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Shia
Shia
(/ˈʃiːə/; Arabic: شيعة‎ Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam
Islam
which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
designated Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam).[1] Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
primarily contrasts with Sunni
Sunni
Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
(who was appointed Caliph
Caliph
through a Shura, i.e. community consensus) to be the correct first Caliph.[2] Unlike the first three Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs, Ali
Ali
was from the same clan as Muhammad, Banu Hashim.[3] Adherents of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
are called Shias of Ali, Shias or the Shi'a as a collective or Shi'i individually.[4] Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
is the second largest branch of Islam: in 2009, Shia
Shia
Muslims constituted 10–13% of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population.[5] Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
(Ithnā'ashariyyah) is the largest branch of Shia
Shia
Islam,[6] with 2012 estimates saying that 85% of Shias were Twelvers.[7] Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
is based on the Quran
Quran
and the message of Muhammad
Muhammad
attested in hadith, and on hadith taught by their Imams.[8][9] Shia
Shia
consider Ali
Ali
to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first Imam. The Shia
Shia
also extend this Imammah doctrine to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
("the people/family of the House"[10]), and some individuals among his descendants, known as Imams, who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community, infallibility and other divinely ordained traits.[11] Although there are many Shia
Shia
subsects, modern Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
has been divided into three main groupings: Twelvers, Ismailis and Zaidis, with Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
being the largest and most influential group among Shia.[12][13][14]

Contents

1 Etymology

1.1 Terminology

2 Beliefs

2.1 Imamate

2.1.1 Succession of Ali

2.1.1.1 The event of Dhul Asheera 2.1.1.2 The event of Ghadir Khumm

2.1.2 Ali's caliphate 2.1.3 Hasan ibn Ali 2.1.4 Husayn 2.1.5 Imamate
Imamate
of the Ahl al-Bayt

2.2 Imam
Imam
of the time, last Imam
Imam
of the Shia 2.3 Theology 2.4 Hadith 2.5 Profession of faith 2.6 Infallibility 2.7 Occultation

3 History

3.1 Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphate 3.2 Safavids

4 Community

4.1 Demographics

4.1.1 List of Nations for which the Shia
Shia
population may be estimated

4.2 Persecution 4.3 Holidays 4.4 Holy sites

5 Branches

5.1 Twelver

5.1.1 Doctrine 5.1.2 Books 5.1.3 The Twelve Imams 5.1.4 Jurisprudence

5.2 Zaidi ("Fiver")

5.2.1 Doctrine 5.2.2 Timeline

5.3 Ismaili

5.3.1 Ismaili
Ismaili
imams 5.3.2 Pillars 5.3.3 Contemporary leadership

6 Other doctrines

6.1 Doctrine about necessity of acquiring knowledge 6.2 Doctrine concerning Du'a

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] Main article: Shia
Shia
etymology The word Shia
Shia
(Arabic: شيعة‎ shīʻah /ˈʃiːʕa/) means follower[15] and is the short form of the historic phrase shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي /ˈʃiːʕatu ˈʕaliː/), meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali".[16] Shi'a and Shiism are forms used in English, while Shi'ite or Shiite, as well as Shia, refer to its adherents. Terminology[edit] The term for the first time was used at the time of Muhammad.[17] At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad
Muhammad
belongs to Ali
Ali
and his successors. Nawbakhti states that the term Shia
Shia
refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad
Muhammad
and after him regarded Ali
Ali
as the Imam
Imam
and Caliph.[18] Al-Shahrastani expresses that the term Shia refers to those who believe that Ali
Ali
is designated as the Heir, Imam and caliph by Muhammad[19] and also Ali's authority never goes out of his descendants.[20] For the Shia, this conviction is implicit in the Quran
Quran
and history of Islam. Shia
Shia
scholars emphasize that the notion of authority is linked to the family of the prophets as the verses 3:33,34 shows: "Indeed, Allah chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of 'Imran over the worlds – (33) Descendants, some of them from others. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing. (34)"[21] Shia
Shia
search for the true meaning of the revelation to get the purpose of the life blood and the human destiny.[22] Beliefs[edit] Main article: Shia
Shia
Islamic beliefs and practices Imamate[edit] Succession of Ali[edit] Main articles: Shia view of Ali
Shia view of Ali
and Succession to Muhammad Shia
Shia
Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God
God
alone, only God
God
has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe God
God
chose Ali
Ali
to be Muhammad's successor, infallible, the first caliph (khalifa, head of state) of Islam. The Shias believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
designated Ali
Ali
as his successor by God's command (Eid Al Ghadir).[23][24] Ali
Ali
was Muhammad's first-cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.[25][26] There are multiple occasions on which Muhammad
Muhammad
announced that Ali would be his successor. The event of Dhul Asheera[edit] Main article: Hadith
Hadith
of Warning Muhammad
Muhammad
invited people to Islam
Islam
in secret for three years before he started inviting them publicly. In the fourth year of Islam, when Muhammad
Muhammad
was commanded to invite his closer relatives to come to Islam[27] he gathered the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
clan in a ceremony. At the banquet, he was about to invite them to Islam
Islam
when Abu Lahab interrupted him, after which everyone left the banquet. The Prophet ordered Ali
Ali
to invite the 40 people again. The second time, Muhammad announced Islam
Islam
to them and invited them to join.[28] He said to them,

I offer thanks to Allah for His mercies. I praise Allah, and I seek His guidance. I believe in Him and I put my trust in Him. I bear witness that there is no god except Allah; He has no partners; and I am His messenger. Allah has commanded me to invite you to His religion by saying: And warn thy nearest kinsfolk. I, therefore, warn you, and call upon you to testify that there is no god but Allah, and that I am His messenger. O ye sons of Abdul Muttalib, no one ever came to you before with anything better than what I have brought to you. By accepting it, your welfare will be assured in this world and in the Hereafter. Who among you will support me in carrying out this momentous duty? Who will share the burden of this work with me? Who will respond to my call? Who will become my vicegerent, my deputy and my wazir?[29]

Ali
Ali
was the only one to answer Muhammad's call. Muhammad
Muhammad
told him to sit down, saying, "Wait! Perhaps someone older than you might respond to my call." Muhammad
Muhammad
then asked the members of Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
a second time. Once again, Ali
Ali
was the only one to respond, and again, Muhammad told him to wait. Muhammad
Muhammad
then asked the members of Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
a third time. Ali
Ali
was still the only volunteer. This time, Ali's offer was accepted by Muhammad. Muhammad
Muhammad
"drew [Ali] close, pressed him to his heart, and said to the assembly: 'This is my wazir, my successor and my vicegerent. Listen to him and obey his commands.'"[30] In another narration, when Muhammad
Muhammad
accepted Ali's eager offer, Muhammad "threw up his arms around the generous youth, and pressed him to his bosom" and said, "Behold my brother, my vizir, my vicegerent...Let all listen to his words, and obey him."[31] Sir Richard Burton writes about the banquet in his 1898 book, saying, "It won for [Muhammad] a proselyte worth a thousand sabers in the person of Ali, son of Abu Talib."[32] The event of Ghadir Khumm[edit] Main article: The event of Ghadir Khumm The event of Ghadir Khumm
The event of Ghadir Khumm
is an event that took place in March 632. While returning from the Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage, the Islamic prophet Muhammad gathered all the Muslims who were with him and gave a long sermon. This sermon included Muhammad's declaration that "to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali
Ali
is also their Mawla." After the sermon, Muhammad
Muhammad
instructed everyone to pledge allegiance to Ali. Shia
Shia
Muslims believe this event to be the official appointment of Ali
Ali
as Muhammad's successor.[33] A portion of the sermon Muhammad
Muhammad
delivered is as follows:

Oh people! Reflect on the Quran
Quran
and comprehend its verses. Look into its clear verses and do not follow its ambiguous parts, for by Allah, none shall be able to explain to you its warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself, [and lifted his arm,] the one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his master (Mawla[a]), then Ali
Ali
is his master (Mawla); and he is Ali
Ali
Ibn Abi Talib, my brother, the executor of my will (Wasiyyi), whose appointment as your guardian and leader has been sent down to me from Allah, the mighty and the majestic. — Muhammad, from The Farewell Sermon[36]

^ The word mawla has many meanings in Arabic; however, Shias argue that the context of the sermon makes the meaning of "mawla" as "leader" in this context clear.[34] Further, "mawla" was not the only word that Muhammad
Muhammad
used in this sermon to describe Ali; he also used the words "wali," "Imam," and "khalifa." All of this together cements the leadership of Ali
Ali
as described in the sermon delivered by Muhammad. Further, according to Shias, the combination of these words proves that Ali's leadership, as described by Muhammad
Muhammad
in this sermon, is both a religious leadership as well as a political leadership, as the meanings of these words indicate.[35]

