SHEPHERDIA CANADENSIS, commonly called CANADA BUFFALOBERRY, RUSSET
BUFFALOBERRY, SOOPOLALLIE, SOAPBERRY, or FOAMBERRY (Ktunaxa :
kupaʔtiǂ, ) is one of a small number of shrubs of the genus
Shepherdia that bears edible berries . The fruit is usually red, but
one species has yellow berries . The berries have a bitter taste. The
species is widespread in all of
Canada , except in Prince Edward
Island , and in the western and northern
United States , including
Idaho . The plant is a deciduous shrub of open woodlands
and thickets, growing to a maximum of 1–4 m (3.3–13.1 ft).
* 1 Harvest and consumption
* 2 Etymology of "soopolallie"
* 3 Gallery
* 4 References
* 5 External links
HARVEST AND CONSUMPTION
First Nations peoples such as Nlaka\'pamux (Thompson),
St\'at\'imc (Lillooet), and
Secwepemc (Shuswap) in the Province of
British Columbia extensively collect the berries. The bitter berries
are not directly consumed but rather processed as "sxusem", also
spelled "sxushem" and "xoosum" or "hooshum" ("Indian ice cream ").
Collection involves placement of a clean mat or tarpaulin below the
bushes, hitting the branches that bear fruit with a stick, collection
of only the very ripe fruits that fall off, placement of the harvest
in a large clean bowl, mixture in the bowl with another sweet fruit
such as raspberries , crushing the mixture, and then vigorous beating
of the mixture in the manner of whipping cream in order to raise the
foam characteristic of the dish. The berry is both sweet and bitter,
and is possibly comparable to the taste of sweetened coffee . The
First Nations peoples who prepare it believe that the dish has many
healthful properties, but the saponin chemicals which create the foam
may cause gastrointestinal irritation if large quantities are
consumed. Native themed restaurants in
British Columbia have
occasionally offered sxusem on their menus in recent years.
Unrelated plants in the genus
Sapindus produce very toxic saponins
and are also commonly denominated "soapberry" along with the edible
ETYMOLOGY OF "SOOPOLALLIE"
The common name of the plant in
British Columbia is "soopolallie", a
word derived from the historic
Chinook Jargon trading language spoken
in the North American Pacific Northwest in the 19th and early 20th
centuries. The name is a composite of the Chinook words "soop" (soap)
and "olallie" (berry).
Sketch by Britton from 1913
* ^ The
Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.
* ^ "
Shepherdia canadensis". Natural Resources Conservation Service
PLANTS Database. USDA . Retrieved 11 November 2015.
* ^ "FirstVoices: Nature / Environment - place names: words.
Ktunaxa". Retrieved 2012-07-07.
* ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 state-level distribution
* ^ Benito Baeza (March 20, 2017). "
Idaho Fish and Game Ask
Idahoans Not to
Plant Japanese Yew". KLIX . Retrieved June 4, 2017.
* ^ A B Turner, Nancy J., Laurence C. Thompson, M. Terry Thompson,
and Annie Z. York. 1990. Thompson Ethnobotany. Royal British Columbia
Museum: Victoria. Pp.