The SHAWNEE (SHAAWANWAKI, ŠA˙WANO˙KI and SHAAWANOWI LENAWEEKI )
are an Algonquian-speaking ethnic group indigenous to North America.
In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation,
primarily inhabiting areas of the
Ohio Valley, extending from
Kentucky eastward to
West Virginia ,
Pennsylvania , and
Western Maryland ; south to
South Carolina ; and westward
Indiana , and
Illinois in the
United States .
Pushed west by European-American pressure, the
Shawnee migrated to
Kansas , with some removed to
Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
west of the
Mississippi River in the 1830s. Other
Shawnee did not
Oklahoma until after the Civil War. Made up of different
historical and kinship groups, today there are three federally
Shawnee tribes, all headquartered in
Oklahoma : the
Shawnee Tribe of Indians of
Oklahoma , Eastern
Oklahoma , and
Shawnee Tribe .
* 1 Language
* 2 History
* 2.1 Prehistory
* 2.2 17th century
* 2.3 18th century
* 2.4 American Revolution
* 2.5 Tecumseh\'s War and the
War of 1812
War of 1812
* 2.6 Aftermath
* 3 Social and kinship groups
* 4 State-recognized tribes
* 5 Unrecognized groups who claim
* 6 Flags of the
* 7 Coins of the
* 8 Notable
* 9 See also
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 12 External links
* 12.1 Federally recognized
Shawnee language , an Algonquian language , was spoken by 200
people in 2002, including over 100
Absentee Shawnee and 12 Loyal
Shawnee speakers. The language is written in the
Latin script . It has
a dictionary and portions of the Bible were translated into Shawnee.
Fort Ancient Monongahela cultures by Herb Roe Further
Algonquian peoples and
Some scholars believe that the
Shawnee are descendants of the people
of the precontact
Fort Ancient culture
Fort Ancient culture of the
Ohio region, although
this is not universally accepted.
Fort Ancient culture
Fort Ancient culture flourished
from 1000 to 1650 CE among a people who predominantly inhabited lands
Ohio River in areas of southern
Ohio , northern
West Virginia . They were mound builders . Fort Ancient
culture was once thought to have been an extension of the
Mississippian culture . But, scholars now believe Fort Ancient culture
developed independently and was descended from the Hopewell culture
(100 BCE—500 CE), also a mound builder people.
Serpent Mound ,
Uncertainty surrounds the fate of the Fort Ancient people. Most
likely their society, like the
Mississippian culture to the south, was
severely disrupted by waves of epidemics from new infectious diseases
carried by the first Spanish explorers in the 16th century. After
1525 at Madisonville , the type site , the village's house sizes
became smaller and fewer, with evidence showing the people changed
from their previously "horticulture-centered, sedentary way of life".
There is a gap in the archaeological record between the most recent
Fort Ancient sites and the oldest sites of the Shawnee. The latter
were recorded by European (French and English) explorers as occupying
this area at the time of encounter. Scholars generally accept that
similarities in material culture, art, mythology, and
history linking them to the Fort Ancient peoples can be used to
support the connection from Fort Ancient society and development as
Shawnee traditionally considered the
Lenape (or Delaware) of the
East Coast mid-Atlantic region, who were also Algonquian speaking, as
their "grandfathers." The Algonquian nations of present-day Canada
regarded the US
Shawnee as their southernmost branch. Along the East
Coast, the Algonquian-speaking tribes were mostly located in coastal
areas, from Quebec to the Carolinas.
Algonquian languages have words similar to the archaic shawano (now:
shaawanwa) meaning "south". However, the stem šawa- does not mean
"south" in Shawnee, but "moderate, warm (of weather)": See Voegelin
"šawa (plus -ni, -te) MODERATE, WARM. Cp. šawani 'it is
moderating...". In one
Shawnee tale, "Sawage" (šaawaki) is the deity
of the south wind. Curtin translates Sawage as 'it thaws', referring
to the warm weather of the south. šaawaki is attested as the spirit
of the South, or the South Wind, in this account, in one of Voegelin's
tales, and in a song collected by Voegelin.
Europeans reported encountering
Shawnee over a widespread geographic
area. One of the earliest mentions of the
Shawnee may be a 1614 Dutch
map showing some Sawwanew located just east of the
Delaware River .
Later 17th-century Dutch sources also place them in this general
location. Accounts by French explorers in the same century usually
Shawnee along the
Ohio River , where the French
encountered them on forays from eastern Canada and the Illinois
Shawnee town might have from forty to one hundred bark-covered
houses similar in construction to
Iroquois longhouses . Each village
usually had a meeting house or council house, perhaps sixty to ninety
feet long, where public deliberations took place.
According to one European legend, some
Shawnee were descended from a
party sent by Chief
Opechancanough , ruler of the
1618–1644, to settle in the
Shenandoah Valley . The party was led by
his son, Sheewa-a-nee. Edward Bland, an explorer who accompanied
Abraham Wood 's expedition in 1650, wrote that in Opechancanough's
day, there had been a falling-out between the Chawan chief and the
weroance of the
Powhatan (also a relative of Opechancanough's family).
He said the latter had murdered the former. The
Shawnee were "driven
Kentucky in the 1670s by the
Pennsylvania and New
York, who claimed the
Ohio valley as hunting ground to supply its fur
trade. The explorers Batts and Fallam in 1671 reported that the
Shawnee were contesting control of the
Shenandoah Valley with the
Haudenosaunee Confederacy (Iroquois) in that year, and were losing.
