim the caliphate. In 680 CE, Muawiyah died and passed the caliphate to his son Yazid , and breaking the treaty with Hasan ibn Ali. Yazid asked Husayn to swear allegiance (bay\'ah ) to him. Ali's faction, having expected the caliphate to return to Ali's line upon Muawiyah's death, saw this as a betrayal of the peace treaty and so Husayn rejected this request for allegiance. There was a groundswell of support in Kufa
Kufa
for Husayn to return there and take his position as caliph and imam, so Husayn collected his family and followers in Medina
Medina
and set off for Kufa. En route to Kufa, he was blocked by an army of Yazid's men (which included people from Kufa) near Karbala
Karbala
(modern Iraq), and Husayn and approximately 72 of his family and followers were killed in the Battle of Karbala
Karbala
.

The Shias regard Husayn as a martyr (shahid ), and count him as an Imam
Imam
from the Ahl al-Bayt. They view Husayn as the defender of Islam from annihilation at the hands of Yazid I . Husayn is the last imam following Ali
Ali
whom all Shiah sub-branches mutually recognize. The Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
is often cited as the definitive break between the Shiah and Sunni
Sunni
sects of Islam, and is commemorated each year by Shiah Muslims on the Day of Ashura .

Imamate Of The Ahl Al-Bayt

Main article: Imamah (Shia doctrine)
Imamah (Shia doctrine)
Zulfiqar
Zulfiqar
with and without the shield. The Fatimid
Fatimid
depiction of Ali
Ali
's sword as carved on the Gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr shown below. Two swords were captured from the temple of the pagan polytheist god Manāt during the Raid of Sa\'d ibn Zaid al-Ashhali . Muhammad
Muhammad
gave them to Ali, saying that one of them was Zulfiqar
Zulfiqar
, which became the famous sword of Ali and a later symbol of Shiism. Ali's Sword and shield depiction at Bab al Nasr gate wall, Cairo
Cairo

Most of the early Shia
Shia
differed only marginally from mainstream Sunnis in their views on political leadership, but it is possible in this sect to see a refinement of Shia
Shia
doctrine. Early Sunnis traditionally held that the political leader must come from the tribe of Muhammad—namely, the Quraysh tribe . The Zaydis
Zaydis
narrowed the political claims of Ali's supporters, claiming that not just any descendant of Ali
Ali
would be eligible to lead the Muslim
Muslim
community (ummah) but only those males directly descended from Muhammad
Muhammad
through the union of Ali
Ali
and Fatimah
Fatimah
. But during the Abbasid revolts, other Shia, who came to be known as Imamiyyah (followers of the Imams), followed the theological school of Imam
Imam
Ja\'far al-Sadiq , himself the great great grandson of Muhammad's son-in-law Imam
Imam
Ali. They asserted a more exalted religious role for Imams and insisted that, at any given time, whether in power or not, a single male descendant of Ali and Fatimah
Fatimah
was the divinely appointed Imam
Imam
and the sole authority, in his time, on all matters of faith and law. To those Shia, love of the imams and of their persecuted cause became as important as belief in God's oneness and the mission of Muhammad.

Later most of the Shia, including Twelver
Twelver
and Ismaili
Ismaili
, became Imamis. Imami Shia
Shia
believe that Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad. Imams are human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but also are able to keep and interpret the divine law and its esoteric meaning . The words and deeds of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad.

According to this view, there is always an Imam
Imam
of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim
Muslim
community. Ali
Ali
was the first imam of this line, the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by male descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
through his daughter Fatimah.

