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In Shi'a Islam
Shi'a Islam
the guidance of clergy and keeping such a structure holds a great importance. The clergy structure depends on the branch of Shi'ism is being referred to.

Contents

1 Twelver 2 Historical role in politics and society

2.1 Modern history

3 Ismaili 4 See also

4.1 Scholars 4.2 Contemporary scholars

4.2.1 Iraq 4.2.2 Iran 4.2.3 Lebanon 4.2.4 Pakistan 4.2.5 Canada 4.2.6 Saudi Arabia 4.2.7 United States 4.2.8 India

5 Notes 6 References

Twelver[edit] Main article: Twelver Usooli
Usooli
and Akhbari
Akhbari
Shia
Shia
Twelver
Twelver
Muslims
Muslims
believe that the study of Islamic
Islamic
literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of God's laws. Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
Muslims
Muslims
believe that the process of finding God's laws from the available Islamic
Islamic
literature will facilitate in dealing with any circumstance. They believe that they can interpret the Qur'an
Qur'an
and the Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a traditions with the same authority as their predecessors. This process of ijtihad has provided a means to deal with current issues from an Islamic perspective. Generally, the Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a clergy have exerted much more authority in the Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a community than have the Sunni ulema, who have generally followed directions handed by their political authorities. Most Sunni scholars, preachers, and judges (collectively known as the Sunni ulema) traditionally believe that the door of ijtihad, or private judgment, is closed. That is because they have been under the direct scrutiny and control of Islamic
Islamic
scholars over the years. Thus, traditionally religious rulings have been issued by ulama. In contrast, Shia
Shia
scholars have traditionally been distanced from, and therefore, outside the direct control of governments. This has afforded these clerical establishments much more flexibility in dealing with religious as well as political matters, while also allowing the door to Ijtihad wide open. Usooli
Usooli
Shia
Shia
considering it obligatory to obey a mujtahid when seeking to determine Islamically correct behavior. They believe the 12th Imam, ordered them to follow the scholars (Fuqaha) who: "...guard their soul, protect their religion, and follow the commandments of their master (Allah)..." The mujtahid they follow or emulate is known as a Marja'
Marja'
Taqleedi.[1] As of 2014 there were over 60 recognized Marj in the Shia
Shia
Muslim world. Historical role in politics and society[edit] Modern history[edit] The Shia
Shia
clerics in this period were closely tied with the bazaars that were in turn strongly linked with the artisans and farmers that together formed traditional socioeconomic communities and centers of associational life with Islamic
Islamic
occasions and functions tying them to clerics who interpreted Islamic
Islamic
laws to settle commercial disputes and taxed the well-to-do to provide welfare for devout poorer followers. A succession of prayer-meetings and rituals were organized by both clergy and the laity. Bazaars also enjoyed ties with more modern sectors of Iranians society as many Iranian university students were from the merchant class. But since 1970s, the Shah of Iran aroused the defense and oppositions of the bazaar by attempts at bring under control their autonomous councils and marginalizing the clergy by taking over their educational and welfare activities. This combined with the growing public and clerical dissatisfaction with Shah's secular policies and his reliance on foreign powers particularly the United States, led to a nationwide revolution, that saw a high ranking cleric Ayatollah Khomeini
Ayatollah Khomeini
and his clerical disciples as its top leadership, that deposed the Pahlavi Shah and founded the Islamic Republic of Iran.[2] Ismaili[edit] Main article: Da'i al-Mutlaq The term Dāʻī al-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق‎) literally means "the absolute or unrestricted missionary". In Ismā'īlī Islām, the term dāʻī has been used to refer to important religious leaders other than the hereditary Imāms and the Daʻwa or "Mission" is a clerical-style organisation. "The Daʻwa" was a term for the Ismā'īlī faith itself from early on. The Dāʻīs are also called Syednas. See also[edit]

Akhoond Islamic
Islamic
scholars List of Ayatollahs Imamzadeh Hawza

Scholars[edit] See also: List of Shia
Shia
Islamic
Islamic
scholars

Muhammad Ya'qub Kulainy Shaikh Saduq Sheikh al-Mufid Abu Ja'far al-Tusi Nasir al-Din Tusi

Contemporary scholars[edit] Iraq[edit]

Ali al-Sistani Bashir Hussain Najafi Sayed Muhsin al-Hakim Muqtada al-Sadr Abul-Qassim Khoei Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr Mohammad Baqir al-Hakim

Iran[edit]

Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Shirazi Grand Ayatollah Sadiq Shirazi Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri Sadiq Hussaini Shirazi Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei Waheed Khorasani Ali Khamenei Naser Makarem Shirazi Hossein Noori Hamedani Lotfollah Safi Golpaygani Taqi Bahjat Ruhollah Khomeini Sheikh Mirza Jawad Tabrizi Morteza Motahhari Sheikh Abdul Hosein Amini 1902-1970

Lebanon[edit]

Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah Abbas al-Musawi Hassan Nasrallah Musa al-Sadr

Pakistan[edit]

Bashir Hussain Najafi Muhammad Hussain Najafi Allama Nasir Sabtain Hashmi Syed Ibne Hasan Rizvi Karbalai Shaheed Allama Nasir Abbas of multan

Canada[edit]

Reza Hosseini Nassab

Saudi Arabia[edit] United States[edit]

Husham Al-Husainy Hassan Al-Qazwini

India[edit]

Syed Ali Akhtar Rizvi Kalbe Abid Kalbe Jawad Mirza Mohd Athar Sheikh Mussa Shariefi Kalbe Sadiq Syed Mohsin Nawab Rizvi

Notes[edit]

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (December 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

^ "The Importance of Ijtihad and Taqlid". Shah e Mardan. Retrieved 26 February 2014.  ^ Skocpol, Teda. "Rentier state and Shi'a Islam
Shi'a Islam
in the Iranian Revolution (Chapter 10) - Social Revolutions in the Modern World". Cambridge Core. Retrieved 2017-06-24. 

References[edit]

Religion and Politics in Iraq. Shiite Clerics between Quietism and Resistance, M. Ismail Marcinkowski (ISBN

.