Sometime before 1670, a group of
Shawnee migrated to the Savannah
River area. The English based in Charles Town ,
South Carolina were
contacted by these
Shawnee in 1674. They forged a long-lasting
Shawnee were known to the Carolina
English as "Savannah Indians". Around the same time, other Shawnee
groups migrated to Florida,
Maryland , Pennsylvania, and other regions
south and east of the
Ohio country. d\'Iberville , writing in his
journal in 1699, describes the
Shawnee (or as he spells them,
Chaouenons) as "the single nation to fear, being spread out over
Virginia in the direction of the Mississippi."
Alan Gallay speculates that the
Shawnee migrations of
the middle to late 17th century were probably driven by the Beaver
Wars , which began in the 1640s. The
Shawnee became known for their
widespread settlements, extending from
Illinois and to
Georgia . Among their known villages were Eskippakithiki in Kentucky,
Sonnionto (also known as Lower Shawneetown) in Ohio, Chalakagay near
what is now Sylacauga,
Chalahgawtha at the site of
Ohio , Old Shawneetown,
Illinois , and
Suwanee, Georgia . Their language became a lingua franca for trade
among numerous tribes. They became leaders among the tribes,
initiating and sustaining pan-Indian resistance to European and
Shawnee occupied areas in central Pennsylvania. Long without a
chief, in 1714 they asked Carondawana, an Oneida war chief of the
Iroquois, to represent them to the
Pennsylvania provincial council,
which accepted the
Shawnee choice. About 1727 Carondawana and his
wife, a prominent interpreter known as
Madame Montour , settled at
Otstonwakin , on the west bank at the confluence of Loyalsock Creek
West Branch Susquehanna River
West Branch Susquehanna River .
By the time European-American settlers began to arrive in the
Shenandoah Valley (c. 1730) of Virginia, the
Shawnee were the main
residents of the northern part of the valley. They were claimed as
tributaries by the
Haudenosaunee or Six Nations of the Iroquois, who
had helped some of the
Tuscarora people from North Carolina resettle
in the vicinity of what is now Martinsburg,
West Virginia . Also at
this time, Seneca and
Lenape war parties from the north often fought
pitched battles with pursuing bands of Catawba from Virginia, who
would overtake them in the Shawnee-inhabited regions of the Valley.
By the late 1730s pressure from colonial expansion produced repeated
Shawnee communities were affected by the fur trade in which
furs were often traded to European traders for rum or brandy, leading
to serious social problems related to alcohol abuse . Several Shawnee
communities in the Province of
Pennsylvania , led by
Peter Chartier ,
a métis trader, opposed the sale of alcohol in their communities,
resulting in a conflict with colonial Governor Patrick Gordon . As a
result, in 1745 some 400
Shawnee migrated from
Pennsylvania to Ohio,
Alabama and Illinois.
Prior to 1754, the
Shawnee had a headquarters at
Shawnee Springs at
modern-day Cross Junction,
Virginia near Winchester . The father of
the later chief
Cornstalk held his council there. Several other
Shawnee villages were located in the northern
Shenandoah Valley : at
West Virginia , on the North River , and on the Potomac at
Maryland . In 1753, the
Shawnee on the
Scioto River in the
Ohio country sent messengers to those still in the Shenandoah Valley
suggesting that they leave
Virginia and cross the
Alleghenies to join
the people further west, which they did the following year. The
community known as Shannoah (
Lower Shawneetown ) on the
reached a population of around 1,200 by 1750.
Ever since the
Beaver Wars , the
Haudenosaunee Confederacy ("Five
Nations") had claimed the
Ohio Country as their hunting ground by
right of conquest, and treated the
Lenape who resettled
there as dependent tribes. Some independent
Iroquois bands from
various tribes also migrated westward, where they became known in Ohio
Mingo . These three tribes—the Shawnee, the Delaware, and the
Mingo—became closely associated with one another, despite the
differences in their languages. The first two were Algonquian speaking
and the third Iroquoian .
After taking part in the first phase of the French and Indian War
(also known as "Braddock's War") as allies of the French, the Shawnee
switched sides in 1758. They made formal peace with the British
colonies at the
Treaty of Easton
Treaty of Easton , which recognized the Allegheny
Eastern Divide ) as their mutual border. This peace lasted
only until Pontiac\'s War erupted in 1763. Later that year, the Crown
Proclamation of 1763 , legally confirming the 1758 border
as the limits of British colonization, with the land beyond reserved
for Native Americans. But, it had difficulty enforcing the boundary,
as European colonists continued to move westward.
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768 extended that line westward,
giving the British colonists a claim to what is now
West Virginia and
Shawnee did not agree to this treaty: it was negotiated
between British officials and the
Haudenosaunee Confederacy ("Six
Nations"), who claimed sovereignty over the land, although
other Native American tribes also hunted there.
After the Stanwix treaty, Anglo-Americans began pouring into the Ohio
River Valley for settlement. Violent incidents between settlers and
Indians escalated into Dunmore\'s War in 1774. British diplomats
managed to isolate the
Shawnee during the conflict: the
Lenape stayed neutral. The
Shawnee faced the British colony of
Virginia with only a few
Lord Dunmore , royal governor
of Virginia, launched a two-pronged invasion into the
Cornstalk attacked one wing but fought to a draw in
the only major battle of the war, the
Battle of Point Pleasant .