This difference between following either the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
(Muhammad's family and descendants) or Caliph
Caliph
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
has shaped Shia
Shia
and non- Shia
Shia
views on some of the Quranic verses, the hadith (narrations from Muhammad) and other areas of Islam. For instance, the collection of hadith venerated by Shia
Shia
Muslims is centered on narrations by members of the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
and their supporters, while some hadith by narrators not belonging to or supporting the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
are not included. Those of Abu Hurairah
Abu Hurairah
, for example, Ibn Asakir in his Ta'rikh Kabir and Muttaqi in his Kanzu'l-Umma report that Caliph
Caliph
Umar lashed him, rebuked him and forbade him to narrate hadith from Muhammad. Umar
Umar
said: "Because you narrate hadith in large numbers from the Holy Prophet, you are fit only for attributing lies to him. (That is, one expects a wicked man like you to utter only lies about the Holy Prophet.) So you must stop narrating hadith from the Prophet; otherwise, I will send you to the land of Dus." (A clan in Yemen, to which Abu Huraira belonged.) According to Sunnis, Ali
Ali
was the fourth successor to Abu Bakr, while the Shia
Shia
maintain that Ali
Ali
was the first divinely sanctioned "Imam", or successor of Muhammad. The seminal event in Shia
Shia
history is the martyrdom in 680 CE at the Battle of Karbala
Karbala
of Ali's son Hussein ibn Ali, who led a non-allegiance movement against the defiant caliph (71 of Hussein's followers were killed as well). Hussein came to symbolize resistance to tyranny.

It is believed in Twelver
Twelver
and Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
that \ 'aql , divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the prophets and imams and gave them esoteric knowledge called ḥikmah and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees. Although the imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation , he had a close relationship with God, through which God
God
guides him, and the imam, in turn, guides the people. Imamate , or belief in the divine guide, is a fundamental belief in the Twelver
Twelver
and Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
branches and is based on the concept that God
God
would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance.

IMAM OF THE TIME, LAST IMAM OF THE SHIA

The Mahdi
Mahdi
is the prophesied redeemer of Islam
Islam
who will rule for seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations) before the Day of Judgment and will rid the world of evil. According to Islamic tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ (Isa), who is to assist the Mahdi
Mahdi
against the Masih ad-Dajjal (literally, the "false Messiah" or Antichrist). Jesus, who is considered the Masih (Messiah) in Islam, will descend at the point of a white arcade, east of Damascus, dressed in yellow robes with his head anointed. He will then join the Mahdi
Mahdi
in his war against the Dajjal, where Jesus will slay Dajjal and unite mankind.

THEOLOGY

The Shia
Shia
Islamic faith is vast and inclusive of many different groups. Shia
Shia
theological beliefs and religious practises, such as prayers, slightly differ from the Sunnis'. While all Muslims pray five times daily, Shias have the option of combining Dhuhr with Asr
Asr
and Maghrib
Maghrib
with Isha\' , as there are three distinct times mentioned in the Quran. The Sunnis tend to combine only under certain circumstances. Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
embodies a completely independent system of religious interpretation and political authority in the Muslim world. The original Shia
Shia
identity referred to the followers of Imam Ali, and Shia
Shia
theology was formulated in the 2nd century AH, or after Hijra (8th century CE). The first Shia
Shia
governments and societies were established by the end of the 3rd century AH/9th century CE. The 4th century AH /10th century CE has been referred to by Louis Massignon as "the Shiite Ismaili
Ismaili
century in the history of Islam".

HADITH

The Shia
Shia
believe that the status of Ali
Ali
is supported by numerous hadith, including the Hadith of the pond of Khumm
Hadith of the pond of Khumm
, Hadith
Hadith
of the two weighty things , Hadith
Hadith
of the pen and paper , Hadith
Hadith
of the invitation of the close families , and Hadith
Hadith
of the Twelve Successors . In particular, the Hadith
Hadith
of the Cloak is often quoted to illustrate Muhammad's feeling towards Ali
Ali
and his family by both Sunni
Sunni
and Shia scholars. Shias prefer hadith attributed to the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
and close associates, and have their own separate collection of hadiths.