After the conclusion of Muhammad's sermon, the Muslims were commanded to pledge their allegiance to Ali. Umar
Umar
was reportedly the first to give the oath of allegiance to Ali. Shia
Shia
Muslims believe this to be Muhammad's appointment of Ali
Ali
as his successor. Ali's caliphate[edit]

The Investiture of Ali
Ali
at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab
Arab
161, fol. 162r, AD 1309/8 Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)

When Muhammad
Muhammad
died in 632 CE, Ali
Ali
and Muhammad's closest relatives made the funeral arrangements. While they were preparing his body, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah
Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah
met with the leaders of Medina
Medina
and elected Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as caliph. Ali
Ali
did not accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and refused to pledge allegiance to him. This is indicated in both Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
sahih and authentic Hadith. Ibn Qutaybah, a 9th-century Sunni
Sunni
Islamic scholar narrates of Ali:

I am the servant of God
God
and the brother of the Messenger of God. I am thus more worthy of this office than you. I shall not give allegiance to you [ Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
& Umar] when it is more proper for you to give bay’ah to me. You have seized this office from the Ansar using your tribal relationship to the Prophet as an argument against them. Would you then seize this office from us, the ahl al-bayt by force? Did you not claim before the Ansar that you were more worthy than they of the caliphate because Muhammad
Muhammad
came from among you (but Muhammad
Muhammad
was never from AbuBakr family) – and thus they gave you leadership and surrendered command? I now contend against you with the same argument…It is we who are more worthy of the Messenger of God, living or dead. Give us our due right if you truly have faith in God, or else bear the charge of wilfully doing wrong... Umar, I will not yield to your commands: I shall not pledge loyalty to him.' Ultimately Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
said, "O 'Ali! If you do not desire to give your bay'ah, I am not going to force you for the same.

Ali's wife, and daughter of Muhammad, Fatimah, refused to pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and remained angry with him until she died due to the issues of Fadak
Fadak
and her inheritance from her father and the situation of Umar
Umar
at Fatimah's house. This is stated in sahih Sunni Hadith, Sahih Bukhari
Sahih Bukhari
and Sahih Muslim. Fatimah
Fatimah
did not at all pledge allegiance or acknowledge or accept the caliphate of Abu Bakr.[37] Almost all of Banu Hashim, Muhammad's clan and many of the sahaba, had supported Ali's cause after the demise of the prophet whilst others supported Abu Bakr.[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] It was not until the murder of the third caliph, Uthman, in 657 CE that the Muslims in Medina
Medina
in desperation invited Ali
Ali
to become the fourth caliph as the last source,[25] and he established his capital in Kufah in present-day Iraq.[16] Ali's rule over the early Muslim
Muslim
community was often contested, and wars were waged against him. As a result, he had to struggle to maintain his power against the groups who betrayed him after giving allegiance to his succession, or those who wished to take his position. This dispute eventually led to the First Fitna, which was the first major civil war within the Islamic Caliphate. The Fitna began as a series of revolts fought against Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, caused by the assassination of his political predecessor, Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan. While the rebels who accused Uthman
Uthman
of prejudice[clarification needed] affirmed Ali's khilafa (caliph-hood), they later turned against him and fought him.[25] Ali
Ali
ruled from 656 CE to 661 CE,[25] when he was assassinated[26] while prostrating in prayer (sujud). Ali's main rival Muawiyah then claimed the caliphate.[47] Hasan ibn Ali[edit] Main article: Hasan ibn Ali Upon the death of Ali, his elder son Hasan became leader of the Muslims of Kufa, and after a series of skirmishes between the Kufa Muslims and the army of Muawiyah, Hasan agreed to cede the caliphate to Muawiyah and maintain peace among Muslims upon certain conditions:[48][49]

The enforced public cursing of Ali, e.g. during prayers, should be abandoned Muawiyah should not use tax money for his own private needs There should be peace, and followers of Hasan should be given security and their rights Muawiyah will never adopt the title of Amir al-Mu'minin Muawiyah will not nominate any successor

Hasan then retired to Medina, where in 670 CE he was poisoned by his wife Ja'da bint al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, after being secretly contacted by Muawiyah who wished to pass the caliphate to his own son Yazid and saw Hasan as an obstacle. Husayn[edit] Main article: Husayn ibn Ali

The Imam
Imam
Hussein Shrine in Karbala, Iraq
Iraq
is a holy site for Shia Muslims.

Battle of Karbala, Brooklyn Museum

Husayn, Ali's younger son and brother to Hasan, initially resisted calls to lead the Muslims against Muawiyah and reclaim the caliphate. In 680 CE, Muawiyah died and passed the caliphate to his son Yazid, and breaking the treaty with Hasan ibn Ali. Yazid asked Husayn to swear allegiance (bay'ah) to him. Ali's faction, having expected the caliphate to return to Ali's line upon Muawiyah's death, saw this as a betrayal of the peace treaty and so Husayn rejected this request for allegiance. There was a groundswell of support in Kufa
Kufa
for Husayn to return there and take his position as caliph and imam, so Husayn collected his family and followers in Medina
Medina
and set off for Kufa. En route to Kufa, he was blocked by an army of Yazid's men (which included people from Kufa) near Karbala
Karbala
(modern Iraq), and Husayn and approximately 72 of his family and followers were killed in the Battle of Karbala. The Shias regard Husayn as a martyr (shahid), and count him as an Imam from the Ahl al-Bayt. They view Husayn as the defender of Islam
Islam
from annihilation at the hands of Yazid I. Husayn is the last imam following Ali
Ali
whom all Shiah sub-branches mutually recognize.[50] The Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
is often cited as the definitive break between the Shiah and Sunni
Sunni
sects of Islam, and is commemorated each year by Shiah Muslims on the Day of Ashura. Imamate
Imamate
of the Ahl al-Bayt[edit] Main article: Imamah
Imamah
( Shia
Shia
doctrine)

Zulfiqar
Zulfiqar
with and without the shield. The Fatimid
Fatimid
depiction of Ali's sword as carved on the Gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr shown below. Two swords were captured from the temple of the pagan polytheist god Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad
Muhammad
gave them to Ali, saying that one of them was Zulfiqar, which became the famous sword of Ali
Ali
and a later symbol of Shiism.[51]