Treaty of Camp Charlotte ending this war (1774),
Shawnee were compelled by the British to recognize the same Ohio
River boundary as that established with the
("Six Nations") by the 1768 Fort Stanwix treaty. The
Shawnee ceded all
claims to the "hunting grounds" of
West Virginia and Kentucky. Many
Shawnee leaders refused to recognize this boundary, however. A
Shawnee party attacked
Daniel Boone in
Kentucky in 1775.
United States declared independence from the British crown
in 1776, the
Shawnee were divided. They did not support the American
rebel cause, but
Cornstalk led the minority who wished to remain
Shawnee north of the
Ohio River were also unhappy about
the American settlement of Kentucky. Colin Calloway reports that most
Shawnees allied with the British against the Americans.
War leaders such as
Chief Blackfish and
Blue Jacket joined Dragging
Canoe and a band of
Cherokee people along the lower Tennessee and
Chickamauga Creek against the colonists in that area. Some colonists
called them Chickamauga because they lived along that river at the
time of what became known as the
Cherokee–American wars , during and
after the American Revolution.
Shawnee later combined with the Miami into a great fighting force
Ohio Valley, after the Revolution, during the Northwest Indian
War between the
United States and a confederation of Native American
tribes. After being defeated at the
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794,
most of the
Shawnee bands signed the
Treaty of Greenville
Treaty of Greenville the next
year. They were forced to cede large parts of their homeland to the
new United States. Other
Shawnee groups rejected this treaty,
migrating independently to
Missouri west of the Mississippi River,
where they settled along Apple Creek near
Cape Girardeau .
TECUMSEH\'S WAR AND THE WAR OF 1812
Tecumseh , by Benson Lossing in 1848 based on 1808 drawing.
Great Comet of 1811 , 1812 New Madrid earthquake
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of Tippecanoe
In the early 19th century, the
Tecumseh gained renown
for organizing his namesake confederacy to oppose American expansion
in Native American lands. The resulting conflict came to be known as
Tecumseh\'s War . The two principal adversaries in the conflict, chief
Tecumseh and American politician
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison , had both
been junior participants in the
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Battle of Fallen Timbers at the close
Northwest Indian Wars
Northwest Indian Wars in 1794.
Tecumseh was not among the
Native American signers of the
Treaty of Greenville
Treaty of Greenville , which had ended
the war, when the
Shawnee and other Native Americans ceded much of
their historic territory in present-day
Ohio to the United States.
However, many Indian leaders in the region accepted the Greenville
terms, and for the next ten years pan-tribal resistance to American
In September 1809 William Henry Harrison, then governor of the
Indiana Territory , invited the
Potawatomi , Lenape, Eel River people
, and the Miami to a meeting in Fort Wayne,
Indiana . In the
negotiations, Harrison promised large subsidies and payments to the
tribes if they would cede the lands he was asking for. After two
weeks of negotiating, the
Potawatomi leaders convinced the Miami to
accept the treaty as reciprocity, because the
Potawatomi had earlier
accepted treaties less advantageous to them at the request of the
Miami. Finally the tribes signed the Treaty of Fort Wayne on September
30, 1809, thereby selling the
United States over 3,000,000 acres
(approximately 12,000 km²), chiefly along the
Wabash River north of
Tecumseh was outraged by the Treaty of Fort Wayne, believing that
American Indian land was owned in common by all tribes, an idea
advocated in previous years by the
Blue Jacket and the
Joseph Brant . In response,
Tecumseh began to expand on
the teachings of his brother, known as The
Prophet , who called for
the tribes to return to their ancestral ways. He began to associate
the teachings with the idea of a pan-tribal alliance. Tecumseh
traveled widely, urging warriors to abandon the accommodationist
chiefs and to join the resistance at Prophetstown. This portrait
of Harrison originally showed him in civilian clothes as the
Congressional delegate from the
Northwest Territory in 1800.
In August 1810,
Tecumseh led 400 armed warriors to confront Governor
Harrison in Vincennes.
Tecumseh demanded that Harrison nullify the
Fort Wayne treaty, threatening to kill the chiefs who had signed it.
Harrison refused, stating that the Miami were the owners of the land
and could sell it if they so chose.
Tecumseh left peacefully, but
warned Harrison that he would seek an alliance with the British unless
the treaty was nullified. The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by
William Henry Smyth
William Henry Smyth
In March the
Great Comet of 1811 appeared. During the next year,
tensions between American colonists and Native Americans rose quickly.
Four settlers were murdered on the
Missouri River and, in another
incident, natives seized a boatload of supplies from a group of
traders. Harrison summoned
Tecumseh to Vincennes to explain the
actions of his allies. In August 1811, the two leaders met, with
Tecumseh assuring Harrison that the
Shawnee intended to remain at
peace with the United States.
Tecumseh traveled to the Southeast on a mission to recruit
allies against the
United States among the "
Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes ."
His name Tekoomsē meant "Shooting Star" or "Panther Across The Sky."
He told the
Chickasaw , Muscogee , and many others that the
comet of March 1811 had signaled his coming. He also said that the
people would see a sign proving that the
Great Spirit had sent him.