PROFESSION OF FAITH

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Kalema at Qibla
Qibla
of the Mosque
Mosque
of Ibn Tulun in Cairo
Cairo
, Egypt with phrase "Ali-un-Waliullah"

The Shia
Shia
version of the Shahada
Shahada
, the Islamic profession of faith, differs from that of the Sunni. The Sunni
Sunni
Shahada
Shahada
states There is no god except Allah, Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of Allah, but to this the Shia
Shia
append Ali
Ali
is the Wali
Wali
(custodian) of God, علي ولي الله. This phrase embodies the Shia
Shia
emphasis on the inheritance of authority through Muhammad's lineage. The three clauses of the Shia Shahada
Shahada
thus address tawhid (the unity of God), nubuwwah (the prophethood of Muhammad), and imamah (imamate, the leadership of the faith).

INFALLIBILITY

Ali
Ali
is credited as the first male to convert to Islam
Islam
. Main article: Ismah
Ismah

Ismah
Ismah
is the concept of infallibility or "divinely bestowed freedom from error and sin" in Islam. Muslims believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
and other prophets in Islam
Islam
possessed ismah. Twelver
Twelver
and Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
Muslims also attribute the quality to Imams as well as to Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, in contrast to the Zaidi, who do not attribute 'ismah to the Imams. Though initially beginning as a political movement, infallibility and sinlessness of the imams later evolved as a distinct belief of (non-Zaidi) Shiism.

According to Shia
Shia
theologians, infallibility is considered a rational necessary precondition for spiritual and religious guidance. They argue that since God
God
has commanded absolute obedience from these figures they must only order that which is right. The state of infallibility is based on the Shia
Shia
interpretation of the verse of purification . Thus, they are the most pure ones, the only immaculate ones preserved from, and immune to, all uncleanness. It does not mean that supernatural powers prevent them from committing a sin, but due to the fact that they have absolute belief in God, they refrain from doing anything that is a sin.

They also have a complete knowledge of God's will. They are in possession of all knowledge brought by the angels to the prophets (nabi) and the messengers (rasul). Their knowledge encompasses the totality of all times. They thus act without fault in religious matters. Shias regard Ali
Ali
as the successor of Muhammad
Muhammad
not only ruling over the community in justice, but also interpreting Islamic practices and its esoteric meaning. Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible), and appointed by God
God
by divine decree (nass ) to be the first Imam. Ali
Ali
is known as "perfect man" (al-insan al-kamil) similar to Muhammad, according to Shia
Shia
viewpoint.

OCCULTATION

Main article: The Occultation

The Occultation is a belief in some forms of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
that a messianic figure , a hidden imam known as the Mahdi
Mahdi
, will one day return and fill the world with justice. According to the Twelver
Twelver
Shia, the main goal of the Mahdi
Mahdi
will be to establish an Islamic state and to apply Islamic laws that were revealed to Muhammad.

Some Shia, such as the Zaidi and Nizari
Nizari
Ismaili, do not believe in the idea of the Occultation. The groups which do believe in it differ as to which lineage of the Imamate is valid, and therefore which individual has gone into occultation. They believe there are many signs that will indicate the time of his return.

Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
Muslims believe that the Mahdi
Mahdi
(the twelfth imam , Muhammad
Muhammad
al- Mahdi
Mahdi
) is already on Earth, is in occultation and will return at the end of time. Fatimid/ Bohra/ Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
believe the same but for their 21st Tayyib , whereas Sunnis believe the future Mahdi
Mahdi
has not yet arrived on Earth.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Shia Islam
History of Shia Islam
Ghazan
Ghazan
and his brother Öljaitü
Öljaitü
both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam
Islam
, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
.

Historians dispute the origin of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
, with many Western scholars positing that Shiism began as a political faction rather than a truly religious movement. Other scholars disagree, considering this concept of religious-political separation to be an anachronistic application of a Western concept.

Following the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
(680 AD), as various Shia-affiliated groups diffused in the emerging Islamic world, several nations arose based on a Shia
Shia
leadership or population.