Ali's Sword and shield depiction at Bab al Nasr gate wall, Cairo

Most of the early Shia
Shia
differed only marginally from mainstream Sunnis in their views on political leadership, but it is possible in this sect to see a refinement of Shia
Shia
doctrine. Early Sunnis traditionally held that the political leader must come from the tribe of Muhammad—namely, the Quraysh tribe. The Zaydis
Zaydis
narrowed the political claims of Ali's supporters, claiming that not just any descendant of Ali
Ali
would be eligible to lead the Muslim
Muslim
community (ummah) but only those males directly descended from Muhammad
Muhammad
through the union of Ali
Ali
and Fatimah. But during the Abbasid revolts, other Shia, who came to be known as Imamiyyah (followers of the Imams), followed the theological school of Imam
Imam
Ja'far al-Sadiq, himself the great great grandson of Muhammad's son-in-law Imam
Imam
Ali. They asserted a more exalted religious role for Imams and insisted that, at any given time, whether in power or not, a single male descendant of Ali and Fatimah
Fatimah
was the divinely appointed Imam
Imam
and the sole authority, in his time, on all matters of faith and law. To those Shia, love of the Imams and of their persecuted cause became as important as belief in God's oneness and the mission of Muhammad.[citation needed] Later most of the Shia, including Twelver
Twelver
and Ismaili, became Imamis. Imami Shia
Shia
believe that Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad.[citation needed] Imams are human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but also are able to keep and interpret the divine law and its esoteric meaning. The words and deeds of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad.[52][53] According to this view, there is always an Imam
Imam
of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim
Muslim
community. Ali
Ali
was the first imam of this line, the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by male descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah.[citation needed] This difference between following either the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
(Muhammad's family and descendants) or Caliph
Caliph
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
has shaped Shia
Shia
and non- Shia
Shia
views on some of the Quranic verses, the hadith (narrations from Muhammad) and other areas of Islam. For instance, the collection of hadith venerated by Shia
Shia
Muslims is centered on narrations by members of the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
and their supporters, while some hadith by narrators not belonging to or supporting the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
are not included. Those of Abu Hurairah, for example, Ibn Asakir in his Ta'rikh Kabir and Muttaqi in his Kanzu'l-Umma report that Caliph
Caliph
Umar lashed him, rebuked him and forbade him to narrate hadith from Muhammad. Umar
Umar
said: "Because you narrate hadith in large numbers from the Holy Prophet, you are fit only for attributing lies to him. (That is, one expects a wicked man like you to utter only lies about the Holy Prophet.) So you must stop narrating hadith from the Prophet; otherwise, I will send you to the land of Dus." (A clan in Yemen, to which Abu Huraira belonged.) According to Sunnis, Ali
Ali
was the fourth successor to Abu Bakr, while the Shia
Shia
maintain that Ali
Ali
was the first divinely sanctioned "Imam", or successor of Muhammad. The seminal event in Shia
Shia
history is the martyrdom in 680 CE at the Battle of Karbala
Karbala
of Ali's son Hussein ibn Ali, who led a non-allegiance movement against the defiant caliph (71 of Hussein's followers were killed as well). Hussein came to symbolize resistance to tyranny. It is believed in Twelver
Twelver
and Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
that 'aql, divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the prophets and imams and gave them esoteric knowledge called ḥikmah and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees.[54][55] Although the imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation, he had a close relationship with God, through which God
God
guides him, and the imam, in turn, guides the people. Imamate, or belief in the divine guide, is a fundamental belief in the Twelver
Twelver
and Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
branches and is based on the concept that God
God
would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance.[56] Imam
Imam
of the time, last Imam
Imam
of the Shia[edit] The Mahdi
Mahdi
is the prophesied redeemer of Islam
Islam
who will rule for seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations) before the Day of Judgment
Day of Judgment
and will rid the world of evil. According to Islamic tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus Christ (Isa), who is to assist the Mahdi
Mahdi
against the Masih ad-Dajjal
Masih ad-Dajjal
(literally, the "false Messiah" or Antichrist). Jesus, who is considered the Masih (Messiah) in Islam, will descend at the point of a white arcade, east of Damascus, dressed in yellow robes with his head anointed. He will then join the Mahdi
Mahdi
in his war against the Dajjal, where Jesus will slay Dajjal and unite mankind. Theology[edit] The Shia
Shia
Islamic faith is vast and inclusive of many different groups.[16] Shia
Shia
theological beliefs and religious practises, such as prayers, slightly differ from the Sunnis'. While all Muslims pray five times daily, Shias have the option of combining Dhuhr
Dhuhr
with Asr
Asr
and Maghrib
Maghrib
with Isha', as there are three distinct times mentioned in the Quran. The Sunnis tend to combine only under certain circumstances.[57][58] Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
embodies a completely independent system of religious interpretation and political authority in the Muslim
Muslim
world.[59][60] The original Shia
Shia
identity referred to the followers of Imam
Imam
Ali,[61] and Shia
Shia
theology was formulated in the 2nd century AH, or after Hijra (8th century CE).[62] The first Shia governments and societies were established by the end of the 3rd century AH/9th century CE. The 4th century AH /10th century CE has been referred to by Louis Massignon
Louis Massignon
as "the Shiite Ismaili
Ismaili
century in the history of Islam".[63] Hadith[edit] The Shia
Shia
believe that the status of Ali
Ali
is supported by numerous hadith, including the Hadith
Hadith
of the pond of Khumm, Hadith
Hadith
of the two weighty things, Hadith
Hadith
of the pen and paper, Hadith
Hadith
of the invitation of the close families, and Hadith
Hadith
of the Twelve Successors. In particular, the Hadith
Hadith
of the Cloak is often quoted to illustrate Muhammad's feeling towards Ali
Ali
and his family by both Sunni
Sunni
and Shia scholars. Shias prefer hadith attributed to the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
and close associates, and have their own separate collection of hadiths.[64][65] Profession of faith[edit]

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Kalema at Qibla
Qibla
of the Mosque
Mosque
of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt with phrase "Ali-un-Waliullah"

The Shia
Shia
version of the Shahada, the Islamic profession of faith, differs from that of the Sunni. The Sunni
Sunni
Shahada
Shahada
states There is no god except Allah, Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of Allah, but to this the Shia
Shia
append Ali
Ali
is the Wali
Wali
(custodian) of God, علي ولي الله. This phrase embodies the Shia
Shia
emphasis on the inheritance of authority through Muhammad's lineage. The three clauses of the Shia Shahada
Shahada
thus address tawhid (the unity of God), nubuwwah (the prophethood of Muhammad), and imamah (imamate, the leadership of the faith). Infallibility[edit]

Ali
Ali
is credited as the first male to convert to Islam.

Main article: Ismah Ismah
Ismah
is the concept of infallibility or "divinely bestowed freedom from error and sin" in Islam.[66] Muslims believe that Muhammad
Muhammad
and other prophets in Islam
Islam
possessed ismah. Twelver
Twelver
and Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia Muslims also attribute the quality to Imams as well as to Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, in contrast to the Zaidi, who do not attribute 'ismah to the Imams.[67] Though initially beginning as a political movement, infallibility and sinlessness of the imams later evolved as a distinct belief of (non-Zaidi) Shiism.[citation needed] According to Shia
Shia
theologians, infallibility is considered a rational necessary precondition for spiritual and religious guidance. They argue that since God
God
has commanded absolute obedience from these figures they must only order that which is right. The state of infallibility is based on the Shia
Shia
interpretation of the verse of purification.[68][69] Thus, they are the most pure ones, the only immaculate ones preserved from, and immune to, all uncleanness.[70] It does not mean that supernatural powers prevent them from committing a sin, but due to the fact that they have absolute belief in God, they refrain from doing anything that is a sin.[71] They also have a complete knowledge of God's will. They are in possession of all knowledge brought by the angels to the prophets (nabi) and the messengers (rasul). Their knowledge encompasses the totality of all times. They thus act without fault in religious matters.[72] Shias regard Ali
Ali
as the successor of Muhammad
Muhammad
not only ruling over the community in justice, but also interpreting Islamic practices and its esoteric meaning. Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible), and appointed by God
God
by divine decree (nass) to be the first Imam.[73] Ali
Ali
is known as "perfect man" (al-insan al-kamil) similar to Muhammad, according to Shia viewpoint.[74] Occultation[edit] Main article: The Occultation The Occultation
The Occultation
is a belief in some forms of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
that a messianic figure, a hidden imam known as the Mahdi, will one day return and fill the world with justice. According to the Twelver
Twelver
Shia, the main goal of the Mahdi
Mahdi
will be to establish an Islamic state and to apply Islamic laws that were revealed to Muhammad.[75] Some Shia, such as the Zaidi and Nizari
Nizari
Ismaili, do not believe in the idea of the Occultation. The groups which do believe in it differ as to which lineage of the Imamate
Imamate
is valid, and therefore which individual has gone into occultation. They believe there are many signs that will indicate the time of his return. Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
Muslims believe that the Mahdi
Mahdi
(the twelfth imam, Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi) is already on Earth, is in occultation and will return at the end of time. Fatimid/ Bohra/ Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
believe the same but for their 21st Tayyib, whereas Sunnis believe the future Mahdi
Mahdi
has not yet arrived on Earth.[76] History[edit] Main article: History of Shia
Shia
Islam

Ghazan
Ghazan
and his brother Öljaitü
Öljaitü
both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis Khan.

Historians dispute the origin of Shia
Shia
Islam, with many Western scholars positing that Shiism began as a political faction rather than a truly religious movement.[77][78] Other scholars disagree, considering this concept of religious-political separation to be an anachronistic application of a Western concept.[79] Following the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
(680 AD), as various Shia-affiliated groups diffused in the emerging Islamic world, several nations arose based on a Shia
Shia
leadership or population.