Tecumseh was traveling, both sides readied for the Battle of
Tippecanoe . Harrison assembled a small force of army regulars and
militia in preparation to combat the Native forces. On November 6,
1811, Harrison led this army of about 1,000 men to Prophetstown,
Indiana , hoping to disperse Tecumseh's confederacy. Early next
morning, forces under The
Prophet prematurely attacked Harrison's army
at the Tippecanoe River near the Wabash. Though outnumbered, Harrison
repulsed the attack, forcing the Natives to retreat and abandon
Prophetstown. Harrison's men burned the village and returned home.
This was the end of Tecumseh's dream of a united native alliance
against the whites.
On December 11, 1811, the New Madrid earthquake shook the Muscogee
lands and the Midwest . While the interpretation of this event varied
from tribe to tribe, they agreed that the powerful earthquake had to
have meant something. The earthquake and its aftershocks helped the
Tecumseh resistance movement as the Muscogee and other Native American
tribes believed it was a sign that the
Shawnee must be supported and
that this was the sign
Tecumseh had prophesied.
The Indians were filled with great terror ... the trees and wigwams
shook exceedingly; the ice which skirted the margin of the Arkansas
river was broken into pieces; and most of the Indians thought that the
Great Spirit, angry with the human race, was about to destroy the
— Roger L. Nichols, The American Indian
The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee as a
reason to support the
The Muscogee (Creek) who joined Tecumseh's confederation were known
Red Sticks . They were the more traditional part of the people,
as their communities in the Upper Towns were more isolated from
European-American settlement. They did not want to assimilate. The Red
Sticks rose in resisting the Lower Creek, and the bands became
involved in civil war, known as the
Creek War . This became part of
War of 1812
War of 1812 when open conflict broke out between American soldiers
Red Sticks of the Creek.
Portraits of the
Pushmataha (left) and Tecumseh. These
white Americans ... give us fair exchange, their cloth, their guns,
their tools, implements, and other things which the
Choctaws need but
do not make ... They doctored our sick; they clothed our suffering;
they fed our hungry ... So in marked contrast with the experience of
the Shawnees, it will be seen that the whites and Indians in this
section are living on friendly and mutually beneficial terms.
—Pushmataha, 1811 – Sharing
--------------------- Where today are the
Pequot ? Where are the
Narragansett , the
Mohican , the
Pocanet and other powerful tribes of
our people? They have vanished before the avarice and oppression of
the white man, as snow before the summer sun ... Sleep not longer, O
Chickasaws ... Will not the bones of our dead be plowed
up, and their graves turned into plowed fields?
After Hull's surrender of Detroit during the War of 1812, General
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison was given command of the U.S. Army of the
Northwest. He set out to retake the city, then defended by the British
Colonel Henry Procter together with
Tecumseh . A detachment of
Harrison's army was defeated at Frenchtown along the
River Raisin on
January 22, 1813. Procter left the prisoners with an inadequate guard;
they could not prevent some of his Native American allies from
attacking and killing perhaps as many as 60 Americans, many of whom
Kentucky militiamen. The Americans called the incident the
River Raisin Massacre." The defeat ended Harrison's campaign against
Detroit, and the phrase "Remember the River Raisin!" became a rallying
cry for the Americans.
In May 1813, Procter and
Tecumseh set siege to Fort Meigs in northern
Ohio . American reinforcements arriving during the siege were defeated
by the Natives, but the fort held out. The Indians eventually began to
disperse, forcing Procter and
Tecumseh to return to Canada. Their
second offensive in July against Fort Meigs also failed. To improve
Indian morale, Procter and
Tecumseh attempted to storm Fort Stephenson
, a small American post on the
Sandusky River . After they were
repulsed with serious losses, the
Ohio campaign ended.
On Lake Erie, the American commander Captain Oliver Hazard Perry
Battle of Lake Erie
Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813. His decisive
victory against the British ensured American control of the lake,
improved American morale after a series of defeats, and compelled the
British to fall back from Detroit. General Harrison launched another
invasion of Upper Canada, which culminated in the U.S. victory at the
Battle of the Thames
Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813.
Tecumseh was killed there,
and his death effectively ended the North American indigenous alliance
with the British in the Detroit region. American control of Lake Erie
meant the British could no longer provide essential military supplies
to their aboriginal allies, who dropped out of the war. The Americans
controlled the area during the remainder of the conflict.
Missouri became known as the "
Absentee Shawnee " after
migrating from the
United States into Mexico, in the eastern part of
Spanish Texas . They were joined in the migration by some Delaware.
Although they were closely allied with the
Cherokee led by The Bowl ,
their chief John Linney remained neutral during the 1839
In appreciation, in the late 1840s Texan president Mirabeau Lamar
fully compensated the
Shawnee for their improvements and crops at the
time of forcing their removal from Texas north to
Arkansas Territory .
Shawnee settled close to present-day Shawnee,
Oklahoma . They
were joined by
Shawnee pushed out of
Kansas (see below), who shared
their traditionalist views and beliefs.
In 1817, the
Shawnee had signed the
Treaty of Fort Meigs ,
ceding their remaining lands in exchange for three reservations in
Wapaughkonetta , Hog Creek (near Lima ), and Lewistown , Ohio. They
shared these lands with some Seneca who had migrated west from New
Missouri joined the Union in 1821. After the Treaty of St. Louis in
1825, the 1,400
Shawnee were forcibly relocated from Cape
Girardeau to southeastern
Kansas , close to the
Neosho River .