* Idrisids (788 to 985 CE): a Zaydi dynasty in what is now Morocco * Uqaylids (990 to 1096 CE): a Shia
Shia
Arab
Arab
dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira , northern Syria and Iraq. * Buyids (934–1055 CE): at its peak consisted of large portions of modern Iraq
Iraq
and Iran. * Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
(1256–1335): a Mongol
Mongol
khanate established in Persia
Persia
in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire . The Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
was based, originally, on Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
's campaigns in the Khwarezmid Empire
Khwarezmid Empire
in 1219–1224, and founded by Genghis's grandson, Hulagu , in territories which today comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, and Pakistan. The Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
initially embraced many religions, but was particularly sympathetic to Buddhism
Buddhism
and Christianity. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan
Ghazan
in 1295, embraced Islam
Islam
his brother Öljaitü
Öljaitü
promoted Shia
Shia
Islam. * Naubat Khan accepted Islam
Islam
under the Guidance of Mughal General Bairam Khan
Bairam Khan
's son Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana
Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana
. * Bahmanis (1347–1527 CE): a Shia
Shia
Muslim
Muslim
state of the Deccan
Deccan
in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms. Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Islamic Kingdom in South India.

FATIMID CALIPHATE

* Fatimids (909–1171 CE): Controlled much of North Africa, the Levant
Levant
, parts of Arabia and Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
. The group takes its name from Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, from whom they claim descent. * In 909 CE the Shiite military leader Abu Abdallah, overthrew the Sunni
Sunni
ruler in Northern Africa; which began the Fatimid
Fatimid
regime.

SAFAVIDS

Main articles: Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
, Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam
Islam
, and Ideology of Safavids One of Shah
Shah
Ismail I
Ismail I
of Safavid dynasty first actions, was the proclamation of the Twelver
Twelver
sect of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
to be the official religion of his newly formed state. Causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East
Middle East
when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi
Sufi
Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508. In 1533, Ottomans , upon their conquest of Iraq
Iraq
, rebuilt various important Sunni
Sunni
shrines.

A major turning point in Shia
Shia
history was the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736) in Persia. This caused a number of changes in the Muslim world:

* The ending of the relative mutual tolerance between Sunnis and Shias that existed from the time of the Mongol
Mongol
conquests onwards and the resurgence of antagonism between the two groups. * Initial dependence of Shiite clerics on the state followed by the emergence of an independent body of ulama capable of taking a political stand different from official policies. * The growth in importance of Iranian centers of religious learning and change from Twelver
Twelver
Shiism being a predominantly Arab
Arab
phenomenon. * The growth of the Akhbari
Akhbari
School which preached that only the Quran, hadith are to be bases for verdicts, rejecting the use of reasoning.

With the fall of the Safavids, the state in Persia
Persia
– including the state system of courts with government-appointed judges (qadis ) – became much weaker. This gave the Sharia
Sharia
courts of mujtahids an opportunity to fill the legal vacuum and enabled the ulama to assert their judicial authority. The Usuli School also increased in strength at this time.

*

The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia
Persia
. *

Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran
, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia
Shia
and Sunni
Sunni
sects were killed in battle. *

Battle of Chaldiran
Battle of Chaldiran
, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East .

COMMUNITY

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: List of countries by Muslim
Muslim
population Islam
Islam
by country Sunni
Sunni
Shias Ibadi
Ibadi
Distribution of Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
branches of Islam
Islam

According to Shia
Shia
Muslims, one of the lingering problems in estimating Shia
Shia
population is that unless Shia
Shia
form a significant minority in a Muslim
Muslim
country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni. The reverse, however, has not held true, which may contribute to imprecise estimates of the size of each sect. For example, the 1926 rise of the House of Saud in Arabia brought official discrimination against Shia. Shiites are estimated to be 21–35% of the Muslim population in South Asia
South Asia
, although the total number is difficult to estimate due to that reason. It is variously estimated that 10–20% of the world\'s Muslims are Shia. They may number up to 200 million as of 2009.