Idrisids (788 to 985 CE): a Zaydi dynasty in what is now Morocco Uqaylids (990 to 1096 CE): a Shia
Shia
Arab
Arab
dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira, northern Syria and Iraq. Buyids (934–1055 CE): at its peak consisted of large portions of modern Iraq
Iraq
and Iran. Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
(1256–1335): a Mongol
Mongol
khanate established in Persia
Persia
in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire. The Ilkhanate was based, originally, on Genghis Khan's campaigns in the Khwarezmid Empire in 1219–1224, and founded by Genghis's grandson, Hulagu, in territories which today comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, and Pakistan. The Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
initially embraced many religions, but was particularly sympathetic to Buddhism
Buddhism
and Christianity. Later Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
rulers, beginning with Ghazan
Ghazan
in 1295, embraced Islam
Islam
his brother Öljaitü promoted Shia
Shia
Islam.[clarification needed] Naubat Khan
Naubat Khan
accepted Islam
Islam
under the Guidance of Mughal General Bairam Khan's son Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana. Bahmanis (1347–1527 CE): a Shia
Shia
Muslim
Muslim
state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms.[80] Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Islamic Kingdom in South India.[81]

Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphate[edit]

Fatimids (909–1171 CE): Controlled much of North Africa, the Levant, parts of Arabia and Mecca
Mecca
and Medina. The group takes its name from Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, from whom they claim descent. In 909 CE the Shiite military leader Abu Abdallah, overthrew the Sunni ruler in Northern Africa; which began the Fatimid
Fatimid
regime.[82]

Safavids[edit] Main articles: Safavid dynasty, Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam, and Ideology of Safavids

One of Shah
Shah
Ismail I
Ismail I
of Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
first actions, was the proclamation of the Twelver
Twelver
sect of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
to be the official religion of his newly formed state. Causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East
Middle East
when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa
Abū Ḥanīfa
and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani
Abdul Qadir Gilani
in 1508.[83] In 1533, Ottomans, upon their conquest of Iraq, rebuilt various important Sunni
Sunni
shrines.[84]

A major turning point in Shia
Shia
history was the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736) in Persia. This caused a number of changes in the Muslim world:

The ending of the relative mutual tolerance between Sunnis and Shias that existed from the time of the Mongol
Mongol
conquests onwards and the resurgence of antagonism between the two groups. Initial dependence of Shiite clerics on the state followed by the emergence of an independent body of ulama capable of taking a political stand different from official policies.[85] The growth in importance of Iranian centers of religious learning and change from Twelver
Twelver
Shiism being a predominantly Arab
Arab
phenomenon.[86] The growth of the Akhbari
Akhbari
School which preached that only the Quran, hadith are to be bases for verdicts, rejecting the use of reasoning.

With the fall of the Safavids, the state in Persia
Persia
– including the state system of courts with government-appointed judges (qadis) – became much weaker. This gave the Sharia
Sharia
courts of mujtahids an opportunity to fill the legal vacuum and enabled the ulama to assert their judicial authority. The Usuli
Usuli
School also increased in strength at this time.[87]

The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.

Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia
Shia
and Sunni
Sunni
sects were killed in battle.

Battle of Chaldiran, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East.

Community[edit] Demographics[edit] Main article: List of countries by Muslim
Muslim
population

Islam
Islam
by country              Sunni              Shias      Ibadi

Distribution of Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
branches of Islam

According to Shia
Shia
Muslims, one of the lingering problems in estimating Shia
Shia
population is that unless Shia
Shia
form a significant minority in a Muslim
Muslim
country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni. The reverse, however, has not held true, which may contribute to imprecise estimates of the size of each sect. For example, the 1926 rise of the House of Saud
House of Saud
in Arabia brought official discrimination against Shia.[88] Shiites are estimated to be 21–35% of the Muslim population in South Asia, although the total number is difficult to estimate due to that reason.[89] It is variously estimated that 10–20%[90][91][92][93] of the world's Muslims are Shia. They may number up to 200 million as of 2009.[92] The Shia
Shia
majority countries are Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain.[94][95] They also form the plurality (the largest group, but not the majority) in Lebanon. Shias constitute 36.3% of entire local population and 38.6% of the local Muslim
Muslim
population of the Middle East.[96] Shia
Shia
Muslims constitute 27-35% of the population in Lebanon, and as per some estimates from 35%[94][97] to over 35–40% of the population in Yemen,[98] 30%–35% of the citizen population in Kuwait (no figures exist for the non-citizen population),[99][100] over 20% in Turkey,[92][101] 5–20% of the population in Pakistan,[102][92] and 10–19% of Afghanistan's population.[103][104] Saudi Arabia hosts a number of distinct Shia
Shia
communities, including the Twelver
Twelver
Baharna in the Eastern Province and Nakhawila of Medina, and the Ismaili
Ismaili
Sulaymani
Sulaymani
and Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah
of Najran. Estimations put the number of Shiite citizens at 2–4 million, accounting for roughly 15% of the local population.[105][better source needed] Significant Shia
Shia
communities exist in the coastal regions of West Sumatra and Aceh
Aceh
in Indonesia (see Tabuik).[106] The Shia
Shia
presence is negligible elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where Muslims are predominantly Shafi'i
Shafi'i
Sunnis. A significant Shia
Shia
minority is present in Nigeria, made up of modern-era converts to a Shia
Shia
movement centered around Kano and Sokoto states.[92][93][107] Several African countries like Kenya,[108] South Africa,[109] Somalia,[110] etc. hold small minority populations of various Shia
Shia
denominations, primarily descendants of immigrants from South Asia
South Asia
during the colonial period, such as the Khoja.[111] List of Nations for which the Shia
Shia
population may be estimated[edit]

Distribution of global Shia
Shia
Muslim
Muslim
population among the continents   Asia (93.3%)   Africa (4.4%)   Europe (1.5%)   Americas (0.7%)   Australia (0.1%)

Figures indicated in the first three columns below are based on the October 2009 demographic study by the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
report, Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population.[92][93]

Nations with over 100,000 Shia[92][93]

Country Shia
Shia
population[92][93] Percent of Muslim
Muslim
population that is Shia[92][93] Percent of global Shia
Shia
population[92][93] Minimum estimate/claim Maximum estimate/claim

Iran 7004660000000000000♠74,000,000 – 78,000,000 7001900000000000000♠90–95 7001370000000000000♠37–40

78,661,551[112][113]

Pakistan 7004170000000000000♠17,000,000 – 26,000,000 7001110000000000000♠10–15 7001110000000000000♠10–15

43,250,000[114] – 57,666,666[115][116]

India 7004160000000000000♠17,000,000 – 26,000,000 7001110000000000000♠10–15 7000900000000000000♠9–14

40,000,000[117] – 50,000,000.[118]

Iraq 7004190000000000000♠19,000,000 – 22,000,000 7001650000000000000♠65–70 7001110000000000000♠11–12

Yemen 7003800000000000000♠8,000,000 – 10,000,000 7001350000000000000♠35–40 7000500000000000000♠~5

Turkey 7003700000000000000♠7,000,000 – 11,000,000 7001110000000000000♠10–15 7000400000000000000♠4–6

22 million[112]

Azerbaijan 7003500000000000000♠5,000,000 – 7,000,000 7001650000000000000♠65–75 7000300000000000000♠3–4

8.16 million,[112] 85% of total population[119]

Afghanistan 7003300000000000000♠3,000,000 – 4,000,000 7001110000000000000♠10–15 7000100000000000000♠~2

6.1 million,[112] 15–19% of total population[103]

Syria 7003300000000000000♠3,000,000 – 4,000,000 7001120000000000000♠15–20 7000100000000000000♠~2

Saudi Arabia 7003200000000000000♠2,000,000 – 4,000,000 7001150000000000000♠10–15 7000100000000000000♠1–2

Nigeria 7003399900000000000♠<4,000,000 7000400000000000000♠<5 7000100000000000000♠<2

22-25 million[120][not in citation given]

Lebanon 7003100000000000000♠1,000,000 – 2,000,000 7001500000000000000♠ 45–55 5000000000000000000♠<1

Estimated, no official census.[121] 50–55%[122][123][124]

Tanzania 7003199900000000000♠<2,000,000 7000900000000000000♠<10 5000000000000000000♠<1

Kuwait 7002500000000000000♠500,000 - 700,000 7001300000000000000♠20-25 5000000000000000000♠<1

30%-35% of 1.2m Muslims (citizen only)[99][100]

Germany 7002400000000000000♠400,000 – 600,000 7001110000000000000♠10–15 5000000000000000000♠<1

Bahrain 7002400000000000000♠400,000 – 500,000 7001660000000000000♠65–70 5000000000000000000♠<1 100,000 (66%[125] of citizen population) 200,000 (70%[126] of citizen population)

Tajikistan 7002400000000000000♠~400,000 7000700000000000000♠~7 5000000000000000000♠~1

United Arab
Arab
Emirates 7002300000000000000♠300,000 – 400,000 7001100000000000000♠10 5000000000000000000♠<1

United States 7002200000000000000♠200,000 – 400,000 7001110000000000000♠10–15 5000000000000000000♠<1

Oman 7002100000000000000♠100,000 – 300,000 7000500000000000000♠5–10 5000000000000000000♠<1

948,750[127]

United Kingdom 7002100000000000000♠100,000 – 300,000 7001110000000000000♠10–15 5000000000000000000♠<1

Qatar 7002100000000000000♠~100,000 7001100000000000000♠~10 5000000000000000000♠<1