During 1833, only Black Bob's band of
Shawnee resisted removal. They
settled in northeastern
Kansas near Olathe and along the
River in Monticello near Gum Springs . The
Shawnee Methodist Mission
was built nearby to minister to the tribe. About 200 of the Ohio
Shawnee followed the prophet
Tenskwatawa and joined their Kansas
brothers and sisters here in 1826.
The main body of
Black Hoof , who fought
every effort to force the
Shawnee to give up their homeland. After the
death of Black Hoof, the remaining 400
Shawnee in Wapaughkonetta
and Hog Creek surrendered their land and moved to the
in Kansas. In 1831, the Lewistown group of Seneca–
Shawnee had left
Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).
In the 1853 Indian Appropriations Bill, Congress appropriated $64,366
for treaty obligations to the
Shawnee such as annuities, education,
and other services. An additional $2,000 was appropriated for the
Seneca and the
American Civil War
American Civil War , Black Bob's band fled from
joined the "Absentee Shawnee" in
Oklahoma to escape the war. After the
Civil War, the
Kansas were expelled and forced to move to
northeastern Oklahoma. The
Shawnee members of the former Lewistown
group became known as the "Eastern Shawnee".
Shawnee became known as the "Loyal Shawnee" (some
say this is because of their allegiance with the Union during the war;
others say this is because they were the last group to leave their
Ohio homelands). The latter group appeared to be regarded as part of
Cherokee Nation by the
United States because they were also known
as the "
Cherokee Shawnee" and were settled on some of their land in
In 2000 the "Loyal" or "Cherokee"
Shawnee finally received federal
recognition independent of the
Cherokee Nation. They are now known as
Shawnee Tribe". Today, most members of the three tribes of the
Shawnee nation reside in Oklahoma.
SOCIAL AND KINSHIP GROUPS
Before contact with Europeans, the
Shawnee tribe had a patrilineal
system, by which descent and inheritance went through paternal lines.
Their government is by kings, which they call sachema, and those reign
by succession, but always of the mother's side: for instance, the
children of him who is now king, will not succeed, but his brother, by
the mother, or the children of his sister, whose sons (and after them,
the children of her daughter,) will reign, for no woman inherits. The
reason they render for this way of descent, is, that their issue may
not be spurious. The five divisions of tribes commonly known are:
* Chillicothe (Principal Place), Chalahgawtha, Chalaka,
Chalakatha;The Principal division of "Tschillicothi", appointed by the
1st Lead Illini or man Kwikullay.
Hathawekela , Thawikila;
Kispoko , Kispokotha, Kishpoko, Kishpokotha;
Mekoche , Mequachake, Machachee, Maguck, Mackachack, etc.;
Pekowi , Pekuwe, Piqua, Pekowitha.
The war chiefs were hereditary and descended from their maternal line
In addition to the five septs, the
Shawnee are divided among six
clans or subdivisions according to kinship; each clan represented
spiritual values and had a role in the overall confederacy. Each name
group is common among each for the five divisions, and each Shawnee
belongs to a clan or name group. The six group names are:
* Pellewomhsoomi (Turkey name group)—represents bird life,
* Kkahkileewomhsoomi (Turtle name group)—represents aquatic life,
* Petekoθiteewomhsoomi (Rounded-feet name group)—represents
carnivorous animals such as the dog, wolf, or whose paws are
ball-shaped or "rounded,"
* Mseewiwomhsoomi (Horse name group)—represents herbivorous
animals such as the horse and deer,
* θepatiiwomhsoomi (Raccoon name group)—represents animals having
paws which can rip and tear, such as those of a raccoon and bear.
* Petakineeθiiwomhsoomi (Rabbit name group)—represents a gentle
and peaceful nature.
Each division had a primary village where the chief of the division
lived. This village was usually named after the division. By
Shawnee division and clan had certain roles it
performed on behalf of the entire tribe. By the time these kinship
elements were recorded in writing by European Americans, these strong
social traditions were fading. They are poorly understood. Because of
the scattering of the
Shawnee people from the 17th century through the
19th century, the roles of the divisions changed.
United States government recognizes three
all of which are located in
* The Absentee-
Shawnee Tribe of Indians of
Oklahoma , consisting
mainly of Hathawekela, Kispokotha, and Pekuwe divisions;
* The Eastern
Shawnee Tribe of
Oklahoma , mostly of the Mekoche
Shawnee Tribe , formerly considered part of the Cherokee
Nation , mostly of the Chaalakatha and Mekoche
divisions.Petakineeθiiwomhsoomi (Rabbit name group)—represents a
gentle and peaceful nature. who stands alone as the Tail or last.
As of 2008, there were 7584 enrolled Shawnee, with most living in
Shawnee Tribe is a state-recognized tribe in Alabama,
recognized by the
Alabama Indian Affairs Commission under the
Davis-Strong Act; in an honorary manner by
Resolution 188, adopted February 26, 1991, and by the
Ohio House of
Representatives 119th General Assembly Resolution No. 83, adopted
April 3, 1991; and Kentucky, by Governor's Proclamation dated August
13, 1991. The Piqua
Shawnee tribe performed the
Green Corn Dance
Green Corn Dance in
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park in 2011.
