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Shepherdia canadensis, commonly called Canada buffaloberry, russet buffaloberry,[2] soopolallie, soapberry, or foamberry (Ktunaxa: kupaʔtiǂ,[3]) is one of a small number of shrubs of the genus Shepherdia that bears edible berries. The fruit is usually red, but one species has yellow berries. The berries have a bitter taste. The species is widespread in all of Canada, except in Prince Edward Island, and in the western and northern United States, including Alaska[4] and Idaho.[5] The plant is a deciduous shrub of open woodlands and thickets, growing to a maximum of 1–4 m (3.3–13.1 ft).

Contents

1 Harvest and consumption 2 Etymology of "soopolallie" 3 Gallery 4 References 5 External links

Harvest and consumption[edit] Some Canadian First Nations peoples such as Nlaka'pamux (Thompson), St'at'imc (Lillooet), and Secwepemc (Shuswap) in the Province of British Columbia extensively collect the berries. The bitter berries are not directly consumed but rather processed as "sxusem", also spelled "sxushem" and "xoosum" or "hooshum" ("Indian ice cream"). Collection involves placing a mat or tarpaulin below the bushes, hitting the branches, collecting the very ripe fruits, mixing with other sweet fruit such as raspberries, crushing the mixture, and then beating of the mixture to raise the foam characteristic of the dish. The berry is both sweet and bitter, and is possibly comparable to the taste of sweetened coffee. The First Nations peoples who prepare it believe that the dish has many healthful properties, but the saponin chemicals which create the foam may cause gastrointestinal irritation if large quantities are consumed. Native themed restaurants in British Columbia have occasionally offered sxusem on their menus in recent years.[6] Unrelated plants in the genus Sapindus produce very toxic saponins and are also commonly denominated "soapberry" along with the edible Canada buffaloberry. Etymology of "soopolallie"[edit] The common name of the plant in British Columbia is "soopolallie", a word derived from the historic Chinook Jargon trading language spoken in the North American Pacific Northwest in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The name is a composite of the Chinook words "soop" (soap) and "olallie" (berry).[6] Gallery[edit]

Shepherdia canadensis

Sketch by Britton from 1913

References[edit]

^ The Plant List, Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. ^ "Shepherdia canadensis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 11 November 2015.  ^ "FirstVoices: Nature / Environment - place names: words. Ktunaxa". Retrieved 2012-07-07.  ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 state-level distribution map ^ Benito Baeza (March 20, 2017). "Idaho Fish and Game Ask Idahoans Not to Plant Japanese Yew". KLIX. Retrieved June 4, 2017.  ^ a b Turner, Nancy J., Laurence C. Thompson, M. Terry Thompson, and Annie Z. York. 1990. Thompson Ethnobotany. Royal British Columbia Museum: Victoria. Pp. 209-11.

External links[edit]

United States Department of Agriculture Plants profile for Shepherdia canadensis (russet buffaloberry) Province of British Columbia Ministry of Forests: Shepherdia canadensis (soopolallie)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shepherdia canadensis.

Taxon identifiers

Shepherdia canadensis

Wd: Q247980 Calflora: 9228 CNPS: 3176 EoL: 582733 EPPO: SHPCA GBIF: 5372427 GRIN: 33864 iNaturalist: 79072 IPNI: 323864-1 ITIS: 27779 NCBI: 36905 NZOR: fab96974-2a99-4004-8077-8fcc0c3c5fa9 Plant List: kew-2592736 PLANTS: SHCA Tropicos: 11600005 VASCAN: 5461

Hippophae canadensis

Wd: Q21874526 GBIF: 4048268 GRIN: 19176 IPNI: 323843-1

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