Persecution[edit] Main articles: Anti-Shiism
Anti-Shiism
and Shia– Sunni
Sunni
relations The history of Sunni- Shia
Shia
relations has often involved violence, dating back to the earliest development of the two competing sects. At various times Shia
Shia
groups have faced persecution.[128][129][130][131][132][133] Militarily established and holding control over the Umayyad government, many Sunni
Sunni
rulers perceived the Shia
Shia
as a threat – to both their political and their religious authority.[134] The Sunni rulers under the Umayyads sought to marginalize the Shia
Shia
minority, and later the Abbasids turned on their Shia
Shia
allies and imprisoned, persecuted, and killed them. The persecution of the Shia
Shia
throughout history by Sunni
Sunni
co-religionists has often been characterized by brutal and genocidal acts. Comprising only about 10–15% of the entire Muslim
Muslim
population, the Shia
Shia
remain a marginalized community to this day in many Sunni
Sunni
Arab
Arab
dominant countries without the rights to practice their religion and organize.[135] In 1514 the Ottoman sultan, Selim I, ordered the massacre of 40,000 Anatolian Shia.[136] According to Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, " Sultan
Sultan
Selim I carried things so far that he announced that the killing of one Shiite had as much otherworldly reward as killing 70 Christians."[137] In 1801 the Al Saud- Wahhabi
Wahhabi
armies attacked and sacked Karbala, the Shia
Shia
shrine in eastern Iraq
Iraq
that commemorates the death of Husayn.[138] Under Saddam Hussein's regime, 1968 to 2003, in Iraq, Shia
Shia
Muslims were heavily arrested, tortured and killed.[139] In March 2011, the Malaysian government declared the Shia
Shia
a "deviant" sect and banned them from promoting their faith to other Muslims, but left them free to practice it themselves privately.[140][141] Holidays[edit] Main article: Shia
Shia
days of remembrance Shia, celebrate the following annual holidays:

Eid ul-Fitr, which marks the end of fasting during the month of Ramadan Eid al-Adha, which marks the end of the Hajj
Hajj
or pilgrimage to Mecca

The following days are some of the most important holidays observed by Shia
Shia
Muslims:

Eid al-Ghadeer, which is the anniversary of the Ghadir Khum, the occasion when Muhammad
Muhammad
announced Ali's Imamate
Imamate
before a multitude of Muslims.[142] Eid al-Ghadeer
Eid al-Ghadeer
is held on the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah. The Mourning of Muharram
Mourning of Muharram
and the Day of Ashura
Ashura
for Shia
Shia
commemorates Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom. Husayn was a grandson of Muhammad
Muhammad
who was killed by Yazid ibn Muawiyah. Ashurah is a day of deep mourning which occurs on the 10th of Muharram. Arba'een
Arba'een
commemorates the suffering of the women and children of Husayn ibn Ali's household. After Husayn was killed, they were marched over the desert, from Karbala
Karbala
(central Iraq) to Shaam (Damascus, Syria). Many children (some of whom were direct descendants of Muhammad) died of thirst and exposure along the route. Arbaein occurs on the 20th of Safar, 40 days after Ashurah. Mawlid, Muhammad's birth date. Unlike Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, who celebrate the 12th of Rabi' al-awwal
Rabi' al-awwal
as Muhammad's birthday or deathday (because they assert that his birth and death both occur in this week), Shia Muslims celebrate Muhammad's birthday on the 17th of the month, which coincides with the birth date of the sixth imam, Ja'far al-Saadiq.[143] Wahhabis do not celebrate Muhammad's birthday, believing that such celebrations constitute a bid‘ah.[144] Fatimah's birthday on 20th of Jumada al-Thani. This day is also considered as the "'women and mothers' day".[citation needed] Ali's birthday on 13th of Rajab. Mid-Sha'ban
Mid-Sha'ban
is the birth date of the 12th and final Twelver
Twelver
imam, Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi. It is celebrated by Shia
Shia
Muslims on the 15th of Sha'aban. Laylat al-Qadr, anniversary of the night of the revelation of the Quran. Eid al-Mubahila
Eid al-Mubahila
celebrates a meeting between the Ahl al-Bayt (household of Muhammad) and a Christian deputation from Najran. Al-Mubahila is held on the 24th of Dhu al-Hijjah.

Holy sites[edit] Main article: Holiest sites in Islam
Islam
(Shia) The four holiest sites to Muslims are Mecca
Mecca
(Al-Haram Mosque), Medina (Al-Nabbawi Mosque), Jerusalem (Al-Aqsa Mosque), and Kufa
Kufa
(Kufa Mosque). In addition for Shias, the Imam
Imam
Husayn Shrine, Al Abbas Mosque
Mosque
in Karbala, and Imam
Imam
Ali
Ali
Mosque
Mosque
in Najaf
Najaf
are also highly revered. Other venerated sites include Wadi-us-Salaam
Wadi-us-Salaam
cemetery in Najaf, Al-Baqi'
Al-Baqi'
cemetery in Medina, Imam
Imam
Reza shrine in Mashhad, Kadhimiya Mosque
Mosque
in Kadhimiya, Al-Askari Mosque
Mosque
in Samarra, Sahla Mosque
Mosque
and Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kufa
Kufa
in Kufa
Kufa
and several other sites in the cities of Qom, Susa
Susa
and Damascus. Most of the Shia
Shia
holy places in Saudi Arabia have been destroyed by the warriors of the Ikhwan, the most notable being the tombs of the Imams in the Al-Baqi'
Al-Baqi'
cemetery in 1925.[145] In 2006, a bomb destroyed the shrine of Al-Askari Mosque.[146] Branches[edit] The Shia
Shia
belief throughout its history split over the issue of the Imamate. The largest branch are the Twelvers, followed by the Zaidi and Ismaili. All three groups follow a different line of Imamate.

Note: Kaysani's Imam
Imam
Hanafiyyah is descendant of Ali
Ali
from Ali's wife Khawlah, not Fatimah

Twelver[edit] Main article: Twelver Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
or the Ithnā'ashariyyah' is the largest branch of Shia Islam, and the term Shia
Shia
Muslim
Muslim
often refers to the Twelvers
Twelvers
by default. The term Twelver
Twelver
is derived from the doctrine of believing in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as The Twelve Imams. Twelver Shia
Shia
are also known as Imami or Ja'fari, originated from the name of the 6th Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who elaborated the twelver jurisprudence.[147] Twelvers
Twelvers
constitute the majority of the population in Iran (90%),[148] Azerbaijan (85%),[16][149] Bahrain (70%), Iraq
Iraq
(65%), Lebanon (65% of Muslims).[150][151][152] Doctrine[edit]

Names of all 12 Imams (descendants of Imam
Imam
Ali) written in the form of Arabic name على 'Ali'

Twelver
Twelver
doctrine is based on five principles.[153] These five principles known as Usul ad-Din are as follow:[154][155]

Monotheism, God
God
is one and unique. Justice, the concept of moral rightness based on ethics, fairness, and equity, along with the punishment of the breach of said ethics. Prophethood, the institution by which God
God
sends emissaries, or prophets, to guide mankind. Leadership, a divine institution which succeeded the institution of Prophethood. Its appointees (imams) are divinely appointed. Last Judgment, God's final assessment of humanity.

More specifically, these principles are known as Usul al-Madhhab (principles of the Shia
Shia
sect) according to Twelver
Twelver
Shias which differ from Daruriyat al-Din (Necessities of Religion) which are principles in order for one to be a Muslim. The Necessities of Religion
Religion
do not include Leadership (Imamah) as it is not a requirement in order for one to be recognized as a Muslim. However, this category, according to Twelver
Twelver
scholars like Ayatollah
Ayatollah
al-Khoei, does include belief in God, Prophethood, the Day of Resurrection and other "necessities" (like belief in angels). In this regard, Twelver
Twelver
Shias draw a distinction in terms of believing in the main principles of Islam
Islam
on the one hand, and specifically Shia
Shia
doctrines like Imamah
Imamah
on the other. Books[edit] Besides the Quran
Quran
which is common to all Muslims, the Shiah derive guidance from books of traditions ("ḥadīth") attributed to Muhammad and the Twelve Imams. Below is a list of some of the most prominent of these books:

Nahj al-Balagha
Nahj al-Balagha
by Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib – the most famous collection of sermons, letters & narration by the first Imam
Imam
regarded by Shias al-Kafi by Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni[156] Wasa'il al-Shi'ah by al-Hurr al-Amili