UNRECOGNIZED GROUPS WHO CLAIM SHAWNEE DESCENT
Self identified groups that consider themselves
Shawnee reside in
Ohio and other states:
* Chickamauga Keetoowah Unami Wolf Band of
Cherokee Delaware Shawnee
of Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia
* East of the River Shawnee,
Kispoko Sept of
Ohio Shawnee, Louisiana
Kispoko Sept of
Shawnee (Hog Creek Reservation), Ohio
* Lower Eastern
Ohio Mekoce Shawnee,
Ohio Letter of Intent to
* Lower Eastern
Ohio Mekojay Shawnee, Ohio
* Morning Star
Shawnee Nation, Ohio
* Piqua Sept of
Shawnee Indians, Ohio
* Platform Reservation Remnant Band of the
Shawnee Nation Blue Creek Band, of Adams County, Ohio. Letter of
Intent to Petition 8/5/1998.
Shawnee Tribe / Piqua Sept of
Shawnee Tribe—Letter of
Intent to Petition 04/16/1991.
Ridgetop Shawnee , Kentucky. In 2009 and 2010, the State House of
Kentucky General Assembly recognized the Ridgetop
Shawnee Tribe of
Indians by passing House Joint Resolutions 15 or HJR-15 and HJR-16.
Kentucky Shawnee, Kentucky
United Remnant Band of the Shawnee Nation ,
* United Tribe of
Shawnee Indians, Kansas
Kispoko Band of the
Shawnee Nation, Indiana
* Vinyard Indian Settlement of
Shawnee Indians, Illinois
* Youghiogaheny River Band Of
Shawnee Indians, Maryland
These bands are not federally recognized . Neither
Ohio or Kentucky
have formal process for recognition of tribes, but its legislature has
acknowledged some groups in an honorary way by resolution.
FLAGS OF THE SHAWNEE
Flag of the Absentee-
Shawnee Tribe of Indians of
Flag of the Eastern
Shawnee Tribe of
Flag of the
COINS OF THE SHAWNEE TRIBE
Shawnee Tribe coin issue: 2002—one dollar
Tecumseh commemorative dollar
Peter Chartier (1690–1759), also known as Wacanackshina,
Shawnee who opposed the sale of alcohol in Shawnee
communities and fought on the side of the French in the French and
Cornstalk (1720–1777), led the
Shawnee in Dunmore\'s War of
Nonhelema (1720–1786), sister of Cornstalk, helped compile the
dictionary for the
Shawnee language .
Blue Jacket (1743–1810), also known as Weyapiersenwah, a leader
Northwest Indian War
Northwest Indian War and important predecessor to Tecumseh.
George Drouillard (1773–1810), scout on Lewis and Clark
Black Hoof (1740–1831), also known as Catecahassa, respected
Shawnee chief who believed his people needed to adapt to
European-American culture to survive.
Kispoko war chief and older brother of
Shawnee leader; with his brother
Tenskwatawa attempted to unite tribes west of the Appalachians against
the expansion of European-American settlement.
Shawnee prophet and younger brother of
* Black Bob , 19th-century leader and war chief in Ohio.
Link Wray (1929–2005), rock and roll guitarist, songwriter and
* Nas\'Naga (1941–2012), novelist and poet in United States.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of Tippecanoe Outdoor Drama
* ^ A B
Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission.
Oklahoma Indian Nations
Pocket Pictorial. 2008.
* ^ "Algonquian, Algic". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
* ^ Shawano was an archaic name for the tribes bearing these
generic namesShaawanwa lenaki. Reference:
* ^ "Shawnee". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
* ^ O'Donnell, James H. Ohio's First Peoples, p. 31. Athens, Ohio:
Ohio University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8214-1525-5 (paperback), ISBN
* ^ Howard, James H. Shawnee!: The Ceremonialism of a Native Indian
Tribe and its Cultural Background, p. 1. Athens, Ohio:
Press, 1981. ISBN 0-8214-0417-2 ; ISBN 0-8214-0614-0 (pbk.)
* ^ Schutz, Noel W., Jr.: The Study of
Shawnee Myth in an
Ethnographic and Ethnohistorical Perspective, Ph.D. Dissertation,
Department of Anthropology,
Indiana University, 1975.
* ^ A B Peregrine, Peter Neal ; Ember, Melvin , eds. (2003).
Encyclopedia of Prehistory. 6 : North America (1 ed.). Springer
Publishing. pp. 175–184. ISBN 0-306-46260-5 .
* ^ Drooker 1997a:203
* ^ Clark, Jerry. "Shawnees". Tennessee Encyclopedia of Culture and
History. Retrieved 2008-09-11.
* ^ Voegelin, Carl F. 1938–40.
Shawnee Stems and the Jacob P.
Dunn Miami Dictionary.
Indiana Historical Society Prehistory Research
Series Volume 1, No. 8, Part III, p. 318 (October, 1939).
Shawnee Myth. Story of a Year. Old Sawage and her Grandson. MS
3906, Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives. Myth
collected by Jeremiah Curtin. 1850s-1880s.
* ^ C. F. Voeglin, fieldwork noteook XII, "Big Sacred Lizard";
* ^ Transcribed by Bruno Neti about 1951 from
Cylinders collected by C. F. Voegelin and now in the Archives of
Traditional Music at
Indiana University. Sheet 8, Song 38.