The Shia
Shia
majority countries are Iran , Iraq
Iraq
, Azerbaijan , and Bahrain . They also form the plurality (the largest group, but not the majority) in Lebanon. Shias constitute 36.3% of entire local population and 38.6% of the local Muslim
Muslim
population of the Middle East.

Shia
Shia
Muslims constitute 27-35% of the population in Lebanon, and as per some estimates from 35% to over 35-40% of the population in Yemen, 30%-35% of the citizen population in Kuwait (no figures exist for the non-citizen population), over 20% in Turkey, 5–20% of the population in Pakistan, and 10-19% of Afghanistan 's population.

Saudi Arabia hosts a number of distinct Shia
Shia
communities, including the Twelver
Twelver
Baharna in the Eastern Province and Nakhawila of Medina, and the Ismaili
Ismaili
Sulaymani
Sulaymani
and Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah
of Najran
Najran
. Estimations put the number of Shiite citizens at 2-4 million, accounting for roughly 15% of the local population.

Significant Shia
Shia
communities exist in the coastal regions of West Sumatra and Aceh
Aceh
in Indonesia (see Tabuik ). The Shia
Shia
presence is negligible elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where Muslims are predominantly Shafi\'i Sunnis.

A significant Shia
Shia
minority is present in Nigeria , made up of modern-era converts to a Shia
Shia
movement centered around Kano and Sokoto states. Several African countries like Kenya, South Africa, Somalia, etc. hold small minority populations of various Shia denominations, primarily descendants of immigrants from South Asia during the colonial period, such as the Khoja .

List Of Nations For Which The Shia
Shia
Population May Be Estimated

Distribution of global Shia
Shia
Muslim
Muslim
population among the continents Asia (93.3%) Africa (4.4%) Europe (1.5%) Americas (0.7%) Australia (0.1%)

Figures indicated in the first three columns below are based on the October 2009 demographic study by the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
report, Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population.

Nations with over 100,000 Shia
Shia
COUNTRY SHIA POPULATION PERCENT OF MUSLIM POPULATION THAT IS SHIA PERCENT OF GLOBAL SHIA POPULATION MINIMUM ESTIMATE/CLAIM MAXIMUM ESTIMATE/CLAIM

Iran 7004660000000000000♠74,000,000 – 78,000,000 7001900000000000000♠90–95 7001370000000000000♠37–40

78,661,551

Pakistan 7004170000000000000♠17,000,000 – 26,000,000 7001110000000000000♠10–15 7001110000000000000♠10-15

43,250,000 – 57,666,666

India 7004160000000000000♠17,000,000 – 26,000,000 7001110000000000000♠10–15 7000900000000000000♠9–14

40,000,000 – 50,000,000.

Iraq
Iraq
7004190000000000000♠19,000,000 – 22,000,000 7001650000000000000♠65–70 7001110000000000000♠11–12

Yemen 7003800000000000000♠8,000,000 – 10,000,000 7001350000000000000♠35–40 7000500000000000000♠~5

Turkey 7003700000000000000♠7,000,000 – 11,000,000 7001110000000000000♠10–15 7000400000000000000♠4–6

22 million

Azerbaijan 7003500000000000000♠5,000,000 – 7,000,000 7001650000000000000♠65–75 7000300000000000000♠3-4

8.16 million, 85% of total population

Afghanistan 7003300000000000000♠3,000,000 – 4,000,000 7001110000000000000♠10–15 7000100000000000000♠~2

6.1 million, 15–19% of total population

Syria 7003300000000000000♠3,000,000 – 4,000,000 7001120000000000000♠15–20 7000100000000000000♠~2

Saudi Arabia 7003200000000000000♠2,000,000 – 4,000,000 7001150000000000000♠10–15 7000100000000000000♠1-2

Nigeria 7003399900000000000♠

Links: ------ /WIKI/SUNNI_ISLAM#THEOLOGICAL_TRADITIONS /wiki/Kalam /wiki/Ash%27ari /wiki/Maturidi /wiki/Sunni /wiki/Murji%27ah /wiki/Traditionalist_Theology_(Isl