The Twelve Imams[edit] See also: The Twelve Imams
Twelve Imams
and Sunni
Sunni
reports about there being 12 successors to the Prophet The Twelve Imams
Twelve Imams
are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad
Muhammad
for the Twelvers.[citation needed] According to the theology of Twelvers, the successor of Muhammad
Muhammad
is an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community with justice but also is able to keep and interpret the divine law and its esoteric meaning. The words and deeds of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; as a result, they must be free from error and sin, and Imams must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad.[52][53] Each imam was the son of the previous imam, with the exception of Hussein ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan ibn Ali.[citation needed] The twelfth and final imam is Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers
Twelvers
to be currently alive and in occultation.[56] Jurisprudence[edit] Main article: Ja'fari jurisprudence See also: Shia
Shia
clergy The Twelver
Twelver
jurisprudence is called Ja'fari jurisprudence. In this jurisprudence Sunnah
Sunnah
is considered to be the oral traditions of Muhammad
Muhammad
and their implementation and interpretation by the twelve Imams. There are three schools of Ja'fari jurisprudence: Usuli, Akhbari, and Shaykhi. The Usuli
Usuli
school is by far the largest of the three. Twelver
Twelver
groups that do not follow Ja'fari jurisprudence
Ja'fari jurisprudence
include Alevi, Bektashi, and Qizilbash. In Ja'fari jurisprudence, there are ten ancillary pillars, known as Furu' ad-Din, which are as follows:[157]

Prayer Fasting Pilgrimage Alms giving Struggle Directing others towards good Directing others away from evil Alms giving (One Fifth) (20% tax on yearly earnings after deduction of household and commercial expenses.) Love those who are in God's path Disassociation with those who oppose God

According to Twelvers, defining and interpretation of Islamic jurisprudence is the responsibility of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the twelve Imams. As the 12th Imam
Imam
is in occultation, it is the duty of clerics to refer to the Islamic literature
Islamic literature
such as the Quran
Quran
and hadith and identify legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law to provide means to deal with current issues from an Islamic perspective. In other words, Twelver
Twelver
clerics provide Guardianship of the Islamic Jurisprudence, which was defined by Muhammad
Muhammad
and his twelve successors. This process is known as Ijtihad and the clerics are known as Marja', meaning reference. The labels Allamah and Ayatollah
Ayatollah
are in use for Twelver clerics. Zaidi ("Fiver")[edit] Main article: Zaidiyyah Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydi is a Shia
Shia
school named after Zayd ibn Ali. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or occasionally Fivers). However, there is also a group called Zaidi Wasītīs who are Twelvers
Twelvers
(see below). Zaidis constitute roughly 42–47% of the population of Yemen.[158][159] Doctrine[edit] The Zaydis, Twelvers, and Ismailis all recognize the same first four Imams; however, the Zaidis recognize Zayd ibn Ali
Ali
as the fifth. After the time of Zayd ibn Ali, the Zaidis recognized that any descendant of Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
or Hussein ibn Ali
Ali
could be imam after fulfilling certain conditions.[160] Other well-known Zaidi Imams in history were Yahya ibn Zayd, Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya and Ibrahim ibn Abdullah. In matters of Islamic jurisprudence, the Zaydis
Zaydis
follow Zayd ibn Ali's teachings which are documented in his book Majmu'l Fiqh
Fiqh
(in Arabic: مجموع الفِقه). Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, founder of the Zaydi state in Yemen, instituted elements of the jurisprudential tradition of the Sunni
Sunni
Muslim
Muslim
jurist Abū Ḥanīfa, and as a result, Zaydi jurisprudence today continues somewhat parallel to that of the Hanafis. The Zaidi doctrine of Imamah
Imamah
does not presuppose the infallibility of the imam nor that the Imams receive divine guidance. Zaidis also do not believe that the Imamate
Imamate
must pass from father to son but believe it can be held by any Sayyid
Sayyid
descended from either Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
or Hussein ibn Ali
Ali
(as was the case after the death of Hasan ibn Ali). Historically, Zaidis held that Zayd was the rightful successor of the 4th imam since he led a rebellion against the Umayyads in protest of their tyranny and corruption. Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir did not engage in political action, and the followers of Zayd believed that a true imam must fight against corrupt rulers. Timeline[edit] The Idrisids (Arabic: الأدارسة‎) were Arab[161] Zaydi Shia[162][163][164][165][166][167] dynasty in the western Maghreb ruling from 788 to 985 C.E., named after its first sultan, Idris I. A Zaydi state was established in Gilan, Deylaman
Deylaman
and Tabaristan (northern Iran) in 864 C.E. by the Alavids;[168] it lasted until the death of its leader at the hand of the Samanids
Samanids
in 928 C.E. Roughly forty years later the state was revived in Gilan and survived under Hasanid leaders until 1126 C.E. Afterwards, from the 12th to 13th centuries, the Zaydis
Zaydis
of Deylaman, Gilan and Tabaristan
Tabaristan
then acknowledged the Zaydi Imams of Yemen
Imams of Yemen
or rival Zaydi Imams within Iran.[169] The Buyids were initially Zaidi[170] as were the Banu Ukhaidhir
Banu Ukhaidhir
rulers of al-Yamama in the 9th and 10th centuries.[171] The leader of the Zaydi community took the title of Caliph. As such, the ruler of Yemen was known as the Caliph, al-Hadi Yahya bin al-Hussain bin al-Qasim ar-Rassi Rassids
Rassids
(a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
the son of Ali) who, at Sa'dah, in 893–7 CE, founded the Zaydi Imamate, and this system continued until the middle of the 20th century, when the revolution of 1962 CE deposed the Zaydi Imam. The founding Zaidism of Yemen was of the Jarudiyya group; however, with increasing interaction with Hanafi and Shafi'i
Shafi'i
rites of Sunni
Sunni
Islam, there was a shift from the Jarudiyya group to the Sulaimaniyya, Tabiriyya, Butriyya or Salihiyya groups.[172] Zaidis form the second dominant religious group in Yemen. Currently, they constitute about 40–45% of the population in Yemen. Ja'faris and Isma'ilis are 2–5%.[173] In Saudi Arabia, it is estimated that there are over 1 million Zaydis
Zaydis
(primarily in the western provinces). Currently the most prominent Zaydi movement is Houthis
Houthis
movement, known by the name of Shabab Al Mu'mineen (Believing Youth) or AnsarAllah (Partisans of God). In 2014–2015 Houthis
Houthis
took over the government in Sana'a, which led to the fall of the Saudi Arabian-backed government of Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi.[174] Houthis
Houthis
and their allies gained control of a significant part of Yemen's territory and were resisting the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
seeking to restore Hadi in power. Both the Houthis
Houthis
and the Saudi Arabian-led coalition were being attacked by the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant.[175][176] Ismaili[edit] Main article: Isma'ilism Ismailis gain their name from their acceptance of Isma'il ibn Jafar as the divinely appointed spiritual successor (Imam) to Ja'far al-Sadiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers, who accept Musa al-Kadhim, younger brother of Isma'il, as the true Imam. After the death or Occultation of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismaill in the 8th century, the teachings of Ismailism
Ismailism
further transformed into the belief system as it is known today, with an explicit concentration on the deeper, esoteric meaning (bāṭin) of the faith. With the eventual development of Twelverism into the more literalistic (zahir) oriented Akhbari
Akhbari
and later Usuli
Usuli
schools of thought, Shiaism developed in two separate directions: the metaphorical Ismailli group focusing on the mystical path and nature of God
God
and the divine manifestation in the personage of the " Imam
Imam
of the Time" as the "Face of God", with the more literalistic Twelver
Twelver
group focusing on divine law (sharī'ah) and the deeds and sayings (sunnah) of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his successors (the Ahlu l-Bayt), who as A'immah were guides and a light to God.[177] Though there are several sub-groupings within the Ismailis, the term in today's vernacular generally refers to The Shia
Shia
Imami Ismaili Muslim
Muslim
( Nizari
Nizari
community), generally known as the Ismailis, who are followers of the Aga Khan
Aga Khan
and the largest group among the Ismailiyyah. Another community which falls under the Isma'il's are the Dawoodi Bohras, led by a Da'i al-Mutlaq
Da'i al-Mutlaq
as representative of a hidden imam. While there are many other branches with extremely differing exterior practices, much of the spiritual theology has remained the same since the days of the faith's early Imams. In recent centuries Ismailis have largely been an Indo-Iranian community,[178] but they are found in India, Pakistan, Syria, Palestine, Saudi Arabia,[179] Yemen, China,[180] Jordan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, East Africa and South Africa, and have in recent years emigrated to Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America.[181] Ismaili
Ismaili
imams[edit] Main article: List of Ismaili
Ismaili
imams After the death of Isma'il ibn Jafar, many Ismailis believed that one day the messianic Mahdi, whom they believed to be Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismail, would return and establish an age of justice. One group included the violent Qarmatians, who had a stronghold in Bahrain. In contrast, some Ismailis believed the Imamate
Imamate
did continue, and that the Imams were in occultation and still communicated and taught their followers through a network of dawah "Missionaries". In 909, Ubayd Allah al- Mahdi
Mahdi
Billah, a claimant to the Ismaili Imamate, established the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate. During this period, three lineages of imams formed. The first branch, known today as the Druze, began with Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Born in 386 AH (985), he ascended as ruler at the age of eleven. The typical religiously tolerant Fatimid Empire saw much persecution under his reign. When in 411 AH (1021) his mule returned without him, soaked in blood, a religious group that was forming in his lifetime broke off from mainstream Ismailism
Ismailism
and did not acknowledge his successor. Later to be known as the Druze, they believe al-Hakim to be the incarnation of God
God
and the prophesied Mahdi who would one day return and bring justice to the world.[182] The faith further split from Ismailism
Ismailism
as it developed very unusual doctrines which often class it separately from both Ismailiyyah and Islam. The second split occurred following the death of Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah in 487 AH (1094). His rule was the longest of any caliph in any Islamic empire. Upon his passing away, his sons, Nizar the older, and Al-Musta'li, the younger, fought for political and spiritual control of the dynasty. Nizar was defeated and jailed, but according to Nizari tradition, his son escaped to Alamut, where the Iranian Ismaili
Ismaili
had accepted his claim.[183] From here on, the Nizari
Nizari
Ismaili
Ismaili
community has continued with a present, living Imam. The Mustaali
Mustaali
line split again between the Taiyabi
Taiyabi
( Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
is its main branch) and the Hafizi. The former claim that At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim (son of Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah) and the imams following him went into a period of anonymity (Dawr-e-Satr) and appointed a Da'i al-Mutlaq to guide the community, in a similar manner as the Ismaili had lived after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismail. The latter (Hafizi) claimed that the ruling Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliph
Caliph
was the Imam, and they died out with the fall of the Fatimid
Fatimid
Empire. Pillars[edit] Ismailis have categorized their practices which are known as seven pillars:

Walayah
Walayah
(Guardianship) Taharah (Purity)

Salat
Salat
(Prayer) Zakāt
Zakāt
(Charity)

Sawm
Sawm
(Fasting) Hajj
Hajj
(Pilgrimage)

Jihad
Jihad
(Struggle)

The Shahada
Shahada
(profession of faith) of the Shia
Shia
differs from that of Sunnis due to mention of Ali.[184] Contemporary leadership[edit] The Nizaris place importance on a scholarly institution because of the existence of a present Imam. The Imam
Imam
of the Age defines the jurisprudence, and his guidance may differ with Imams previous to him because of different times and circumstances. For Nizari
Nizari
Ismailis, the Imam
Imam
is Karim al-Husayni Aga Khan
Aga Khan
IV. The Nizari
Nizari
line of Imams has continued to this day as an unending line. Divine leadership has continued in the Bohra branch through the institution of the "Unrestricted Missionary" Dai. According to Bohra tradition, before the last Imam, At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim, went into seclusion, his father, the 20th Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah, had instructed Al-Hurra Al-Malika
Al-Hurra Al-Malika
the Malika (Queen consort) in Yemen to appoint a vicegerent after the seclusion – the Unrestricted Missionary, who as the Imam's vicegerent has full authority to govern the community in all matters both spiritual and temporal while the lineage of Mustaali-Tayyibi Imams remains in seclusion (Dawr-e-Satr). The three branches of the Mustaali, the Alavi Bohra, Sulaimani Bohra and Dawoodi Bohra, differ on who the current Unrestricted Missionary is. Other doctrines[edit] Doctrine about necessity of acquiring knowledge[edit] According to Allameh Muzaffar, Allah gives humans the faculty of reason and argument. Also, Allah orders humans to spend time thinking carefully on creation while he refers to all creations as his signs of power and glory. These signs encompass all of the universe. Furthermore, there is a similarity between humans as the little world and the universe as the large world. Allah does not accept the faith of those who follow him without thinking and only with imitation, but also Allah blames them for such actions. In other words, humans have to think about the universe with reason and intellect, a faculty bestowed on us by Allah. Since there is more insistence on the faculty of intellect among Shia, even evaluating the claims of someone who claims prophecy is on the basis of intellect.[185][186] Doctrine concerning Du'a[edit] Praying or Du’a in Shia
Shia
has an important place as Muhammad
Muhammad
described it as a weapon of the believer. In fact, Du’a considered as something that is a feature of Shia
Shia
community in a sense. Performing Du’a in Shia
Shia
has a special ritual. Because of this, there are many books written on the conditions of praying among Shia. Most of ad’ayieh transferred from Muhammad's household and then by many books in which we can observe the authentic teachings of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his household according to Shia. The leaderships of Shia
Shia
always invited their followers to recite Du’a. For instance, Ali
Ali
has considered with the subject of Du’a because of his leadership in monotheism.[187][188] See also[edit]

Anti-Shi'ism Bada' Islamic schools and branches List of Shia
Shia
books List of Shia
Shia
Muslim
Muslim
scholars of Islam List of Shia
Shia
Muslims Sahabah Shia
Shia
Crescent Wudu

Notes[edit]