* ^ Charles Augustus Hanna, The Wilderness Trail: Or, The Ventures
and Adventures of the
Pennsylvania Traders on the Allegheny Path,
Volume 1, Putnam\'s sons, 1911, esp. chap. IV, "The Shawnees", pp.
* ^ A B C Kleber, John E. (18 May 1992). The
University Press of Kentucky. p. 815. ISBN 978-0-8131-2883-2 .
Retrieved 17 February 2013.
* ^ Carrie Hunter Willis and Etta Belle Walker, Legends of the
Skyline Drive and the Great Valley of Virginia, 1937, pp. 15–16;
this account also appears in T.K. Cartmell's 1909 Shenandoah Valley
Pioneers and Their Descendants p. 41.
* ^ Edward Bland, The Discoverie of New Brittaine
* ^ McWilliams, Richebourg; Iberville, Pierre (1991-02-28).
Iberville\'s Gulf Journals. University of
Alabama Press. p. 175. ISBN
* ^ Jerry E. Clark, The Shawnee, University Press of Kentucky,
1977. ISBN 0813128188
* ^ Gallay, Alan. The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English
Empire in the American South, 1670–1717, p. 55. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-300-10193-7
* ^ Not to be confused with the nearby French Margaret's Town; see
John Franklin Meginness, Otzinachson: A History of the West Branch
Valley of the Susquehanna (rev. ed., Williamsport, PA, 1889), 1:94.
Ostonwakin is also spelled Otstonwakin.
* ^ Stephen Warren, Worlds the Shawnees Made: Migration and
Violence in Early America, UNC Press Books, 2014 ISBN 1469611732
* ^ Legends of the Skyline Drive and the Great Valley of Virginia,
* ^ Joseph Doddridge, 1850, A History of the Valley of Virginia, p.
* ^ Calloway, Colin (2007). The Shawnees and the War for America.
New York: Viking. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-670-03862-6 .
* ^ Gevinson, Alan. "Which Native American Tribes Allied Themselves
with the French?" Teachinghistory.org, accessed September 23, 2011.
* ^ A B Colin G. Calloway, "'We Have Always Been the Frontier': The
American Revolution in
Shawnee Country," American Indian Quarterly
(1992) 16#1 pp 39-52. in JSTOR
* ^ A B Owens, p. 201–203
* ^ A B Owens, p. 212
* ^ Langguth, p. 164
* ^ Langguth, p. 165
* ^ A B Langguth, p. 166
* ^ George Blanchard, the Governor of the Absentee
Shawnee Tribe of
Oklahoma , so describes the meaning of the name in the PBS documentary
We Shall Remain: Tecumseh\'s Vision: "Well, I've always heard
'Teh-cum-theh'—'Teh-cum-theh'—means, in our culture and our
belief, at nights when we see a falling star, it means that this
panther is jumping from one mountain to another. And as kids, we saw
these falling stars, we'd kind of hesitate about being out in the
dark, because we thought there were actually panthers out there
walking around. So that's what his name meant: Teh-cum-theh."
* ^ Langguth, p. 168
* ^ Funk, Arville (1983) . A Sketchbook of
Rochester, Indiana: Christian Book Press.
* ^ Langguth, p. 169
* ^ Langguth, p. 167
* ^ Jones, Charile (November 1987). "Sharing
Bishinik. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
* ^ Sherman, William Tecumseh. "H.B. Cushman, History of the
Chickasaw and Natchez Indians (Greenville, Texas: 1899), 310
ff., quoted in "Survival Strategies"". Digital History. University of
Houston. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
* ^ Turner III, Frederick (1978) . "Poetry and Oratory". The
Portable North American Indian Reader. Penguin Book. pp. 246–247.
ISBN 0-14-015077-3 .
* ^ "Kentucky: National Guard History eMuseum – War of 1812".
Kynghistory.ky.gov. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
* ^ A B Lipscomb, Carol A.: "
Shawnee Indians" from the Handbook of
Texas Online. Retrieved February 21, 2010.
* ^ "Indian Appropriation".
The New York Times
The New York Times . March 15, 1853. p.
* ^ Harvey, Henry (1855). History of the
Shawnee Indians: From the
Year 1681 to 1854, Inclusive. Cincinnati: Ephraim Morgan & Sons. p.
* ^ Harvey, Henry (1855). "1". History of the
Shawnee Indians: From
the Year 1681 to 1854, Inclusive. Cincinnati: Ephraim Morgan & Sons.
* ^ A B C Voegellin, C.F. and Voegelin, E. W. (1935). "
Groups". American Anthropologist. 37 (4): 617–635. doi
:10.1525/aa.1935.37.4.02a00070 . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter
Oklahoma Indian Commission.
Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket
Alabama Indian Affairs Commission
* ^ A B Watson, Blake A. "Indian Gambling in Ohio: What are the
Odds?" (PDF). Capital University Law Review 237 (2003) (excerpts).
Ohio in any event does not officially recognize
Indian tribes. Watson cites legal opinions that the resolution by the
Ohio Legislature recognizing the United Remnant Band of the Shawnee
Nation was ceremonial and did not grant legal status as a tribe. But,
confirmation of the Remnant Band's recognition was referred to in
official letters and presented to the Bureau of Indian Affairs and The
President of the
United States in 1981.
* ^ Koenig, Alexa; Stein, Jonathan. "Federalism and the State
Recognition of Native American Tribes: A Survey of State-Recognized
Tribes and State Recognition Processes Across the United States".
Santa Clara Law Review Volume 48 (forthcoming). pp. Section 12. Ohio.
Ohio recognizes one state tribe, the United
Remnant Band. . . .
Ohio does not have a detailed scheme for
regulating tribal-state relations.
* ^ "Early History". The Piqua
Shawnee Tribe of Alabama. Retrieved
* ^ "
Green Corn Dance
Green Corn Dance to be performed at National Park". The
Middlesboro Daily News. 2011. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
* ^ "SHAWNEE TODAY". Big Bear's Den. 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
* ^ Catherine Morris (2007-10-09). "Local Native Americans Host
Cultural Dinner". Cincinnati.com. Cincinnati. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
* ^ "
Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band". Retrieved 2013-02-17.
* ^ A B C "
Ohio Indian Tribes". AAANativeArts.com. Retrieved
* ^ "Native American Peace Tree Ceremony guest is former Shawnee
Chief". Eberly College of Arts and Sciences.
West Virginia University.
2009-10-07. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
* ^ "Lower Eastern
Shawnee in Wilmington,
faqs.org, Tax-Exempt Organizations. 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
* ^ "The Inter Tribal Learning Circle". Fort Ancient . Retrieved
* ^ "Platform Reservation Remnant Band". Retrieved 2013-02-17.
* ^ "Platform Reservation Remnant Band Church Of The
Shawnee Inc. -
Indiana Company Profile". Bizapedia. 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
* ^ Patricia Lowry (2006-06-26). "Places: Near Fort Necessity, a
National Road inn is reclaiming 1830s interior". Pittsburgh
Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
* ^ Paul Johnson (2008-01-22). "Native American Tribe Works Toward
National Recognition". TheLedger.com. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
* ^ "
Shawnee Nation -
Ohio Blue Creek Band, Inc. -
Profile". Bizapedia. 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2013-02-17.
* ^ "Re: the
Indiana Blue Creek
Shawnee roll". RootsWeb:
NA-SHAWNEE-L. Retrieved 2013-02-17. There was no Blue Creek Band in
Indiana...that's our Band here indigenous to Ohio...documented as late
as 1870. You are looking for the Blue River Band .
* ^ "
Kentucky General Assembly 2010 Regular Session HJR-16".
kentucky.gov, updated 9-2-2010.
* ^ "
Kentucky General Assembly 2009 Regular Session HJR-15".
kentucky.gov, updated 5-2-2009.
* ^ "American Indians in Ohio",
Ohio Memory: An Online Scrapbook of
Ohio History, The
Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band, The Ohio
Historical Society , retrieved September 30, 2007
* ^ "Joint Resolution to recognize the
Shawnee Nation United
Remnant Band" as adopted by the Senate, 113th General Assembly ,
Regular Session, Am. Sub. H.J.R. No. 8, 1979–1980
* ^ Kara Briggs, "Link Wray\'s Native roots, family were the power
source behind his chords" American Indian News Service
‹ The template below (Library resources box ) is being considered
for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.
Library resources about
* Online books
* Resources in your library
* Resources in other libraries
* Callender, Charles. "Shawnee", in Northeast: Handbook of North
American Indians, vol. 15, ed. Bruce Trigger. Washington, D.C.:
Smithsonian Institution, 1978. ISBN 0-16-072300-0
* Clifton, James A. Star Woman and Other
Shawnee Tales. Lanham, MD:
University Press of America, 1984. ISBN 0-8191-3712-X ; ISBN
* Edmunds, R. David. The
Shawnee Prophet. Lincoln, Nebraska:
University of Nebraska Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8032-1850-8 .
* Edmunds, R. David.
Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership.
Originally published 1984. 2nd edition, New York: Pearson Longman,
2006. ISBN 0-321-04371-5
* Edmunds, R. David. "Forgotten Allies: The Loyal Shawnees and the
War of 1812" in David Curtis Skaggs and Larry L. Nelson, eds., The
Sixty Years' War for the Great Lakes, 1754–1814, pp. 337–51. East
Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-87013-569-4 .
* Langguth, A. J. (2006). Union 1812: The Americans Who Fought the
Second War of Independence. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN
* Howard, James H. Shawnee!: The Ceremonialism of a Native Indian
Tribe and its Cultural Background. Athens, Ohio:
Press, 1981. ISBN 0-8214-0417-2 ; ISBN 0-8214-0614-0 (pbk.)
* Lakomäki, Sami. Gathering Together: The
Shawnee People through
Diaspora and Nationhood, 1600-1870. New Haven, CT: Yale University
* O'Donnell, James H. Ohio's First Peoples. Athens, Ohio: Ohio
University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8214-1525-5 (paperback), ISBN
* Sugden, John. Tecumseh: A Life. New York: Holt, 1997. ISBN
0-8050-4138-9 (hardcover); ISBN 0-8050-6121-5 (1999 paperback).
* Sugden, John. Blue Jacket: Warrior of the Shawnees. Lincoln and
London: University of Nebraska Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8032-4288-3 .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to SHAWNEE .
* "Shawnee". Encyclopædia Britannica . 24