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Ali
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Principle in Islam
Islam
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Shia
and Shiite are adopted for consistency, except where the alternative spelling is in the title of a reference. ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population". Retrieved 10 December 2014.  ^ Newman, Andrew J. (2013). "Introduction". Twelver
Twelver
Shiism: Unity and Diversity in the Life of Islam, 632 to 1722. Edinburgh University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7486-7833-4.  ^ Guidère, Mathieu (2012). Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism. Scarecrow Press. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-8108-7965-2.  ^ Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam". Oxford University Press, 2002 ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 40 ^ "From the article on Shii Islam
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in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2011-05-04.  ^ Goldziher, I., Arendonk, C. van and Tritton, A.S. (2012). "Ahl al- Bayt". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam
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(2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_0378. (Subscription required (help)). CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ "Lesson 13: Imam's Traits". Al-Islam.org.  ^ Tabataba'i (1979), p. 76 ^ God's rule: the politics of world religions, p. 146, Jacob Neusner, 2003 ^ Esposito, John. What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam, Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p.40 ^ Duncan S. Ferguson (2010). Exploring the Spirituality
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of the World Religions: The Quest for Personal, Spiritual and Social Transformation. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-4411-4645-8.  ^ a b c d The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Jacob E. Safra, Chairman of the Board, 15th Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1998, ISBN 0-85229-663-0, Vol 10, p. 738 ^ Tabataba'i 1977, p. 34 ^ Sobhani & Shah-Kazemi 2001, p. 97 ^ Sobhani & Shah-Kazemi 2001, p. 98 ^ Vaezi 2004, p. 54[citation not found] ^ Cornell 2007, p. 218 ^ Cornell 2007, p. 236 ^ Momen 1985, p. 15 ^ "ʿALĪ B. ABĪ ṬĀLEB". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2015-05-17.  ^ a b c d Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Wendy Doniger, Consulting Editor, Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, Springfield, MA 1999, ISBN 0-87779-044-2, LoC: BL31.M47 1999, p. 525 ^ a b "Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam" Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 46 ^ Quran 26:214. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. p. 54.  ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam
Islam
& Muslims. pp. 54–55.  ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali
Ali
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Islam
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Ali
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Muhammad
(saww) at Ghadir Khum. pp. 17–18.  ^ The Last Sermon of Muhammad
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Muhammad
Bin Khawind Shah
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in his Rauzatu's-Safa, Ibn Abdu'l-Birr in his Isti'ab ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
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Will Shape the Future. W.W. Norton & Company Inc. ISBN 978-0-393-06211-3 p. 52-53 ^ George C. Kohn (2007.) Dictionary of Wars. Infobase Publishing. p.385. ISBN 0-8160-6577-2 ^ Al-e Ahmad, Jalal. Plagued by the West (Gharbzadegi), translated by Paul Sprachman. Delmor, NY: Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University, 1982. ^ Saudi Arabia – The Saud Family and Wahhabi
Wahhabi
Islam
Islam
Library of Congress Country Studies. ^ Gritten, David (25 February 2006). "Long path to Iraq's sectarian split". BBC News. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ "Malaysian government to Shia
Shia
Muslims: Keep your beliefs to yourself". globalpost.com. Retrieved 17 March 2014.  ^ "Malaysia" (PDF). state.gov. Retrieved 17 March 2014.  ^ Paula Sanders (1994), Ritual, politics, and the city in Fatimid Cairo, p.121 ^ Bernard Trawicky, Ruth Wilhelme Gregory, (2002), Anniversaries and holidays, p.233 ^ " Mawlid
Mawlid
al-Nabi (the Prophet's birthday)". Islamqa.info. Retrieved 6 December 2015.  ^ Laurence Louėr (2008), Transnational Shia
Shia
politics: religious and political networks in the Gulf, p.22 ^ Karen Dabrowska, Geoff Hann, (2008), Iraq
Iraq
Then and Now: A Guide to the Country and Its People, p.239 ^ Cornell 2007, p. 237 ^ "Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam" Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 45. ^ Administrative Department of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan – Presidential Library – Religion ^ Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam" Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 45 ^ John Pike. "Bahrain – Religion". globalsecurity.org.  ^ "Challenges For Saudi Arabia Amidst Protests In The Gulf – Analysis". Eurasia Review.  ^ "Shiʿite Doctrine". iranicaonline.org.  ^ Joanne Richter, (2006), Iran the Culture, p.7 ^ Mulla Bashir Rahim, An Introduction to Islam, by Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project ^ Islamic Texts Institute (2012). Al-Kafi
Al-Kafi
Book I: Intellect and Foolishness. Taqwa Media. ISBN 978-1-939420-00-8.  ^ Iran the Culture Joanne Richter (2007), p.7 ^ "About Yemen". Yemeni in Canada. Embassy of the Republic of Yemen in Canada. Archived from the original on 27 January 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2015.  ^ "Yemen [Yamaniyyah]: general data of the country". Population Statistics. Retrieved 9 April 2015.  ^ Sunni-Shi'a Schism: Less There Than Meets the Eye 1991 Page 24 ^ Hodgson, Marshall (1961). "Venture of Islam". Chicago: University of Chicago Press: 262.  ^ Ibn Abī Zarʻ al-Fāsī, ʻAlī ibn ʻAbd Allāh (1340). "Rawḍ al-Qirṭās: Anīs al-Muṭrib bi-Rawd al-Qirṭās fī Akhbār Mulūk al- Maghrib
Maghrib
wa-Tārīkh Madīnat Fās". ar-Rabāṭ: Dār al-Manṣūr (published 1972): 38.  ^ "حين يكتشف المغاربة أنهم كانوا شيعة وخوارج قبل أن يصبحوا مالكيين !". hespress.com.  ^ Ignác Goldziher (1981). Introduction to Islamic Theology
Theology
and Law. Princeton University Press. p. 218. ISBN 0-691-10099-3.  ^ James Hastings (2003). Encyclopedia of Religion
Religion
and Ethics. Kessinger Publishing. p. 844. ISBN 978-0-7661-3704-2.  ^ "The Institute of Ismaili
Ismaili
Studies - The Initial Destination of the Fatimid
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caliphate: The Yemen or The Maghrib?". iis.ac.uk.  ^ "Shi'ah tenets concerning the question of the imamate – New Page 1". muslimphilosophy.com.  ^ Article by Sayyid
Sayyid
' Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi,At-tarikh as-saghir 'an ash-shia al-yamaniyeen (Arabic: التاريخ الصغير عن الشيعة اليمنيين, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites), 2005 Referencing: Iranian Influence on Moslem Literature ^ Article by Sayyid
Sayyid
' Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi, At-tarikh as-saghir 'an ash-shia al-yamaniyeen (Arabic: التاريخ الصغير عن الشيعة اليمنيين, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites), 2005 Referencing: Encyclopædia Iranica ^ Walker, Paul Ernest (1999). Hamid Al-Din Al-Kirmani: Ismaili
Ismaili
Thought in the Age of Al-Hakim. Ismaili
Ismaili
Heritage Series. 3. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris in association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies. p. 13. ISBN 1-86064-321-3.  ^ Madelung, W. "al-Uk̲h̲ayḍir." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. 7 December 2007 (registration required) ^ Article by Sayyid
Sayyid
Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi, At-tarikh as-saghir 'an ash-shia al-yamaniyeen (Arabic: التاريخ الصغير عن الشيعة اليمنيين, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites), 2005 ^ "Universiteit Utrecht Universiteitsbibliotheek". Library.uu.nl. Archived from the original on 2 May 2006. Retrieved 4 May 2011.  ^ "Yemen's Houthis
Houthis
form own government in Sanaa". Al Jazeera. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.  ^ "Yemen govt vows to stay in Aden despite IS bombings". Yahoo News. 7 October 2015.  ^ " Arab
Arab
Coalition Faces New Islamic State Foe in Yemen Conflict". NDTV.com. 7 October 2015.  ^ "Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i". Retrieved 2007-04-25.  ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia
Shia
Revival, Norton, (2006), p. 76 ^ "Congressional Human Rights Caucus Testimony – NAJRAN, The Untold Story". Archived from the original on 27 December 2006. Retrieved 8 January 2007.  ^ "News Summary: China; Latvia". Retrieved 2007-06-01.  ^ Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4.  ^ "al-Hakim bi Amr Allah: Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliph
Caliph
of Egypt". Retrieved 2007-04-24.  ^ Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 106–108. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4.  ^ "Encyclopedia of the Middle East". Mideastweb.org. 2008-11-14. Retrieved 2011-05-04.  ^ Allamah Muhammad
Muhammad
Rida Al Muzaffar (1989). The faith of Shia
Shia
Islam. Ansariyan Qum. p. 1.  ^ "The Beliefs of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
– Chapter 1".  ^ "The Beliefs of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
– Chapter 5.1".  ^ Allamah Muhammad
Muhammad
Rida Al Muzaffar (1989). The faith of Shia
Shia
Islam. Ansariyan Qum. pp. 50–51. 

References[edit]

Cornell, Vincent J. (2007). Voices of Islam. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-275-98732-9.  Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.  Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 1-56859-050-4.  Martin, Richard C. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
and the Muslim
Muslim
world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-865604-0.  Corbin, Henry (1993) [1964]. History of Islamic Philosophy, Translated by Liadain Sherrard, Philip Sherrard. London; Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili Studies. ISBN 0-7103-0416-1.  Dakake, Maria Massi (2008). The Charismatic Community: Shi'ite Identity in Early Islam. Suny Press. ISBN 0-7914-7033-4.  Holt, P. M.; Lewis, Bernard (1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29136-4.  Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.  Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelve. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03531-4.  Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein (1988). The Just Ruler (al-sultān Al-ʻādil) in Shīʻite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-511915-0.  Sobhani, Ja'afar; Shah-Kazemi, Reza (2001). Doctrines of Shiʻi Islam: a Compendium of Imami Beliefs and Practices ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). London: I.B. Tauris [u.a.] ISBN 978-1-86064-780-2.  Tabatabaei, Sayyid
Sayyid
Mohammad Hosayn (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Translated by Seyyed Hossein Nasr. Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3.  Ṭabataba'i, Allamah Sayyid
Sayyid
Muḥammad Husayn (1977). Shiʻite Islam. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-390-0. 

Further reading[edit]

Peter J. Chelkowski (ed.), Eternal Performance: Taziyah and Other Shiite Rituals (Salt lake City (UT), Seagull Books, 2010) (Seagull Books - Enactments). Corbin, Henry (1993). History of Islamic Philosophy, translated by Liadain Sherrard and Philip Sherrard. Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili Studies. ISBN 0-7103-0416-1.  Dabashi, Hamid (2011). Shi'ism: A Religion
Religion
of Protest. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-06428-7.  Halm, Heinz (2004). Shi'ism. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1888-0.  Halm, Heinz (2007). The Shi'ites: A Short History. Markus Wiener Pub. ISBN 1-55876-437-2.  Lalani, Arzina R. (2000). Early Shi'i Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Baqir. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-434-1.  Marcinkowski, Christoph (2010). Shi'ite Identities: Community and Culture in Changing Social Contexts, Lit Verlag 2010. ISBN 978-643-3- 80049-7. Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ism. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03499-7.  Shirazi, Sultanu'l-Wa'izin. Peshawar Nights, A Transcript of a Dialogue between Shia
Shia
and Sunni
Sunni
scholars. Ansariyan Publications. ISBN 978-964-438-320-5.  Nasr, Seyyed Hossein; Hamid Dabashi
Hamid Dabashi
(1989). Expectation of the Millennium: Shiʻism in History. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-88706-843-X.  Rogerson, Barnaby (2007). The Heirs of Muhammad: Islam's First Century and the Origins of the Sunni
Sunni
Shia
Shia
split. Overlook Press. ISBN 1-58567-896-1.  Wollaston, Arthur N. (2005). The Sunnis and Shias. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-4254-7916-2.  Moosa, Matti (1988). Extremist Shiites: The Ghulat
Ghulat
Sects. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-2411-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Shiites.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Shi'ites.

World Best & Biggest Shia
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at Curlie (based on DMOZ) al-shia.org Ahlulbayt Global Informations Center

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